Criminology project topics and materials free Download in PDF & DOC for Nigeria

List of Criminology project topics and materials free Download in PDF & DOC for Nigeria. Our Final year Diploma, Degree, Masters, thesis Criminology research works materials starts from Abstract, Chapter 1-5, references and more. Get undergraduate projects for ND, HND, NCE, BSC, BED, MSC, MBE, PHD and PGD students. We offer Qualitative & Quantitative data analysis, using any package (SPSS, RStudio, eviews, Stata, JMP, OriginPro, GNU Octave, matlab, microsoft excel, Minitab). Hire a professional Criminology writer/researcher for projects, masters thesis, journals and assignments at low cost. Sell your Criminology project materials on projectslib.com

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    PRIVATE SECURITY COMPANIES AND CRIME PREVENTION IN NIGER STATE

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    ABSTRACT
    This project is on Private security companies and crime prevention in Niger state. This study is focused on the private security companies and crime prevention in Niger State. The study identified methods of providing security needs of Nigerlites during the traditional era and through this, factors that necessitate the establishment of PSCs in Nigeria. This study also evaluate the effectiveness of PSCs in their security functions, it also highlight major constraints of the PSCs in carrying out their functions and project strategies for overcoming their constraints for efficient service delivery especially as it affects PSCs and the police. The hypotheses were tested using chi-square (x2). Hypothesis I revealed that the presence of guards/PSCs has reduced crime in the society which further corroborates hypothesis II that both the guards and subscribers feel satisfied with the services provided by these companies. And Hypothesis III which revealed that trained guards are more effective than those not trained emphasized the need for adequate training of PSCs/guards for the purpose of securing the society.

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    PREVALENCE AND PATTERNS OF PSYCHO ACTIVE SUBSTANCE USE AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN DALA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KANO STATE, NIGERIA

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    ABSTRACT
    This project is on Prevalence and patterns of psycho active substance use among senior secondary school students in Dala local government area of kano state, Nigeria. The study was designed to determine prevalence and patterns of Psychoactive Substance use among Senior Secondary School Students in Dala Local Government Area (LGA), Kano State Nigeria. The study adopted a cross sectional descriptive survey design. Simple random sampling procedure was used to select two Secondary Schools out of the ten Government Senior Secondary School in Dala LGA, of Kano State. Both Schools have a combined population of 2293 students made up 1202 boys and 1096 girls. The two Schools sample were Government Secondary School Kurna Asabe for boys and Government Senior Secondary School Kuka bulukiya for girls. The instrument for Data collection was a WHO Youth Drug Survey (WHOYDSQ) adapted questionnaire. The reliability of the instrument was established using a test re-test and computed using Pearson Moment Correlation. Coefficient of 0.82 was obtained. Data generated was subjected to descriptive statistics and analysed using Chi-square. The prevalence of psychoactive substance use among Government Senior Secondary School in Dala LGA, of Kano State shows that majority (91.1%) of the respondents have been using psychoactive substances. The commonest substances used were kola nut (87.4%), tobacco (15%) and cannabis (5.5%). more than half of the users of each of the substances take it occasionally, using them on one to five days in a month except kolanut taken on twenty or more days in a month. They include male (52.9%), female (47.1%). Majority (68.1%) of the respondents were between 18-20 years. Most of the respondents who use psychoactive substances were introduced by their friends (60.6%), family (27.6%) and by nobody (5.7%). Most (27.9%) first use kolanut at the age less than 10 years, alcoholic beverages at the age of 11-12years (25.6%) while others like tobacco, cannabis at 19-and above years (38.3%). Major reasons for using psychoactive substance include to be sociable (25.4%) and for enjoyment (24.4%). There was significant difference (p < 0.05) between Males and females in psychoactive substance use. The pattern of use is dependent on the type of psychoactive substances (p < 0.05). Also the psychoactive substances use based on lifetime use is dependent on the age at first use (p < 0.05). In conclusion the prevalence of substance abuse among Senior Secondary School students is high as such Government, Parents and Teachers needs to joint hands and address the problems.

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    PORT SECURITY-Threats and VulnerabilitSies

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    Abstract

    The main objective of this thesis is to identify the threats and the vulnerabilities concerning Nigeria port, and finally recommend measure to overcome the identified threats and vulÂnerabilities. Various categories of potential threats and vulnerabilities have been studied throughout the literature review. However, because each port presents a unique sets of threats and vulnerabilities, there was a need to look critically into how Nigeria port operaÂtions are being conducted in other to identity the potential threats and vulnerabilities perÂtaining to the said port. This study applied Case Study Approach as a research strategy by using Qualitative research method as a means of exploring and understanding how individual or group ascribe to social or human problem, and also identify new theoretical propositions or managerial actions is needed. The empirical data for this study was collected through primary and secondary sources. With primary source, questionnaire, observation as well as informal discussion were used. Whereas with secondary source, raw data and publish summaries that have been colÂlected by organizations and individual, excluding researchers were used.
    The results of the study revealed the strength and the vulnerabilities within security system at the port of Nigeria. Apart from the strength and weaknesses, potential threats that conÂfront the security systems, were also identified through the result. This thesis provides the recommendation needed to tackle the identified vulnerabilities and threats that are likely to disturb the effectiveness and efficient operating of the security systems.
    In the future, it is important to identify how human factor impact the successful implementaÂtion of port security measures. Further research in this particular area will help reduce the threat that human factor poses to the successful implementation of Port security measures

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    NIGERIA CIVIL WAR EFFECT ON ABOH MBAISE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IMO STATE

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    CHAPTER ONE
    INTRODUCTION
    Background of the Study
    This project is on Nigeria civil war effect on Aboh Mbaise local government area Imo state. The period 1967-1970 is a very remarkable period in the history of Nigeria. During this period, the country witnessed a devastating civil war characterized by unwanted destruction of lives and property.
    The Nigeria Civil War is so significant that the history if this country would be incomplete without a survey of the circumstances that led to the war and the effects it had on the people that fought the war and the neighboring communities. Although Nigeria as a whole witnessed the impact of the war, the people of the Eastern region suffered most because the war was fought in their territory.
    This study is designed to investigate the effects of the Nigerian Civil War on Aboh-Mbaise L.G.A of Imo State, which was torn apart by the cruel war. This prosperous community was ravaged of her progressive and population. While the war lasted, it influenced both men and women by bringing them face to face with the ghastly realities of battle in a town where the sound of gun and other weapons of war were never heard before, it exposed children to hunger and death. The happy days of men and women at work on their own occasion and for their own profit disappeared from millions of people.
    War is always a terrible things, it most often connotes deaths, injury, hunger and suffering. however courteous the soldier may be, by their nature, by their training and orders, they must seek to destroy their enemies. The very events of the recent conflict in Nigeria have inevitably made matters worse than might have been the case.
    The effect of the war on Aboh-Mbaise is a turning point in the history of Nigeria and the then Eastern region and Aboh-Mbaise in particular. It marked a new dispensation in the government of the communities in Aboh-Mbaise.
    Statement of the Problem
    The Nigerian Civil War has come and gone but the stigma has remained. This is because of the negative effects of the war on the economic, social and political life of the people of Aboh mbaise. forty two years after the Civil War, people from other ethnic groups in Nigeria regarded the Igbos as enemies when in actual fact, it should not be so, Instead of looking at the war as a unifying factor, some people still approach it from a secessionist point of view.
    This pre-conserved notion should be changed in order to ensure peace, unity and progress of the country.
    It should be stated here that having officially declared an end to the war on the 10th of January 1970, the Federal Government adopted the slogan ÒNo Victor, No vanquishedÓ. In line with the above slogan, one would have expected the government of the federal Republic of Nigeria to integrate the Igbos as was the case in the United States of America. After the Nigeria Civil War however, certain policies of federal government were deliberatly aimed at discriminating and marginalizing the Igbos.
    This research work by acting as a catalyst would explore areas through which the country would remain together and forge ahead based on equitable distribution of resources, equal participation in governance and equality before the law. It is therefore believed that at the end of this study, peoplesÕ attitude to the war will be inclined towards the appreciation of itÕs positive consequences.
    Purpose of Study
    This study is aimed at investigating the following.
    1. The impact of the Nigerian Civil War on the Socio economic Development of Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area.
    2. The impact of the Nigerian Civil War on the Political Development of Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area.
    3. The Impact of the Nigerian Civil War on the Educational Development of Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area.
    Significance of Study
    This research work would be of immense benefit to the people of Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area as it will help to rediscover their socio-economic, political and educational background.
    Furthermore, the Ministry of Education would benefit from this research work since it offers an opportunity on educational planning and policy making.
    The Federal Government would benefit immensely from this research work as it would provide solutions to the lingering ethnic rivalry and political imbalance plaguing the Nigerian Political System.
    Research Questions
    This research work is focusing on the effect of Nigerian Civil War on Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area of Imo State. In order to achieve the set objectives, the underlisted research questions were formulated to guide the study.
    They are as follows:
    1. To what extent did the Nigerian Civil War affect the Socio economic Development of Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area of Imo State?
    2. To what extent did the Nigerian Civil War affect the Political development of Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area?
    3. To what extent did the Nigerian Civil War affected the educational development of Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area?
    ?

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    NIGER DELTA CRISIS ON SOCIO-POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA(A CASE STUDY OF OHAJI/EGBEMA LOCAL GOVERNMENT)

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    ABSTRACT
    This project is on Niger delta crisis on socio-political development of Nigeria (a case study of Ohaji/Egbema local Government). The purpose of this study is to know the factors that influence the Niger Delta crisis and its implication on Socio-political development of Nigeria. The study continued to evaluate the extent of damages the Niger Delta Crisis lure on political development of the nation. The crisis are a threat to both local and foreign investors. The researcher after various investigation and the researcherÕs findings about the Niger Delta crisis, the researcher concluded that the crisis is as a result of high degree of neglect of the oil exploration areas. The researcher still makes some recommendation of how the problems of Niger Delta crisis can be solved.

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    CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF INSECURITY IN NIGERIA: THE CHALLENGES AND RELEVANCE OF THE NIGERIAN POLICEFORCE AS A PANACEA

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    ABSTRACT
    This research work seeks to reveal the Causes and effects of insecurity in Nigeria and the challenges and relevance of the Nigerian police force as a panacea. It is on this premise that the study bases its emphasis on the Nigerian police force to appraise and ascertain efforts and limitation encountered in providing adequate security to Nigerians. The subject matter is both timely and pivotal in this era when NigeriaÕs image and freedom internationally and locally is deteriorating due to the pervasive insecurity being experienced today. This has bedeviled the Nations march towards socio-economic growth and development. The study however, focuses on the causes and effect of insecurity in Nigeria, factors that have inhibited the Nigerian police force in performing its statutory functions and steps to be made to enhance greater security in Nigeria and to make the Nigeria police force more responsive to her duties. This work also gave a chronological historical antecedent of insecurity in Nigeria. It also delves into the purview of the history, structure, mission and vision of the Nigerian police force. Moreover, the study revealed that the relevance of the Nigerian police force in relation to the security of the country is incapacitated by the inability of the government to address root causes of insecurity and proffer solution to these root causes. This is manifested in the inequality and high rate of poverty currently experienced in the country even in the midst of plenty. The chapters in the study address various aspect of the problem. The revelation and recommendation made in this work will be invaluable and important to the Nigerian police, government, private and corporate organization, as well as, researchers in proffering solution that will boost security in Nigeria.

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    LAW CONCEPT AND IMPLICATIONS(A CASE STUDY OF FIRST BANK NIGERIA PLC.OKPARA AVENUE, ENUGU STATE)

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    ABSTRACT
    This research project is designed to bring out the importance of audit to the effective working of the organization using First Bank Nigeria Plc Okpara Avenue, Enugu state.
    In pursuant to this, data were collected by personal interview, questionnaires and through researcherÕs observation. Secondary data were collected from journals, publications and related works.
    Also, findings showed that all the strategies for effective working operations are applicable in the case study. It was revealed that because of the laws guiding auditors, the attitude and perception of auditors to effective working operation in my case study was adequate.
    Finally, based on these findings, various recommendations were made amongst which include, that for auditorÕs work to be relied upon by other or for the work of auditors not to be subjected to any loss or damage, they should not accept gifts or packages, have personal relationship with clients and should carry out their duties in compliance with statutory requirements.

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    KIDNAPPING IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF PUBLIC PERCEPTION IN ENUGU EAST SENATORIAL DISTRICT

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    Abstract
    The crime of kidnapping in Nigeria is becoming so alarming to an extent that no body knows who next to be affected by it. This study looked at the perceived effects, causes, reasons and solution to the problem of kidnapping in Nigeria particularly in Enugu East Senatorial District. It used questionnaire and in-depth interview in its data collection and found that the causative factors of kidnapping are payment of ransom, non cooperation with the police, lack of instruction on moral and too much emphasis on material gains. Therefore it recommends the introduction of youth empowerment programmes by the NGOSÕ and government as the key instrument to its solution. It also recommends that more sophisticated and computerised equipments and ammunitions should be distributed to all state headquarters and area commands in order to detect the hoodlums and combat the advancement of the crime.

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    A SOCIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE DETERMINANT FACTORS AND THE EFFECTS OF CHILD STREET HAWKING IN NIGERIA

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    ABSTRACT

    This project is on sociological investigation of the determinant factors and the effects of child street hawking in Nigeria. An increase in the number of the children hawkers in Nigeria has become worrisome. With selected respondents in a densely populated area of Lagos State (n = 100), this paper investigates the problem of street hawking among the Nigerian children. Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria, was purposely sampled and the respondents who participated in the study were conveniently sampled from the study area. Simple percentages and chi-square were the methods of data analysis employed in this study. The study discovered that the level of awareness of the dangers inherent in child hawking among the affected children was low. The investigation of the study revealed that parents ’ levels of education, parents ’ occupations and the sizes of the family were significantly related to the problem of child hawkers in the study area. The study recommends intensified enlightenment programmes on the problem of child hawkers, positive and genuine commitment by the government, mass, free and compulsory education, and a serious fight against poverty through poverty alleviation and eradication programmes by the government. The implications of doing these were discussed.

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    investigation into the rate of hospitality growth in Nigeria

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    CHAPTER ONE
    1.0 INTRODUCTION
    1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
    Hospitality growth in Nigeria have become a strand part of many economies of many countries of the world, serving as a backbone upon which service sectors thrive with a backward and forward interconnectivity; wherewith different counties of the world interrelate along same tide (Ayeni and Ebohon, 2012). Wherewith the benefits of hospitality growth are a matter of controversy, it cannot be undermine that hospitality growth provides higher returns on invested capitals; effects to increase agriculture production, and employment; generates foreign exchange, government revenue; finance for infrastructure development, and generally increases citizens welfare, helps capitals flights esp. when associated with overseas trips for holiday and proper overall economic growth (Bankole, 2002:77). The term hospitality growth has been defined differently and some authors choose to define the term with somewhat similarities. It is serious and yet difficult for analysts in the hospitality growth to come to a compromise with regards to a universal definition of hospitality growth. Again, the vague nature of the growth makes it a herculean task in evaluating the investigation into the rate of hospitality growth on the economy when compared to other sectors of the economy (Lickorish and Jenkins, 1999: 1-2). The hospitality subsector ensured the provision of services for individuals, family, group of people, organizations etc., that were away from their homes for a particular period. However, it must be noted that the patterns of rendering services either by restaurants or hospitalitys often vary in the context of specific needs and desires of the guests regardless of the operatorsÕ rendering activities and services. Hospitality was among the oldest of the human professions, which entailed ensuring a guest, client etc., to feel welcome and comfortable. It was further affirmed that it had been in practice before many professions. Well, such statement is debatable. Hospitality goes beyond hospitalitys and restaurants, but could also mean other legalized institutions that specialize in either providing shelter or food, or better still, both services to people as long as it is away from their respective homes. Nigeria have benefited immensely as a result of mutual understanding between the hospitality growth and the financial sector (i.e. banks) to increase revenue to central purse of the governments via their collaborations for economic development. It was apparent that food and shelter remained significant to the livelihood of people and sustenance to the larger society to reduce poverty. For instance, Banks during seminars and conferences make use of hospitalitys, restaurants, resorts etc., during break time, food and drinks were often served by food department of the hospitalitys that is, either directly or indirectly there were more to an existing association between the sectors of interest ( hospitality), which is, funds availability. Despite the increasing trends of globalization, the investigation into the rate of hospitality growth in Nigeria particularly in ebonyi state, has been worrisome even before global financial crunch in the first quarter of 2008 the recent continuous decline in the global crude oil prices; thereby affecting the liquidity performance of the economy, and becoming difficult to channel funds to the hospitality growth, The present recession period being experienced by Nigerian economy has affected all sectors leading to the reduction of the expected profitability trends of hospitality sectors and drastically reducing number of guests visiting the hospitalitys and customers. To have considered some of the functions of hospitality which include; to accumulate surplus funds and make it available to
    deficit sectors of the economy, thereby making profits via strong lending
    and borrowing patterns. Therefore, the smaller the size of the financial institutions, the smaller is the returns and expenditure vice versa. Severally, were always directed to ensure a stable capital in order to absorb operational exposures or unexpected shocks, to achieve profit and consequently minimize risks and losses so as to achieve national economic growth. However, with the help of provision of finance / funds in Nigeria (financial intermediation roles) in ebonyi state, a simple hospitality business could become a conglomerate where it could specialize in the provision of food service operations in different areas such as recreation centers, sports stadiums, primary and secondary schools (e.g. free meal for primary
    school pupils by federal government), university campuses, either individual or group home services, convention centers etc., with liberality and good will.

    1.2 Statement of Problems
    Hospitality account for a large proportion of individual (quest in this country and are faced with numerous problem. These problems under the growth and development of hospitality in Nigeria. Thereby limiting their potential contributions to the growth of nigeria economy. However, the hospitality industries have many roles the play in the economic growth of less development country like Nigeria of course they remain important in the economyÕs the problems of hospitality growth are lack of fund by the proprietors and the difficulty the encounter in raising funds. Due to limited capital at their disposal and high interest rate f banks, they find it less attractive going to the banks for loan the level of education of most hospitality proprietors implses difficulty in managerial in capacity many even go hospitality business without easy training in the area lack of technology and operation problems confronting hospitality growth makes it difficult for them to grow:
    1. The researcher should take the problems facing investigation into the rate of hospitality growth in Nigeria, in the area of maintaining good management.
    2. How can hospitality are encouraged to improve their activities in Nigeria
    3. To investigate in what ways Nigeria could overcome the obstacles of political and economic isolation, institutional governance and personalized political structures in relation to its investigation into the rate of ospitality growth.
    A good management of Nigerian hospitalities can enormously result in the improved rate of hospitality growth in nigeria.
    Objective of the study
    The main objective is to examine the investigation into the rate of hospitality growth in Nigeria: issues and challenges. The specific objectives include;
    ¥ To determine the contribution of banking sector to the growth of hospitality in Nigeria.
    ¥ To identify the challenges facing the investigation into the rate of hospitality growth in Nigeria.
    ¥ To examine the challenges facing the hospitality growth Nigeria.
    ¥ To determine the contemporary issues in hospitality growth in Nigeria.

    Research Question
    The under listed questions required answers in the course of the study;
    ¥ Can the banking sector contribute to the development of hospitality growth in Nigeria?
    ¥ What are the challenges faced by hospitality growth in Nigeria?
    ¥ What are the challenges faced by hospitality growth in Nigeria
    ¥ What are the contemporary issues in the hospitality growth?

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    INSECURITY IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES AND RESOLUTIONS

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    Abstract
    This research is on Insecurity in northern Nigeria: causes, consequences and resolutions. Since Nigeria got her independence from Britain in 1960, the countryÕs political structural arrangement has been under one central government called Federal Government (via a Federal Republic) and was blessed with unquantifiable natural, human and material resources. In spite of that, the average NigerianÕs income per capita does not give the real picture due to the high income inequalities in the country. As majority of Nigerians are living in abject poverty, particularly in the Northeastern area. However, under the Federal system arrangement, instead of having a smooth level of interaction among individual ethnic groups, cultures, traditions and religions, there thrives a persistent lack of trust among Nigerians due to fear of domination, marginalization, control and intolerance. This ugly development led to the acquisition of fire arms among ethnic, political, religious and social militia groups. Similarly, with the return of the country to democratic rule, the situation has worsened with the politicians prosecuting their political ambitions. Furthermore, the situation also became more terrible when these groups started fighting government and its agencies. As a result, many people were killed while millions of people were displaced and properties worth millions of naira were also destroyed more especially in the North-east and north central areas. The insecurity situation in the country was alleged to have been attributed to some factors. Among this include poor government policies, corruption, poverty, unemployment, poor leadership, weak judiciary system etc. Consequently, this affected the region economically, socially, politically etc. Finally, recommendations were made and that Government should improve standard of living of the people through the creation of more entrepreneurship centers across the country more especially in the North and North-east in particular. Also, government should intensify more effort in fighting against corruption and this can be done through good legislation and stiff penalties for those found wanting.

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    INSECURITY AND KIDNAPPING IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF PUBLIC PERCEPTION IN ENUGUEAST SENATORIAL DISTRICT

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    CHAPTER ONE :
    INTRODUCTION
    1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
    This project is on Insecurity and kidnapping in Nigeria: a study of public perception in Enugu east senatorial district. In the early traditional Nigeria society, human sacrifice perpetuated kidnapping. Ugwuoke (2010: 197) rightly asserts that individuals were kidnapped for ritual or social reasons. The African traditional worshipers solely believed in sacrificing to appease the gods. The sacrifice may transcend animal sacrifice, and the priest could be inspired by the gods to order for human beings; to accomplish this kind of sacrifice, the required person could be kidnapped and killed in a sacrificial procedure. Ugwuoke explained that insecurity and kidnapping was mainly for the purpose of sacrifice either to appease the gods or for the burial of a prominent chief or warrior. Precisely, to carry out a successful burial of important citizen like chiefs and prominent warriors required human head. Hence, warriors engaged themselves in search of victims to be kidnapped. Besides Nwadiorah and Nkwocha (2011: 3) observed that the act of insecurity and kidnapping increased in Nigeria after the Nigerian civil was in 1970 which exposed many youths with military experience to some criminality. The above account reveals that insecurity and kidnapping is very old in the history of man as it is also recorded in section 364 of the Nigeria Criminal Code.
    Though insecurity and kidnapping is not new, and has been in Nigeria criminal statues, ransom insecurity and kidnapping is a new trend and was not known in Nigeria until recently. Moreover it was obvious in 2006 when it was announced that foreign oil workers were kidnapped (Inyang, 2009). However, those expatriates were released after paying huge ransom in millions of naira. Since then, insecurity and kidnapping for ransom has spread to most parts of Nigerian states and Imo state Senatorial District is also affected by it. Many people have been kidnapped and only released after the payment of ransom while in some cases dead bodies were recovered. Igwe Uche Nwaechime, the proprietor of Mac Royale Hotels ltd, from Nkanu West Local Government , Enugu State was kidnapped and slaughtered by the kidnappers. His body was found by a search party at a refuse dump site on the Enugu Port Harcourt express way (Ugwulebo, 2011). Dr. Paul Edemobi, the proprietor Paul and Grace Foundation and brother to Prof. Dora Akuyili, was kidnapped in Enugu on Monday 1st December 2008 from his 10B Savage Cresent GRA Enugu (Ojukwu, 2011). The wife of Sam Ngene, the then Chairman of Enugu South Local Government Area was kidnapped on March 2009. Also, Nkem Owoh, the popular Nollywood actor was kidnapped along Enugu-Port Harcourt express way (Ugwulebo, 2011). Payment of ransom, tragic recovery of dead bodies and other facts and events as a result of insecurity and kidnapping shapes peoples perception of the crime. Furthermore, Anosike (2009) stated that the incidence of insecurity and kidnapping is a common occurrence in the eastern states. Anosike also noted that states ranging from Abia to Anambra and Enugu were greatly alarmed by the wave of kidnapping.
    However, in 2009, rebranding project was frantically directed towards redeeming the image of Nigeria due to the fact that most countries of the world and Nigerians themselves perceive Nigerians negatively (Dieye and Iwele, 2011: 78). Incidentally, in that same 2009 there was rise in insecurity and kidnapping as available statistics shows that there was 512 incidence of insecurity and kidnapping in 2009 against 353 in 2008 (Ojukwu, 2011: 380). Ojukwu also noted that the ambassador of the rebranding Nigeria project, Pete Edochie was kidnapped in Onitsha on his way to his home town- Nteje. Since then, insecurity and kidnapping has drastically affected the countrys image and major businesses in the country.
    Furthermore, insecurity and kidnapping for ransom posses serious threat to the well ordering and functioning of the society and many factors were perceived as its causes. In Nigeria, such factors include corruption among the Nigeria Police Force (Adibe, 2009), unemployment, poverty and leadership failure (Diara, 2010), failure of the government to provide basic amenities and the use of cult gangs and militants by politicians in electoral processes (Okengwu, 2011: 1), access to large quantities of small arms and light weapons (International
    Crisis Group, 2006 as cited in Iduh, 2011: 126). This study will lay emphasis on the perception of people in Imo state Senatorial District concerning insecurity and kidnapping in Nigeria. There is no doubt that insecurity and kidnapping in Nigeria is in part, a syndrome from many parts of the world- Iraq, the Philippines, Afghanistan, India, Russia, Palestinian Territory, Mexico, Nepal and American (Abati, 2009). Episodes of ransom insecurity and kidnapping in the annals of American history include the case of four year old Charlie Ross in 1874 (Cyntrax, Wilson and Wilson as cited in Ugwuoke, 2010 :197) and Lindbergh case in 1932 ( Allison, 2000: 110). In the Lindberghs case, Lindberghs child was the center of a plot, the suffering of the childs parents, and the difficulties of the police enquiry, were exacerbated by widespread speculation, misinformation and serial random notes (Alexander and Klein 2009: 16). Alexander and Klein further noted that in the 17th century, children were stolen from their families and exported to North American colonies as servants and laborers, hence, kid meaning child and nap or nab meaning to snatch. Insecurity and kidnapping was therefore connected to the staling of children but the word has come to be used interchangeably with both children and adults. Nevertheless, past account of insecurity and kidnapping revealed that death penalty was ordered as a punishment for insecurity and kidnapping in ancient Rome when the Emperor Constantine (AD 315) became so alarmed by the incidence of the crime (Akpan, 2010: 33).
    However, the early African societies were marked with the incidence of slave trade. In this vein, Ugwu (2010 : 2)., asserted that the weak and the poor were captured and sold into slavery. Ugwulebo (2011: 26) noted that during the colonial era, the colonialists came to some parts of the world, such as Africa, took their able bodied men and women and sold them to far away nations who needed human labor for their plantation and other services. (Onimode as cited in Ugwulebo, 2011: 26-27) had noted that gun powder, gin, mm and other materials were offered by the Europeans to the Africans in exchange for slaves shipped
    annually from ports in Nigeria. Therefore, slavery and insecurity and kidnapping were like two sides of a coin.

    1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

    Meanwhile in order to ameliorate the problem of kidnapping, the Nigerian government granted amnesty and an unconditional pardon to militants in the Niger Delta (Ogege, 2009: 148). Despite governments efforts, insecurity and kidnapping for ransom increased in its spread to most Nigerian states. In response to massive challenges to security, Anosike (2009) noted that the executive councils of most Nigerian states convened at the state government houses countless number of times to devise means of solving the problem. However, at one of the meetings, governors of Abia, Anambra and Akwa Ibom, insisted that modern security equipment should be deployed in high crime areas, in order to combat insecurity and kidnapping(Guardian, July 25, 2010 p 16). At a meeting of the South East governors in Enugu, they resolved to tackle the trend by seizing the property of people that allow it to be used as operation base by kidnappers (Guardian, July 27, 2010 p 51). The House of Representatives
    Insecurity and kidnapping in Nigeria is a very serious contemporary social problem which was noted by Iduh (2011: 125) as the outcome of decades of peaceful protests in the Niger – Delta region. Insecurity and kidnapping first attracted national attention on 20th February 2006 when Niger – Delta militants kidnapped foreign oil workers to press their demand (Nwadiorah and Nkwocha, 2011). Since then, many Nigerians have been kidnapped and only released on huge ransom whose re-payment they may not be able to make for the rest of their lives (Oshio, 2009: 13). The statistics of insecurity and kidnapping by the Distress Call Base (DBC, Anti-Insecurity and kidnapping Squad Enugu, 2012) show that from January to December 2009, there were nine reported cases of kidnapping, eight victims of kidnapping, five victims of insecurity and kidnapping rescued, one victim killed and twenty two arrested kidnappers. Furthermore in 2010, there were twenty six reported cases against nine cases in 2009, twelve kidnapped victims against eight in 2009, eleven rescued victims against five in 2009 and thirty eight arrested kidnappers against twenty-two in 2009. Also in 2011 the data reveal rise in insecurity and kidnapping as there were forty six reported cases of kidnapping, fifty eight kidnap victims, fifty five rescued victims, one victim killed and one hundred and thirty six kidnappers arrested. In three months from January to March 2012, there were five reported cases of kidnapping, six kidnap victims, five rescued victims and six kidnappers arrested.
    in addition, proposed death penalty for kidnappers (Guardian, September 22, 2010 p 3). In spite of all these efforts, the crime of insecurity and kidnapping has remained unabated.
    However, seeking to know shy insecurity and kidnapping became a serious problem in Nigeria at the time authorities were talking about rebranding the county positively is essential. Contries like Singapore, Malaysia and Ghana have rebranded without even altering a word; but rebranding of Nigeria with all the seminars and Symposia held in London, New York and other western capitals failed (Guardian, July 17, 2010 p46). Nwora (2006:17) argued that Nigeria should focus on socio economic reforms and putting her house in order, after which she could then open her door to the rest of the world. It is also noted by Dieye and Iwele (2011 : 78) that the relative decay and fast degradation of the standard of values and moral character formation that has defamed the Nigerian image demands an urgent attention. It had also been noted that perceptional management would have been a useful tool in rebranding project if it was effectively managed (Guardian, July 17, 2010 p46). Therefore the problem of insecurity and kidnapping has not been solved because there is the need for perceptional management (i.e., finding peoples attitude viewpoint and approach towards the causes, reasons and methods of tackling a problem with the aim of using it to control the rise of such of problem) in Nigeria. Meanwhile in order to realize public perception by getting the negative as well as positive answers from the public with questions directed towards such answers and manage it effectively a study of public perception on insecurity and kidnapping is important. The above necessitates the interest in this study. This study will therefore examine peoples perception on issues of insecurity and kidnapping in Imo state Senatorial District.
    1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    The following questions will guide this study;
    1. What is the relationship between gender and perception on insecurity and kidnapping among the people in Imo state Senatorial District?
    2. Does place of residence influence the perception on insecurity and kidnapping among the people in Imo state Senatorial District?
    3. Does age influence the perception on insecurity and kidnapping among the people in Imo state Senatorial District?
    4. What is the relationship between occupation and perception on insecurity and kidnappingamong the people in Imo state Senatorial District?
    5. Does the level of education of people in Imo state Senatorial District influence their perception about kidnapping?
    6. What are the probable strategies that can help to reduce the incidence of insecurity and kidnappingin Imo state Senatorial District?
    1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
    The main objective of this study is to ascertain the perceptions of the people in Imo state Senatorial District on insecurity and kidnapping in Nigeria, from which the following specific objectives were drawn.
    1. Senatorial District concerning kidnapping.
    2. To find out the relationship between occupation and perception on insecurity and kidnapping in Imo state Senatorial District.
    3. To ascertain if the perception of the people in Imo state Senatorial District concerning insecurity and kidnapping is influenced by their level of education.
    4. To suggest probable strategies that can help to reduce the incidence of insecurity and kidnapping Imo state Senatorial District.
    1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    This study has also practical significance especially with reference to policy making. It will multivalve policy makers to make policies that will discourage insecurity and kidnappingand improve the well being of citizens. It will also enlighten the general public about the causes and trend of insecurity and kidnappingin Imo state Senatorial District in particular and Nigeria at large. This study is also expected to be beneficial to law makers, law enforcement agents and government officials. It will also necessitate decision making for improvement of the standard of living of the citizens. The findings of this study will be useful to other agencies and organizations interested in the issue of insecurity and kidnapping in Nigeria.
    1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
    Adulthood – This is the number of years for single and married male and female, based on young and old age, which is from eighteen to sixty years. In this study, it is divided into younger and older adults.
    Educated – This is high standard of educational qualification in terms of degree and above. Those who are educated are seen as graduates with or without other qualifications. Insecurity and kidnapping- This is a violent crime that is often perpetuated by taking the victim away by force and for the purpose of gaining ransom.
    Little education – This is educational qualification in terms of junior secondary
    school which is JSS3, primary school and no formal education.
    Older adults – These are people that are aged, who may as well be classified as more
    mature in reasoning, aged 40 years and above.
    Place of residence – In this study place of residence is seen as housing areas in the
    rural and urban region.
    Public perception – In this study, public perception is seen as the views of people
    concerning the incidence of kidnapping. That is the interpretation given to the incidence of insecurity and kidnapping by different individuals.
    Urbanization – Urbanization in this study is a process whereby young adults migrate
    from the rural to the urban areas in search of greener pasture.
    Younger adults – These are the people whose ages fall within the range of
    eighteen years to thirty nine years. They are as well within the youthful ages.

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