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This research is on Effect of conflict resolution in Africa. The continent of Africa has been highly susceptible to intra and inter-state wars and conflicts. This has prompted the insinuation that Africa is the home of wars and instability, most pathetic about these conflagrations is that they have defied any meaningful solution and their negative impacts have retarded growth and development in Africa while an end to them seems impossible.
Conflict can be said to be an inevitable part of life and it has recurrent decimal in every political system, and as a social problem, it is as old as man and cuts across continents, regions and nations. Conflict has always risen in societies as a result of rival opinions, divergent wants, competing needs and opposing interests. Ethnic/religious conflicts, border conflicts, civil strife, civil wars and genocides are rampant in Africa, Specifically with conflicts which have developed into civil wars in countries like Zaire, Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Liberia, Uganda and Lesotho to mention but a few, also turmoil in Angola, state /rebels conflicts in Serra Leone, Cote D’ Ivoire and Guinea Bissau, border conflict (Ethiopia and Eritrea, Nigeria and Cameroon) and genocide in Somali. International Colloquium Report (2012) also observed that since the collapse of the Soviet Bloc that marked the end of the Cold War by 1989/1990, civil conflicts increased in Africa.
The rising trend of intra/ interstate (s) conflicts in Africa are partly explained by internal political, economic and ideological contradictions. Hence, eight out of the fifteen complex emergencies declared by the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs in late 20th and 21st centuries were in Africa (Umozurike, 2005). The tasks of managing or resolving conflicts in Africa have been profoundly difficult. Some of the theoretical bases of conflict resolution are justice, peace, security and stability of the political system (Akpuru-Aja, 2011). African Union (AU), United Nations (UN) and European Union (EU) have being trying with varying degree of success (sometimes significant and most time non-significant) in resolution of conflicts in Africa.
The aim of this study is basically to understand the effect of conflict resolution in Africa, where also its specific objectives are, to investigate the causes of conflicts in countries domiciled in Africa, to examine the aftermaths of those conflicts on the vulnerable countries in Africa, to assess if incessant conflicts affect the national development of vulnerable countries, to examine the techniques employed in the resolution of conflicts in Africa, to assess the effectiveness of those techniques.
Also, this research seeks to understand if persistent conflict can be the major cause of under-development in Africa? if corruption can be a major cause of conflicts in Africa? If bad governance can lead to persistent conflicts in Africa? if economic hardship can bring about conflicts in Africa? if boundary disputes can lead to conflicts in Africa?
AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE ROLE OF UNITED NATIONS PEACE SUPPORT OPERATION TO SECURITY OF AFRICA: A CASE OF DARFUR-SUDAN
This research is on an investigation into the role of united nations peace support operation to security of Africa: a case of Darfur-Sudan. This study evaluates African Union -United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) from 2007-2016; with a view to determining how it has contributed to the establishment of enduring peace and security in Darfur. The study is conducted against the backdrop of the fact that most United Nations (UN) Peace Support Operations(PSO) in Africa have not adequately enhanced African security; supposedly arising from their inability to address the root causes of such conflicts and institutional inadequacies. The functionalism theory is adopted as the theoretical framework of the study. The study identified four potential outcome as assumptions. First, enduring and sustainable peace can only be achieved with the full cooperation and willingness of the parties to a conflict to end the crisis. Second, the inability of UN PSO to sufficiently improve Darfur security situation is not unconnected to their inability to address the root causes of conflicts in the region. Third, UNAMID would be more effective in Darfur if it fully collaborates with regional conflict resolution mechanisms in addressing the crisis. Fourth, the full backing of the UN Permanent Members (P5) is necessary likewise the political will of African government to promote durable peace in Darfur. Interviews were utilized as the main primary source of data. Focus Group Discussion as well as documentary evidence were also used to supplement the data from the interviews. The data gathered were qualitatively analysed, applying logical reasoning based on facts. Findings indicate that there was no peace to keep in Darfur at the early stage as the armed movements and Government of Sudan (GoS) failed to agree to the implementation of the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) 2006 and the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur(DDPD) of 2012. This is partly due to the fact that both agreements did not factor in the root causes of the crisis bothering on the continued marginalization of the Darfur region of Sudan by the Khartoum based government over the years. Findings indicate that only the first, second and fourth assumptions of this research are valid. Furthermore, evidence presented in this study also indicates that: there is no comprehensive political solution to the problem owing to lack of a free, fair and credible elections that would lay the foundation for meaningful representation of Darfur at the national level and the lack of force multipliers and enablers undermined the credibility of the mission particularly during the deployment and consolidation phases. Evidence presented also indicate that relative security have being achieved in various sector Headquarters(HQs) and adjourning areas though security in the hinterland remain unstable, improvement in passage and distribution of humanitarian deliveries to people at risk and increased awareness on issues of human rights and rule of law in Darfur. The thesis recommends the generation of niche and specialized capability for UNAMID components, and the development of a clear political strategy towards a comprehensive political solution.
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND ITS IMPACT ON NIGERIA MANPOWER AND HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (CASE STUDY: LAGOS STATE)
This research work is on International migration and its impact on Nigeria manpower and human resources management (case study: Lagos state). Migration can be defined as the movement of people from one place to another, this can occur for various reasons, as since the beginning of creation, humans have always involved themselves in movement activities, such movement has been recorded to affect manpower and even human resources. For Africans this has been a major feature and globally (Akanji, 2012) as migration cannot be inevitable from the history of the story of man, families, villages and nation-state, as constantly people are searching for better lives which can be guaranteed through better jobs, even amongst the rich as they still want to get richer. As earlier revealed virtually all individuals and nation states have one or two traces of migration history (Internal and international) mostly influenced by two factors these are the “Pull” and “Push” factors. Migration can be internal or international as Internal migration explains the movement of individuals within same geographical territory which in this case can be from rural to urban or from Lagos to Abuja, while International Migration has to do with the crossing of borders or international boundaries such as Cameroon to Nigeria described as South-South Migration, Nigeria to United States of America described also as South-North Migration.
Migration also has consequences for the individual, the area of origin and the area of destination-on the family, household, society, the economy and development as a whole. The effect of international migration is not limited to remittances and cash inflows alone. It includes a wide range of development issues, governance and legal protection, employment and social, protection, health services and education, tertiary education, knowledge and skills development, economic growth, financial services and growth, agriculture and rural infrastructural development, and environment issues.
International Migration has increased due to the wide spread taught benefits and awareness of opportunities in various countries through various platforms such as the television, internet among other mediums. International Migration (particularly immigration) is a sensitive issue in discussions and debates in the international system.
The aim of this study is basically to understand International Migration and its Impact on Nigeria Manpower and Human Resources Management using Lagos state as a case study, the specific objectives of this research are as follows: To understand in-depth, the consequence’s associated with the migration of people from one country to another, especially as it affects their country of birth. To understand the migratory trends during the Pre-colonial Era to the Post-Independence Era of Nigerians especially Nigerian professionals in various fields of endeavor. To identify the impact of migration on the socio-economic structure of Nigeria. To find remedies to correcting human capital flight in terms of brain gain so as to benefit Nigeria as a country.
Also, this research seeks to understand If Nigeria’s economy should warrant migration of its citizens to other international countries? If there are policies in Nigeria that guide against excess emigration? If migrants help in development of their home country?