Dioscorea bulbifera is a major stable food crop which is a species of yam widely distributed around the world in tropical and subtropical regions. Dioscorea bulbifera have been traditionally used to lower glycemic index, thus providing a more sustained form of energy and better protection against obesity and diabetics, it also has anti-cancer properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the nutritional profile and phytochemical screening of Discorea bulbifera. Which contain protein 7.47%, moisture 14.74%, ash 2.56%, fiber 0.35%, carbohydrate 73.62%. It also show the presence of some minerals like, Ca, Mg, K, P, and Na with some phytochemical analysis like saponin, tannin, flavoured and alkaloids.
Ntamiri River, Along Umuagwo axis were studied over a period of twelve months to determine the effects of detergent effluent discharges on the aspect of water quality of the river. Water samples from Points A, B and C were screened for microbiological analysis. The results revealed that the level of pollution varied depending on season and that the water quality was acceptable at the upstream (Point A) but became impaired at Points B and C, indicating significant pollution from detergent effluent discharges. The analysis of the microbiological characteristics of water samples from the three points revealed high microbial and faecal contamination with microbial load in the order of 105 and MPN of ó 1800. The detergent effluents discharged into Points B and C were found to support the growth of micro organisms such as Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter species that are pathogenic in nature with higher loads. The results showed that water samples from the river contained toxic substances with higher microbial loads. The detrimental effects of the discharge effluent on the aspect of water quality of Ntamiri River River were discussed.
A study was conducted to determine the presence of Salmonella species in Frozen Foods in Owerri in August, 2000. A total of 30 Food samples were collected from the different market in ten different locations in Owerri and examined for the presence of Salmonella. After the culturing and biochemical tests, three different Salmonella species were isolated and they include: Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella paratyphi A. out of the 30 Foodsamples examined, Salmonella were found in 20 (66.67%). Out of the total samples examined, Salmonella typhi were isolated with the prevalence rate of 12 (40%) from 30 samples, Salmonella paratyphi A were isolated with the prevalence rate of 5 (16.67%), and Salmonella typhimurium were isolated with the prevalence rate of 3 (10%).
Nutrition is the science of food, nutrients and other substances, their action, interaction and balance in relation to health and disease and the processes by which the organism ingests, digests, absorbs transports, utilizes and excretes food substances.
The development of nutrition made food to be recognized as the fundamental source of nutrients. Food and nutrition are basic human rights because they are necessary for human development.
Malnutrition is the major contribution to illness and diseases in the world. This includes risk factors related to under nutrition, excess consumption of certain diet components (carbohydrates, fat, etc) and low consumption of other food items like fruits and vegetables. Rural dwellers food consumption pattern depends on many factors intervention into the life patterns of the community to which they belong. These factors affect food availability and how each food could be processed and stored.
Food consumption patterns can be defined as the recognizable ways of eating foods rural dwellers tend to adhere to their old eating patterns rather than venturing to seek new and more proper eating habits. In order to maintain healthful diets, a variety and balance of foods from all food groups and moderate consumption of all food items is very important.
Variety in diet implies choosing a number of different foods within any food group, rather than eating the “same old thing” day after day. Food consumption patterns has been observed to be influenced by socio-economic factors including sex, income, occupation, type of house and source of cooking energy, food consumption patterns of the mother prior to conception during pregnancy and lactation affects the reproductive cycle and health of the newborn infant. A mother with poor food consumption patterns has the risk of delivering a baby that is physically and mentally handicapped. Wright and Sims (1987) assert that many complex interacting systems affect man’s food consumption pattern and his consequent state of health. They further explained that natural environment (climate, topography soil conditions etc) determines what food can be produced. The man made environment (technological developments for processing, storing and distribution of food) affects what food will be made available for consumption.
Proper and adequate food consumption patterns is the instrument for achieving other rural developmental goals, most especially those connected to reduction in child mortality and improvements in material health. Primary educational enrolment and achievement, gender equity and the capacity of resist disease, in order to be healthy and active women need to have food in adequate quantity, quality and variety in order to meet energy and nutrient. Consumption patterns of the mother prior to conception and during pregnancy and lactation affects the reproductive cycle and health of the newborn infant. A mother with poor food consumption patterns have the risk of delivery a baby that is physically and mentally handicapped.
Adequate food plays an important role in rural development activities. It ensures their capacity to embark on livelihood activities that is sustainable.
1.1 OBJECTIVES Broad Objective
? To assess the food consumption pattern and micro nutrient intake of mothers in Imo State Local Government Area Lagos.
? To assess the nutritional status of mothers in Imo State L.G.A
? To investigate, measure and assess the food pattern of mother in Imo State L.G.A.
? To assess the micronutrient intake of mothers in Ojo L.G.A. 1.3 JUSTIFICATION
Malnutrition remains an existing problem among Nigerians especially women and children. Malnutrition could be due to lack of food or socio-cultural factors of people. This study will throw light on the following
? It will add to our knowledge on the relationship between nutrition of people and the socio-economic characteristics of the people
? The actual or real causes of malnutrition in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1 What is pattern of women activity
2 What is the current food consumption pattern of mothers in Imo State L.G.A
3 What is the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of women in Imo State LGA.
4 To determine the relationship between their food consumption patterns and their environmental health condition.
1.4 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Malnutrition is a poor condition of health, caused by a lack of food or a lack of the right type of food. Many Nigerians are plagued with malnutrition. Malnourished Nigerians was as high as 24% in the rural area and 26% in the urban area.
It is important to know the reasons for the existing poor nutritional state of population could it be due to
1. Lack of nutritional awareness of the people
2. Un-availability of nutritional foods
3. Thus this study will examine the food consumption patterns and micro nutrient intake of mothers in Imo State LGA Lagos.
1.5 Limitations of study
? Some of the questions asked in the questionnaires were felt to be personal like how much their annual income is
? Some of the women could not spare time to fill the questionnaires
? Some were illiterates and so could not understand the questionnaires
Comparisons were made between 24 Ethiopian rams and 24 Galla goats for voluntary intake, feed selectivity and growth performance when offered three levels of sorghum stover. The levels observed were 25,50 and 75 g/kg live weight per day. Measurements of intake, growth and feed selectivity were taken over a period of 10 weeks.
Both sheep and goats consumed more stover (P<0.001) as rate of offer was increased (22, 31, 32 gDM/kg live weight per day; 19,26,29 g/kg live weight per day, respectively, for sheep and goats). Increasing the level of offer beyond 50g/kg live weight per day did not, however, promote a substantial increase in intake. No difference (P>0.05) was observed in the pattern of feed selectivity between sheep and goats. Both species showed a similar preference for leaf and sheath matter as the level of offer was increased.
Sheep gained weight faster (P<0.001) than goats at all rates of offer, (28.0 vs 9.0; 54.0 vs 23.0; 62.0 vs 31.6 in favour of sheep). Those on a higher level of offer showed a faster rate of gain than those on a lower level of offer. It was concluded that both species can benefit from generous offers and that the benefit, judged by improved intake and growth, is due to selective feeding.
A field trial was carried out at the Imopoly Farm to determine the effects of rate of poultry manure on the growth and yield of Watermelon. Six different rates of poultry manure were replicated three times on eighteen beds. The treatments were; control plot, 2 tons/ha, 4 tons/ha, 6 tons/ha, 8 tons/ha, 10 tons/ha. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design. The experiment was carried out between February, 2011 and April 2011.
Data were taken on the growth and yield parameters. Five plants were randomly selected and tagged per plot for data collection. Establishment count; Plant height; Stem girth; Number of leaves per plant and Leaf area, were taken at 5 WAP and at harvest, to assess growth. Number of fruits per plant; Fresh fruit weight per bed, were taken to assess the yield.
The results of this study showed that Watermelon growth is not significantly different at 5 WAP. At harvesting, highest stem girth of 32.40mm was obtained with 4tons/ha while the lowest of 28.50mm was from 6tons/ha. Watermelon yield of 1.69kg was highest from 6tons/ha, while the lowest of 0.87kg was got from 4tons/ha.
The results of the study have shown that Watermelon will still perform fairly well without fertilizers on regularly – fertilized soils
This project seeks to bring together existing state of knowledge and existing state of practice in agriculture sector new techniques have to be proven before they are adopted in the general practice.
Chapter one of this project will deal with the statement of problems rationale of study significance of study and definition of terms.
Chapter two will examine in details the related literature to the project.
Chapter three will deal with statement of hypotheses methodology of study and sources of data.
Chapter four will deal with presentation of data and analysis of data and also the discussion of results.
Chapter five will deal with summary conclusion and suggestion
Finally I hope that this project will be of benefit to agriculture sector the student of training and finance and other researchers in related topics.
The cost and return analysis of different sizes of integrated broiler farms in Oru East in Imo State has been carried out based on the primary data collected from 150 broiler farmers for the period Mar 2011 to Feb 2012. The study has shown that the total fixed investments per bird have been highest on small farms, followed by medium and large farms. The total cost of meat production per bird, returns per bird over the variable costs has been found highest on small broiler farms, followed by medium and large farms. On the basis of net present value, and internal rate of return, investment in broiler farming has been found profitable in all farm-sizes, it being most profitable on large farms, followed by medium and small farms. The small broiler farms have been observed highly sensitive to increase in costs and decrease in net returns. The study has observed that broiler farming is a profitable venture and has a bright future in the Imo State agro based industry for improving economic status of the farming community in general and in the study are in particular.