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  • EFFECT OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN AFRICA

    ABSTRACT

    This research is on Effect of conflict resolution in Africa. The continent of Africa has been highly susceptible to intra and inter-state wars and conflicts. This has prompted the insinuation that Africa is the home of wars and instability, most pathetic about these conflagrations is that they have defied any meaningful solution and their negative impacts have retarded growth and development in Africa while an end to them seems impossible.

    Conflict can be said to be an inevitable part of life and it has recurrent decimal in every political system, and as a social problem, it is as old as man and cuts across continents, regions and nations. Conflict has always risen in societies as a result of rival opinions, divergent wants, competing needs and opposing interests. Ethnic/religious conflicts, border conflicts, civil strife, civil wars and genocides are rampant in Africa, Specifically with conflicts which have developed into civil wars in countries like Zaire, Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Liberia, Uganda and Lesotho to mention but a few, also turmoil in Angola, state /rebels conflicts in Serra Leone, Cote D’ Ivoire and Guinea Bissau, border conflict (Ethiopia and Eritrea, Nigeria and Cameroon) and genocide in Somali. International Colloquium Report (2012) also observed that since the collapse of the Soviet Bloc that marked the end of the Cold War by 1989/1990, civil conflicts increased in Africa.

    The rising trend of intra/ interstate (s) conflicts in Africa are partly explained by internal political, economic and ideological contradictions. Hence, eight out of the fifteen complex emergencies declared by the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs in late 20th and 21st centuries were in Africa (Umozurike, 2005). The tasks of managing or resolving conflicts in Africa have been profoundly difficult. Some of the theoretical bases of conflict resolution are justice, peace, security and stability of the political system (Akpuru-Aja, 2011). African Union (AU), United Nations (UN) and European Union (EU) have being  trying with varying degree of success (sometimes significant and most time non-significant) in resolution of conflicts in Africa.

    The aim of this study is basically to understand the effect of conflict resolution in Africa, where also its specific objectives are, to investigate the causes of conflicts in countries domiciled in Africa, to examine the aftermaths of those conflicts on the vulnerable countries in Africa, to assess if incessant conflicts affect the national development of vulnerable countries, to examine the techniques employed in the resolution of conflicts in Africa, to assess the effectiveness of those techniques.

    Also, this research seeks to understand if persistent conflict can be the major cause of under-development in Africa? if corruption can be a major cause of conflicts in Africa? If bad governance can lead to persistent conflicts in Africa? if economic hardship can bring about conflicts in Africa? if boundary disputes can lead to conflicts in Africa?

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