FREE 2022-2023 Agricultural Science project topics and materials free Download in PDF & DOC for Nigeria

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  • EVALUATION OF THE CHEMICAL COMPONENT OF DOGOYARO LIQUID (AZADIRACHTA INDICA) FOR ANTI-MALARIA.

    ABSTRACT
    This project looks at the evaluation of the chemical component of dogoyaro liquid azadirachta indica for anti-malaria. The global scenario is now supporting the development of malaria drug from less toxic plant products with proven medicinal properties. Each part of the neem plant (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) reportedly has various medicinal properties and has been in use in many continents for centuries. In this project work, water extract from Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A Juss) with the modern atomic absorption spectrophotometer was presented. The chemical properties in the water extract of Neem leaf were studied. Results showed that the neem leaf contains some essential minerals needed for malaria. It is obvious that the water extract of Azadirachta indica is significantly high in sodium ion (Na+) and potassium ion (K+) concentrations which are responsible in the conduction of impulses along the axons of the central nervous system. Iron is another element determined. This element is significantly low in the water extract of the sample used (neem leaf).

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  • EVALUATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATIONS IN CHOCOLATE, CANDIES AND TOMATO PUREE IMPORTED FROM CHINA

    ABSTRACT

    This study was initiated as a follow-up information on some impounded products tomato puree (Samples A and B) chocolates and candies (Samples C, D, E and F) imported from China, and sold in Nigerian markets. This result as their failure to meet National Agency for food drug administration and control (NAFDAC) regulatory standard. Samples A, B, C, D, E and F were collected in five markets from each six states of the six geographical zones: North-West (Kano), North-East (Bauchi), North-Central (Kogi), South-West (Lagos), South-East (Abia), and South-South (Rivers) of the country. In order to evaluate the quality of the products, the levels of some heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ti and Cr) were evaluated in the samples using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Concentrations of metals in both tomato puree ranged 4.0 – 4.5 mg/g for Cu, 18.0 – 42.5mg/g for Mn, 26.0 – 62.5mg/g for Fe, 4.0 – 56.0mg/g for Ni, 27.0 – 35.2mg/g for Zn, ND – 25.0mg/g for Ti, and ND – 20.0mg/g for Cr while concentrations of metals in both chocolates and candies ranged 3.0 – 4.2 mg/g for Cu, 40.0 – 55.7mg/g for Mn, ND – 102.5mg/g for Fe, ND – 305.0mg/g for Ni, ND – 42.5mg/g for Zn, ND – 23.8mg/g for Ti, and ND – 10.8mg/g for Cr. The concentrations of all the metals studied were generally higher in samples A and B compared to recommended levels of these metals in vegetable crops. Also, the data showed that these metals are at higher levels in samples C, D, E and F compared to other studies in candies and chocolates in Nigeria. Correlation analysis among metals revealed positive correlations, which indicates similar sources of these metals. Also, evaluation of dietary intake of these products daily revealed that sample A (except for Cu and Fe), B, C (except for Cu), D and E are above the daily dietary recommended limit for all the metals studied in food. Thus, frequent intake of these contaminated products is likely to induce health effects arising largely from Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn.

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  • EVALUATION OF SOME CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF SELECTED ENERGY DRINKS

    Abstract

    This research work examined and compares the physicochemical properties and some chemical constituents of selected energy drinks. Fourteen (14) brands of energy drinks samples consisting eleven (11) liquid and three (3) powdered forms were randomly purchased. All samples were analyzed for their physicochemical properties (pH, turbidity, conductivity and total dissolved solids), trace and heavy metals, aspartame, sugar and caffeine contents. Results showed that the physicochemical properties (i.e. pH, turbidity, conductivity and total dissolved solids) ranged from 4.47 ± 0.012 – 5.96 ± 0.012, 8 ± 0.577

    – 592 ± 1.155 NTU, 2.21 ± 0.006 – 1975 ± 1.732 µs/cm, and 243 ± 0.577 – 1064 ± 0.577 mg/L respectively. Energy drinks analyzed all fell within the FDA recommended range for the physicochemical properties analyzed. Iron, calcium, zinc and potassium were found in all the energy drinks and their concentration ranged from 1.961 ± 0.0003 – 0.294 ± 0.0005 mg/L, 2.763 ± 0.0009 – 19.310 ± 0.0015 mg/L, 0.045 ± 0.0001 – 13.887 ± 0.0037 mg/L, and 2.0 to 2500 mg/L respectively. The copper, lead and manganese concentration of energy drinks ranged from 0.002 ± 0.0002 – 0.102 ± 0.0003 mg/L, 0.028 ± 0.0006 – 0.209

    ± 0.0009 mg/L and 0.003 ± 0.0001 – 0.024 ± 0.0002 mg/L respectively. The concentration of copper and manganese were below the MCL of 1.0 mg/L and 0.05 mg/L respectively while lead had a concentration above the MCL of 0.01 mg/L. Cadmium was not detected in all energy drinks except for sample EJ which had a concentration of 0.102 ± 0.0003 mg/L and exceeded the MCL of 0.005 mg/L. The caffeine, aspartame and sugar concentrations ranged from 1.11 mg/L – 2487.13 mg/L, 6.51 mg/L – 1491.19 mg/L, and 16.98 – 1686.73 mg/L respectively. Caffeine and aspartame concentrations in all the energy drink samples were below the FDA set standard of 400 mg/L and 3000 mg/L respectively except for sample AL which had a concentration above the set standard for

    caffeine. Though the analyzed parameters were mostly below the set standards, especially caffeine, aspartame and sugar, it is important that the pattern of consumption of these drinks must be monitored to minimize ingestion of excess doses of harmful substances to prevent the reported adverse effects.

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  • EFFECT OF POULTRY MANURE ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF TERFERA

    ABSTRACT
    A field trial was carried out at the Imopoly Farm to determine the effects of rate of poultry manure on the growth and yield of Watermelon. Six different rates of poultry manure were replicated three times on eighteen beds. The treatments were; control plot, 2 tons/ha, 4 tons/ha, 6 tons/ha, 8 tons/ha, 10 tons/ha. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design. The experiment was carried out between February, 2011 and April 2011.
    Data were taken on the growth and yield parameters. Five plants were randomly selected and tagged per plot for data collection. Establishment count; Plant height; Stem girth; Number of leaves per plant and Leaf area, were taken at 5 WAP and at harvest, to assess growth. Number of fruits per plant; Fresh fruit weight per bed, were taken to assess the yield.
    The results of this study showed that Watermelon growth is not significantly different at 5 WAP. At harvesting, highest stem girth of 32.40mm was obtained with 4tons/ha while the lowest of 28.50mm was from 6tons/ha. Watermelon yield of 1.69kg was highest from 6tons/ha, while the lowest of 0.87kg was got from 4tons/ha.
    The results of the study have shown that Watermelon will still perform fairly well without fertilizers on regularly – fertilized soils.

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  • EFFECT OF ACRYLIC POLYMER DISPERSIONS ON WATER VAPOUR PERMEABILITY AND SOME OTHER PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FINISHED LEATHERS

    Abstract

    The effect of acrylic polymer dispersions on the water vapour permeability and some other properties of finished leathers have been studied. An acrylic based commercial binder AE 558 Nycil has been characterized and its effect when applied in a finish formulation on some of the physical properties of originally retanned leathers was investigated. The binder was found to have an intrinsic viscosity of 227 dL/g, and a viscosity molecular weight (Mv) of 4.03×105. This was obtained by conducting a solution viscosity measurement of the solid polymer in toluene at 25 oC. The melting temperature of the solid binder has been found to be in the range 361.7 oC – 370 oC. The results of these physical properties suggest that this is a very high molecular weight polymer with high thermal stability. Formulations for leather finishing was prepared containing the binder at varied proportions of 125 g, 150 g, 175 g, 200 g and 250 g and was applied on the leather substrates corresponding to samples A1, A2, A3, A4, and A5 respectively. Tests on some of the physical properties of these coated samples were conducted. The water vapour permeability of the originally retanned (uncoated) leathers was reduced significantly after the finish was applied. A1 has the lowest permeability at 125 g of the binder in the formulation, while A5 has the highest permeability at 250 g of the binder in the formulation. Generally, the water vapour permeability of the coated leathers increases as the factor varied in this experiment was increased. A3 had the highest Shore A value at 175 g of the binder in the formulation while A5 has the lowest Shore A value at 250 g of the binder in the formulation. Distension and Bursting strength of the uncoated leathers was improved after the leathers were coated. However, there was no particular trend in effect as the quantity of the binder in the finish formulation increased. The fastness of the coated samples generally increased as the quantity of the binder in the finish formulations was increased with sample A5 having the best resistance to wet rub action.

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  • DISTRIBUTED COMMITMENT AND RECOVERY: TWO PHASE COMMIT

    ABSTRACT
    This research is on Distributed commitment and recovery: two phase commit. A formal model for atomic commit protocols for a distributed database system is introduced. The model is used to prove existence results about resilient protocols for site failures that do not partition the network and then for partitioned networks. For site failures, a pessimistic recovery technique, called independent recovery, is introduced and the class of failures for which resilient protocols exist is identified. For partitioned networks, two cases are studied: the pessimistic case in which messages are lost, and the optimistic case in which no messages are lost. In all cases, fundamental limitations on the resiliency of protocols are derived.
    Index Terms-Commit protocols, crash recovery, distributed database systems, distributed systems, fault tolerance, transaction management.

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  • ASSESSMENT OF POTASSIUM BROMATE IN BREAD SOLD IN ABA ABIA STATE (A CASE STUDY OF ABA TOWN)

    ABSTRACTS
    This research is on Assessment of potassium bromate in bread sold in abia state (a case study of aba town). Samples were obtained from different locations in Aba environs with random selective sampling and to know their potassium bromate contents (mg/100g). 20 bread samples were used, the results showed that the presence of potassium bromate in each of the 20 bread samples were high for human consumption. The bromate level in bread samples determined range from 74.00 to 952.83. which is above the maximum amount of potassium bromate allowed in bread by food and drug administrative (FDA) (0.02mg/100g)

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  • ASSESSMENT OF EUTROPHICATION LEVEL OF MUNICIPAL SURFACE WATER, ABUJA NIGERIA

    ABSTRACT

    The level of some nutrient elements in Abuja surface water were investigated for six months to determine the eutrophication profile and make logical inference on the fate of surface water system in the nearest future. Samplings were done monthly for a period of six months covering October to March and standard methods were used for the measurement of some nutrients constituting the indices of eutrophication. The results showed high levels of microbial activities. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) showed high levels of pollution which varied with time and velocity of water current. Other parameters investigated were chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate concentration, total dissolved solid (TDS), conductivity, algae count, temperature, pH, phosphate and potassium concentrations. Maximum and minimum values of some eutrophication parameters in the sites were recorded as follows: BOD ( Orozo 38mg/L- 7.37mg/L, Gidan Mangoro 31.2mg/L- 5.08mg/L, Nyanya 32.4mg/L- 10.05mg/L, Wuse 40.30mg/L- 7.007mg/L, Jabi 26.50mg/L- 3.10mg/L). Similarly total dissolved solid maximum and minimum values in the sites were given as Orozo 1222mg/L- 105.1mg/L, Gidan Mangoro 861.0mg/L-148.8mg/L, Nyanya 676.0mg/L- 127.6mg/L, Wuse 200.0mg/L- 86.2mg/L, Jabi 846.0mg/L-151.8mg/L. These results point to eutrophication indicators in Abuja surface water system. The results showed that the concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium may be significantly increased beyond their compensation level by the growing human population in Abuja metropolis.

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