APPRAISAL OF THE ACCOUNTING FRAMEWORK IN THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM. (A CASE STUDY OF MBAITOLI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA), NIGERIA
This project is on Appraisal of the accounting framework in the local government system. (a case study of Mbaitoli local government area). The management of public resources has always been a turbulent issue. This is precisely the heart of any governmental administration. Government business in whatever for, be it policies, programmes, activities or function is run in accordance with the laid down formalities. These formalities in the area of government accounting and financial control and procedures may include laws, rules and accepted norms certain financial memorandum of the local government system. The accounting framework regulates the account format for the preparation of government account in local government system in an instrument for introduction of new policies and guide lines, before inclusion into the financial regulation as a part of a more permanent code of regulation. It is used to aid the achievement of probity and accountability in government. The frameworks specify action acceptable and those doomed unacceptable. The system is set to ensure uniformly and conformity of application.
This work examined the general background and concept of the research topic listing the aims, objectives, statements of problems and the scope and limitations of the research work. The existing literature on the accounting framework was examined so as to create in theoretical base for the study.
The relevance of a good accounting system in the performance of a manufacturing company (a study of Unilever plc aba) Nigeria
This research focuses on the relevance of a good accounting system in the performance of a manufacturing company (a study of Unilever plc aba). For a company to ensure and establish its existence as a going concern, it must aim at a good profitability scheme, in order words called profit optimization, this can only by achieved through efficient use of a good account system. As such, this research study comprises how effective and efficient they have efficiently applied in manufacturing firms or companies using Unilever Nig Plc as a typical example and the impact of this good accounting system, electing their various effects and valuation of their performance. The study bears the following problem which expected to be analyzed and suggested solution will be offered, such problem include, if the good account system helps in achieving organizational goals. In order to achieve success in carrying out the study, various types of data collection methods were used, which form the primary data, also observation were made to equip the primary data collection. The secondary data collection includes, document, chi-square, materials both published and publishers books. Analysis of data were made with the aid of twenty (20) questionnaires administrated to the respondents, responses were analyzed and decisions taken. The major finding includes that good accounting system influences decision making of any manufacturing company, recommendation were made based on the findings.
THE IMPACT OF INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM ON REVENUE GENERATION. A CASE STUDY OF BENUE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, NIGERIA
This research is on the impact of internal control system on revenue generation. The economy of the states in Nigeria and their internally generated revenues have constantly varied as years go by, this change has brought in competitions into how business is done day to day and how much is generated in this activity carried out. Notably there has being constant shift in the needs and priorities of customers, which also has made business owners to always look into the market and understand what they are to provide for their customers.
The aim of this study is to look into understanding if there is any impact of internal control systems on revenue generation in Benue state, under the revenue collecting agency, (BIRS) Benue Internal Revenue Service.
This study is significant to the staffs of Benue state Internal revenue service who have the responsibility to collect tax for the government, the research focuses on addressing the relevant need associated with how basic job functions are to be treated by this staffs, since generation of revenue is key to the development of the society the staffs have to understand that there is need for them to have well thought strategies, work scheduling and general job functions that will enhance their productivity and address the lingering issues that lead to less revenue collections in the state.
The research design to be used in this study will be descriptive design as the study population to be contacted cut across employees at the Benue Internal Revenue Service, Traders, civil servants and other necessary members of the general public.
This project is on Budgeting as a veritable instrument of internal control (Nigerian brewery). Budgeting in a business has benefits and consequences that go beyond the organization’s management and have more to do with financial dimension in general, as budgeting forces business management to do better forecasting. Vague generalizations about what the future may hold for the organization are not good enough for assembling a budget, it’s of high importance that management must put their predictions into definite and concrete forecasts (Tracy, 2013).
Horngren and Foster (2003), defined budget as a quantitative expression of a plan of action and an aid to coordination and implementation. In budgeting there is need for setting of goals on the premise of having objectives and keeping resources. The process of planning requires that managers of business to act as if they are fortune tellers and attempt to predict the future course of action to be adopted. Such prediction of the so-called fortune tellers will determine whether or not the objectives of the firm will be met.
The aim of this study is to understand the importance of budgeting as a veritable instrument of internal control while its specific objectives are; To find out whether or not manufacturing business organizations control their levels of profit making, to examine whether the manufacturing business concerns in Nigeria plans their profits hence their losses are unnecessarily large in relation to their budget estimate, to identify the types of budgeting in some of the manufacturing business concern in Nigeria that enhance efficiency.
Research Questions key to this study are; Does the manufacturing business organization control their levels of profit making and the means used to achieve it?, Does manufacturing business concerns in Nigeria plans their profit hence their losses are unnecessarily large in relation to their budget estimate?, Does the types of budgeting in some of the manufacturing business in Nigeria enhance efficiency?
This study is significant to manufacturing companies as it will broaden their understanding about key components of budgeting especially those aspects they have being taking for granted.
APPLICATION OF BUDGET AND BUDGETARY CONTROL MEASURES IN A NON PROFIT ORGANIZATION A STUDY OF CATHOLIC CHURCH, LAGOS, NIGERIA
This project is on Application of budget and budgetary control measures in a non profit organization a study of catholic church, Lagos. Budget and budgetary control, both at management and operational level looks at the future and lays down what has to be achieved. Control checks whether or not the plans are realized, and puts into effect corrective measures where deviation or shortfall is occurring. This study examines how budget and budgetary control can be a control measure in an organization using the Catholic Church lagos, as considered in this study. We reviewed the control measure of the performance of Catholic Church in previous and recent times. We found out that the control level of the Church depends much on the budgetary system in achieving its objectives and operation. An empirical investigation was undertaken, using the simple correlation analysis techniques specifically the Pearson Product Movement Correlation.. Following our findings, we advise the NPO managers and CEO operators to pay more attention to their budgetary control system, for those without an existing budgetary control system, they should put one in place, and those with a dummy or passive budgetary control system, It is time they re- establish a result- oriented budgetary control system as it goes a long way in repositioning the Church from its creeping in its performance and control measure level to an improved high capacity utilization point.
This research work was carried out on the effect of Foreign Exchange Deregulation on manufacturing industries, a case study of Nigerian Eagle Flour Mills, Ibadan Oyo State. The aim of the study is to examine various policies directed towards mobilisation, conservation, allocation and utilisation of foreign exchange resources, to identify various methods adopted in the operation of foreign exchange transaction in Nigeria and to recommend plans on how we can achieve stability of the exchange rate to improve productivity of manufacturing industries. The research study covered Nigerian Eagle Flour Mills Ibadan. Primary and secondary sources of data were used for the study. Questionnaires were administered to 50 respondents, but 45 were collected and analysed using tables and percentage scoring technique. Text books, journals, Newspapers and internet were consulted as secondary sources of data. Result of the findings showed that to a greater extent low productivity of the company had been attributed to the deregulation of foreign exchange and that maintaining a favourable external reserve position and preserving international value of domestic currency, so a stable exchange rate will improve the productivity of the manufacturing industries. In conclusion, foreign exchange deregulation has played a significant role on Nigerian manufacturing industries.
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This research work on the impact of training and development of human resource as a critical factor in banking sector a case study of First bank of Nigerian plc main branch Enugu. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of training and development of human resource in bank operation. The population of study which is the employees of First Bank of Nigeria plc main branch and as it stands is a total of 100, while the sample size is 80. During the research process the researcher collected data from two source the primary and the secondary source of data were gotten from questionnaires administered to the employee of First bank plc while secondary data were gotten from textbook, journals, publication and manual. In determining sample size, the researcher used yaro yamene formular. For determining sample size as quoted in Nigeria, n N/1 N e2 in the act to determine finding the techniques used was descriptive survey and descriptive analysis was based on answer to research quotation that were formulated. On the base of the above finding, the researcher recommended among others that First Bank of Nigeria plc main branch, Okpara Avenue Enugu should implement effectively and progressively any training plans or budget to ensure improvement in banking operation. The management should build good and mutual relationship with workers, so as to create a conducive working environment. In order to encourage workers to put in their best in what they do.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Many years ago, the concept of training and development were misunderstood and not given full consideration in most Nigeria organization. Today the situation has change totally, such that many organization, business and non business organization has come to realize the need for training and development of employee as vital for organization development and operation.
Training and development has started since the existence of man, as the action of man is directed on what to do and when to do it. Just as a little child is trained on various ways of walking, standing and sitting, it is done in order to develop the child with skills to adapt to his environment. The above statement is applicable to an employee, in order to train him so as to be able to adapt to the environment and organization which he finds himself. With this, it is clear that every organization need to train its employee so that there will be improved growth and productivity. According to Abolo, E.M. 2000, Banking business in Nigeria started in 1892 by African Banking Corporation. The bank was taken over by now standard bank, now First Bank in 1894.
The periods of 1959 1986 witnessed the era of regulation. The central bank of Nigeria was established in 1969 with the aim to promote and integrate the Nigeria financial system. The central bank of Nigeria encouraged the development of money and capital markets. It also encourages the banking industry. Other useful development within the period that affected human resource development in banks is:
a. The companies Decree 1968. Which made it mandatory for all companies in Nigeria, including banks to register locally and b subjected to Nigeria laws
b. Indigenization Decree 19720, which introduced the system of deliberate Nigerianization.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Before the establishment of central bank in 1959, training of Nigeria bankers was not taken serious by most banks. Especially the foreign oned banks. In every organization or sector all over the world, the management sets up the organizations goals and ways of achieving these goals First Bank of Nigeria Plc. Is not exception
In giving answers to these questions, it is important to determine the following areas:
Identify potential training needs of job existing.
Identify individual performance level.
Identify post training performance with respect to the training and development objectives.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Following the topic under discussion, the objective includes the following;
1. To determined influence of training and development of human resource on the operation of banks.
2. To help provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resource technical and be behavioural skills in the bank.
3. To find out if staff of the banks see the training and development programme as motivation and means of job enrichment and satisfaction.
4. To determine the number of bank staff trained each year and how it affects their performance at work.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Looking on the topic of this study the aim at covering all the above mentioned objectives. The study the Enugu main branch of Nigerian Plc. The finding made in the research is not only beneficial to bank operation, but also beneficial to other organization in Nigerian in their training and development of human resource, which help improve individual worker performance and that of the entire company
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
The research question formulated by the researcher for the purpose of this study includes the following:
1. How does training and development of human resource help in achieving banks goals
2. What proportion of the staff is trained annually
3. Did training and development of human resources have any influence on the level of performance of the banks
4. What type of training and development of human programmes are available in the banks.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
As it is known in the actual sense that at the beginning of very research work is hypothesis. As it help the researcher to design and plan his enquiring, choose his method of data.
Ho: Training and development doe not improve the level of job performance of the staff of the banks
Hi: Training and development does improve the level of job performance of the staff of the banks.
Ho: Training and development opportunities do not motivate workers.
Hi: Training and development opportunities do not motivate workers.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
For training and development of human resource to have effect on bank operation, its objectives, benefits and process must be dearly stated and understood for the benefit of those who are expected to gain from it. The study is expected to be of benefit to the following.
1. Banks in Nigeria: The study will help the management of the bank in Nigeria to improve the quality of the staff with particular reference to first bank plc, main branch Enugu.
2. Bank Customers: An improved banking service will help eliminate waste of time in the bank before attention is given to customers.
3. Nigeria Economy: The research work will help rebuild all battered economy.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Training and development is vital and significant to all organization both private and public sector. But this study is focusing on first bank of Nigeria plc main branch Okpara Avenue Enugu. Other imitations that affect this research work are:
1. TIME: the time given for the research work is so short that most time it clashes with lecture period, so this lead to the inability to get quality result.
2. FINANCE: is very important to every research work, as the information is not found in a particular place, the researcher need to transport him/her self to the place the information can be gotten. And this entails money.
3. QUALITY OF INFORMATION
Analysis of the work depends strongly on the quality of information gotten from the staff.