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    AN EVALUATION OF THE CAUSES OF ABANDONED PUBLIC DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IN ABUJA

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    ABSTRACT

    This research work is on an evaluation of the causes of abandoned public development projects in Abuja. Abandonment of development projects (ACP) is considered one of the most common and serious problems plaguing the Abuja development industry given the number and the value of the projects involved. It affects not only the immediate purchasers but also other project players and the general public. Sometimes it also involves expending public fund to revive abandoned projects. Yet, research is scarce on this issue; hence this research was conducted to investigate  the  problems.  Firstly  the  issues  surrounding  the  problem  and existing literature on the causes of ACP are reviewed. Then, potential causes of ACP are also reviewed and summarized into 41 items to be rated in an industry wide questionnaire survey. The questionnaire also includes an open-ended question on suggestions to solve ACP. 225 questionnaire responses were received. Subsequently, a series of ten semi-structured interviews were conducted to obtain detailed opinions from experienced players in the industry concerning  the  causes  of  ACP  and  how  to  solve  the  problems.  The interviewees include architects, developers, property consultants, the honorary secretary general of the National House Buyers Association etc. to ensure a comprehensive view was obtained. Quantitative analyses include ranking of the 41 potential causes of ACP with Spearman’s ranking correlation between different groups of respondents, and factor analysis with Cronbach’s α reliability analysis. Qualitative analyses include organizing into themes the results of the open ended question on solving ACP and the results of the semi- structured interviews. Discussions include interpreting the underlying factors extracted from factor analysis in light of the qualitative results. The results show the owner to be mainly responsible for ACP (i.e. cash flow problems, incompetence,  siphoning  out  of  money,  etc.),  followed  by  the  role  of government regulations. A risk management expert system module within BIM, a middle ground solution between the sell-then-build and build-then-sell schemes, and others are proposed.

     

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    PERCEPTIONS OF BUSINESS EDUCATION STUDENTS ON THE RELEVANCE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION

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    ABSTRACT

    The researchers empirically investigated the perceptions of Business Education Students on the relevance of Entrepreneurship Education at the Colleges of Education in Edo State. In order to investigate this study, the researchers raised three 3 research questions and one hypothesis. Related literaturewas reviewed and the Entrepreneurial Event Model EEM developed by Shapero and Sokol in 1982 was adapted as the conceptual framework for the study. The framework showed at a glance the various stages and processes that eventually climaxed into business formation. The survey design was used in the study. Eight hundred and ten 810 Business Education students from both Colleges of Education in the state formed the population of the study out of which a sample size of one hundred and sixty two 162 students was selected using the proportionate stratified random sampling technique. The instrument used was the questionnaire titled: Business Education Students Perceptions of Entrepreneurship Education Questionnaire BESPEEQ and it was divided into two sections A and B. Section A consist of the demographic information of the respondents while section B consist of thirteen 13 opinion statements structured in a 4point rating scale. The instrument was validated by three 3 experts and the test retest method of reliability was used in obtaining reliability coefficient of 0.78. The instrument was administered to the respondents with the help of research assistants and the data collated was subjected to statistical analyses. The descriptive and inferential statistical tools were used in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that entrepreneurial have relevance in entrepreneurship. It also revealed that skills and entrepreneurship education have influence on economic development; and that there was no significant difference between the perceptions of male and female business education students on the relevance of entrepreneurship Education. One of the recommendations advanced by the researchers was that there should be conscious efforts by educators to properly transmit the entrepreneurial skills to the learners with ease.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    The teaching and learning of Entrepreneurship Education in tertiary institutions is of paramount interest to all stakeholders. The National Policy on Education describes Education as an instrument par excellence for effecting national development FRN, 2004. It is conceived that education is capable of bringing about the desired socioeconomic and political changes in the country. The recent call for the inclusion of Entrepreneurship Education in tertiary educational institutions in Nigeria is an indication of its importance to employment creation; as Nigeria continues to churn out graduates from our various institutions that are hardly self reliant but solely dependent on white collar jobs for sustenance because they lack adequate skills that will make them function effectively and efficiently towards the development of the economy.

    In the western world, the need to recognizing entrepreneurship education started to gain prominence immediately after the Second World War. After the World War 11 that lasted for a period of six 6 years 1939 1945, there was evidence of collapse of most of the structures of the economy thereby making it impossible for the government to fully absorb all the graduates of the educational system. Though the situation during those periods were not the same with what was obtainable in developing countries like Nigeria. The discovery of crude oil at Oloibiri in the 1950s subsequently led to oil boom in the country and there were enough funds in the government treasury to fully absorb all the graduates of the educational system at various levels. The collapse of the oil boom thereby leading to economic recession in the country with its accompanying problems unemployment, poverty and othe social vices like kidnapping, youth restiveness, and Boko Haram insurgency redirected the focus of Nigerians. The increasing level of unemployment in the country was what informed the introduction of entrepreneurship education in 2006 by the Federal Government to remedy the problems of unemployment, poverty and unrest in the country Ediagbonya, 2013; Imeokparia Ediagbonya, 2013.

    The Federal Government made the programme compulsory for students of higher education institutions irrespective of area of specialization and in most tertiary institutions, entrepreneurship education has been adopted as a compulsory general studies course for students. The overall objective is to continuously foster entrepreneurship culture and spirit amongst students and faculty with a view to educating them as well as supporting graduates of the system towards establishing and also maintaining sustainable business ventures Urbano, Aponte Toledano, 2008. The Minister of education stressed that the National Universities Commission NUC was given presidential directives by the Ministry of Education to supervise and coordinate the programme of introducing entrepreneurship education in Nigerian institutions of higher learning in collaboration with all regulatory bodies of higher institutions the National Board for Technical Education NBTE, National Commission for Colleges of Education NCCE to be handled by the committee set up by the Federal Government.

    As a nation, Nigeria has been working tirelessly since the collapse of oil boom to achieve youth independence, poverty eradication and improved economic status through several reforms and programme initiatives such as the Operation Feed the Nation OFN, National Poverty Eradication Program NAPEP, Structural Adjustment Programme SAP, National Directorate of Employment NDE among others. Regrettably, however these programme initiatives aimed at capacity building and utilization seem not to have helped in any way to equip young school leavers Youths with appropriate skills that will empower them after graduation from school Okolocha Okolocha, 2012.

    Despite strong economic growth, youths full time unemployment rate for 20062008 in Nigeria was put at 55.9. Till today, youth unemployment has continued to be on the increase. Countries like Japan, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, China, India, Korea, to mention a few, have joined the community of industrialized nations by strengthening their small scale industries. Nigeria on its part is equally trying to join other industrialized countries by 2020. It is in a bid to bridge the gap between youth unemployment and job creation that the Federal Ministry of Education made entrepreneurship education one of the compulsory general studies for students in tertiary institutions across the country to inculcate in the youths the spirit of self reliance, which has become essential for national economic growth and development. The essence of entrepreneurship education is to build in the students entrepreneurship spirit and culture Akpomi, 2009; Adejimola Olufunmilayo, 2009. Entrepreneurship education has emphasis on education for selfemployment rather than education for paid employment. This kind of education has become so important in Nigeria owing to the high level of unemployment coupled with its accompanying social vices and unrest. It is believed that this kind of education is capable of meaningfully engaging the individuals and making them more productive and useful to themselves and the country at large.

    The growth and development of the economy depends largely on the kind of skills that the graduates of our educational institutions are equipped with. According to Ihebereme 2010, skill acquisition is the process of acquiring or gaining effective and ready knowledge in developing ones aptitude and ability in a particular field. Skill acquisition is one among the policies embarked upon in Nigeria with the sole aim to alleviate poverty, youth restiveness, sophisticated crime and corruption rate; rural urban drift, unemployment and other social vices Ihebereme, 2010. Skill acquisition in Nigeria tertiary education level is meant to equip our students with more practical and less theoretical knowledge on income generating skills. Mbionwu 2008 noted that when youths are given adequate training in skills, they can be selfemployed after schooling; hence they become active partners in both community and national development. The possession of skill is important in preventing youths from becoming social misfit. Ihebereme 2008 opined that skill acquisition Entrepreneurship education in Nigerian educational system acts as a rehabilitator, reorientator, motivator and empowered to the underprivileged students of poor parents. These skills are described as entrepreneurial skills Akudolu, 2010.

    Okolocha and Okolocha 2012 described entrepreneurship skills as business skills which one acquires to function effectively in the turbulent business environment as an independent or selfemployed person in order to improve ones economic status and the society at large. The result of the study carried out by Okebukola 2006 confirmed that most Nigerian graduates are deficient in selfreliance and entrepreneurial skills. In a similar vein, Anyakoha 1997 as cited by Olumese and Clark 2011 stressed that training for entrepreneurship skill development is not currently well articulated by Nigerian universities. The importance of entrepreneurial skill cannot be overemphasized since appropriate skill acquisition through entrepreneurship will help to make young school leavers to be selfreliant and boost their economic states. Isike 2008 stated that entrepreneurship has been identified globally and nationally as a tool for generating a sustainable economy which is the core value of the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategies NEEDS. Uloko and Ejinkonye 2010 remarked that when youths are empowered through the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills, there is the possibility that they will use the skills to create new avenues for wealth. Empowering the youths to set up businesses involves proper acquisition of skills through education and training. In a study carried out by Egwanyenga and Ranor 2012, the authors concluded that the entrepreneurial skills are: managerial skills, accounting and financial competency skills, marketing and sales, general business and human relations skills. The entrepreneurial skills possessed by graduates are perceived in different ways by stakeholders.

    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

    Entrepreneurship education which is a sort of intervention programme which was introduced into Nigerias tertiary education subsector in 2006 to remedy the unemployment challenge; and redirect the attention of our youths/graduates towards job creation by instilling in them relevant entrepreneurial skills that will positively grow and develop the economy. The goals and objectives of the programme seem laudable and for these goals and objectives to be achieved, some machinery has to be put in place. The relevance of this programme in the curriculum of all tertiary institutions in Nigeria is geared at creating an entrepreneurial culture and entrepreneurial spirits in the students. Since the introduction of this programme, there seems to be increase in graduates unemployment. For instance, the unemployment rate as at 2006 was 5.3 percent but as at 2011, it has risen up to 23.9 percent. Many graduates seem to be roaming the streets in search for white collar jobs. The rate of poverty, corruption and so many other social vices has become worrisome to the government and to every well meaning citizen despite the introduction of entrepreneurship education. This state of affair is of great concern to the researchers and if this trend continues, it will leave no one in doubt to question the relevance of entrepreneurship education in the school curriculum.

    The main purpose of this research work was to find out the perceptions of Business Education students on the relevance of Entrepreneurship Education.

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    An appraisal and reactivation of abandoned building projects. A case study of construction industries in Lagos state

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    ABSTRACT

    This project is on An appraisal and re-activation of abandoned building projects. A case study of construction industries in Lagos state. The construction industry in Nigeria is littered with many billions of naira worth of uncompleted projects in reckless states of abandonment. Many claims and counter claims have been traded as to the cause of this unpleasant situation. Abandoned projects are projects once initiated but stopped due to one reason or the other, this study reveals that these abandoned projects are more in the rural areas than the urban centres of Lagos state. This study is concerned with the identification of the major causes of project abandonment with a view or process of reactivating these abandoned building projects and proffering solutions to obviate and reduce this ugly trend. Causes of abandonment of project include; death of the client, fraud, lack of cash flow forecast e.t.c. Implication of such projects are; social, economic and physical implications some of the proffered recommendation include regular assessment of work in progress, offending contractors should be blacklisted, the procedure of awarding contracts should be devoid of sentiments of favouritism amongst others. The consequence of abandonment of building projects were highlighted to include: tying down of funds and land spaces, extra cost involved in completion of such projects, continued scarcity of residential accommodation, defacing the landscape and harbouring people of deviant behaviour, reduction in the Gross Domestic Product G.D.P and the associated stigma. Suggestion were proffered as to how abandoned of projects could be minimised and how some of the abandoned projects could be revived and completed. Prominent among such suggestion include: adequate planning of projects, proper cost planning/financial appraisal of project, proper site investigations, selection of reputable contractors/manager to oversee project execution.

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