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This research is on Statistical analysis of infant and child mortality. Despite the global decline in under-five mortality rate from 90 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 48 in 2012, Nigeria has failed to record any substantial improvement. Under-five mortality in Nigeria increased from 138 per 1,000 live births in 2007 to 158 per 1,000 live births in 2011 against the Millennium development Goal target of 71 per 1,000 live births. The data used in this research is a secondary one; the data was fetched from the medical records department of the ABUTH, Zaria. The research was carried out to: test for the difference of two means between infant and child mortality rate; estimate infant and child mortality rate; estimate age specific fertility rate; and to determine the trend line and forecast of infant and child mortality. Descriptive statistics, Regression and Correlation analysis are the statistical techniques used for the study. From the regression analysis result obtained, it showed that both infant and child mortality rates has a direct relationship with delivery rates. The correlation analysis result showed that there is a very strong and positive relationship between mortality and delivery rates. The study revealed that infant and child mortality rates will continue to decrease if there can be improvement in the factors under study.
Statistical analysis on academic performance of students in federal polytechnic offa. (a case study of applied science and technology and school of engineering)
AbstractThis project looks at Statistical analysis on academic performance of students in Federal Polytechnic Offa. The aim and objectives of this research work is to know whether the academic performance of students depends on the type of their school and to ascertain whether there is a significant difference between the students performance in school of Applied Science and Technology and School of Engineering. This research work cover two department in Applied Science and Technology and two departments in School of Engineering in Federal Polytechnic Offa. And the school and department were randomly selected. The information collected and the score obtained from their recording sheet were presented in contingency table. The data collection and the score is correlation analysis method. After the analysis, the results show that the performance of students depends on the type of their schools and there is a significant difference between the performance of students in Applied Science and Technology and Engineering.
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This project work is on Application of discrimant analysis to predict the class of diploma for graduating students. This research work is concerned with the application of discriminant analysis to predict the class of diploma for graduating students. Discriminant Analysis was applied using statistical techniques to test for the significance differences between the course and the department. Discriminant Analysis (DA) is concerned with the challenge of classification investigators are confronted with this challenge when the make a number of measurements on an individual and desired to place them in either of the groups.
Onyeagu S.I (2003) findings revealed that discriminant analysis and classification are multivariate techniques concerned with separating distinct sets of objects or observation and allocation new objects or observations to pre-existing defined groups. Discriminant analysis is rather exploratory in nature. As a clarification procedure, it is often employed on a one time basis purposely to investigate observed distinction when correlation are not well understood, clarification methodological are less exploratory in the sense that they lead to well defined rules which can be utilized for assigning new objects. Discriminant analysis and sorting aid us to describe either graphically (in two or more dimension or observations into two or more groups , the emphasis is on developing a rule that can be utilized to correctly grouped an observation to either of the labeled classes.
Giving birth is one of the most extraordinary experiences of a woman’s life. Yet after all the months of careful preparation and anticipation, the moment of birth is almost never what you had expected. But fortunately, despite what you may have thought when you were pregnant, these are not the issues that will make your child’s birth a success what count is the baby, here at last and healthy.
The child survival at birth will be determined right from the day one of the conception of the baby in the mother’s womb, the process of delivery, the expertise, the needed facilities available and the environment. That is child survival is primarily determined by the social and economic status of the child’s family essentially expressed by two indicators maternal education and some index of economic circumstances of the household Mosley, 1985. Various studies in Kenya have confirmed the significant relationship between socioeconomic factors and infant/child survival Muganzi, 1984; Odhiambo, 1991, Onuma 1991.
In the third World, it is a much riskier proposition: neonatal deaths rates in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia are more than 3.7 and on average 1 in 48 women die during childbirth. The natural mortality rate of childbirth where nothing is done to avert maternal death has been estimated as being between, 1,000 and 1,500 deaths per 100,000 births.
The most important factors affecting mortality in childbirth are adequate nutrition and access to quality medical care access is affected both by the loss of available care, and distance from the health services. Medical care in this context does not refer specifically to treatment in hospital, but simply the presence of an attendant with midwifery skills. Factors that may make a birth high risk include prematurity, high blood pressure, diabetes and previous caesarean section.
One of the most dangerous risks to the fetus is that of premature birth and its associated low neonatal weight. The more premature or underweight a baby is the greater the risks for neonatal death and for pulmonary, respiratory, neurological or other sequelae. About 12 of all infants born in the United States are born prematurely. In the past 25 years, medical technology has greatly improved the chances of survival of premature infants in industrial nations. In the 1950s and 1960s, approximately half of all low-birth-weight babies in the US died. Today, more than 90 survive. The first hours of life for premises are critical, especially the very first hour of life. Rapid access to a Neonatal intensive care unit is of paramount importance.
Age limitation seems not to constitute impediment or barrier to pregnancy. In November 2004 Aleta. St. James, a 56-year-old single mother gave birth to twins conceived through in vitro fertilization. In 2005, a 67-year-old Romanian woman gave birth by caesarean to one surviving twin.
This research considers certain factors that predict survival of a new born baby. These factors include age of the mother, gestational period, baby’s weight, type of delivery and the Apgar score.
1.1 Aims and Objectives of the Study
The broad aim of this research work is to examine the factors that contribute to the survival of newborn babies in Osun state Hospital Asubiaro Osogbo.
The specific objectives are as following:
- To determine the general forms of the logistic and hazards models.
- To identify the factor that most determines Childs survival.
- To predict survival status of a child.
To know the contribution of the type of delivery to the survival of a child at birth.
1.2 Significance of the study
The reason for this study is to know the factors contributing to the survival of a New born baby.
This project work will also help to decrease the mortality rate among the children.
1.3 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of this study is the Osun State Hospital Asubiaro Osogbo. The scope of the study should have been extended to various hospitals like the General Hospital Ede; LAUTECH Teaching hospitals and some other hospital to have a more accurate conclusion and recommendation but due to some limitation like:
Time Constraints: The time that was given for the submission of the project work is very short in various hospitals will:
- Money Constraint
1.4 Definitions of Terms
BIRTH: This is the process by which individual creates more of their own kind.
BIRTH SPACING: This is the number of months or years between the previous birth and the current birth.
PARITY: This is the reproductive history of the mother.
APGAR SCORE: This is the first test giving to a child at one and five minutes respectively after birth to know the physician estimate of the baby’s general condition at birth.
CORRELATION AND REGRESSION ANALYSIS ON ROAD ACCIDENT AND DEATH OCCURRENCES (A case study of Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) Benue State, Nigeria, 2006-2013)
This project is on correlation and regression analysis on road accident and death occurrences (a case study of federal road safety commission (FRSC) Benue State, Nigeria, 2006-2013). No nation can achieve economic and technological self-reliance without a good number of scientist and technologist.
Nigeria, as a developing country, requires good number of scientists and technologists as well as other categories of workers to cope with the increasing man power needs of the country.
Government efforts in producing these categories of workers at times is being frustrated through sudden loss of lives caused by accidents on our road; therefore, the need to undertake a research of this nature is very glaring. It will help us to see the rate at which death occurs through road accidents, how it affects the population and its consequences on the development of our country.
The aim of this write-up is to study the rate at which death occurs, causes and how far it affects the population of the country.
Population as it is being defined as total number of people living in the country at a particular time and it is being defined by equation:
Pt = Po (B – D) + (I – E)
Where Pt = Population at that point in time
Po = Actual population
B = Birth rate at that point in time
D = Death rate at that particular time
E = Emigration
From the above equation, it can be deduced that mortality or death rate is one of the determinant factors of population.
The high death rates causes underdevelopment population and low death rates causes over development population and so on.
Therefore, there is a need to study the rate at which death occurs through accidents and how it affects the whole country. Death is caused by many factors in which accidents is one.
Road accidents in Nigeria are caused by many factors and it causes huge and sudden loss of lives and properties of the active population. (Working Population)
Accidents do not only cause loss of many lives but also an economic woe due to the destruction of some properties.
The government of Nigeria has realized these as a result, Federal Road Safety Commission was established in 1988 with offices and officers in each states of the country and has its headquarter at the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja.
They are adequately equipped with good vehicles and driving gadget to curb over-speeding and careless driving on our roads.
Government of this country also uses the mass media such as Radio, Television and Newspapers through several programmes to educate drivers and check their excesses.
From the foregoing, no topic could be more appropriate at this time than the topic of this nature. Even though the problems of road accidents are generally the same in every locality of this country, there are slight variations, hence a case study of the problems in one state (in this case Osun State) is necessary. It is hope that whatever effort put into a research of this nature will be justified at the end.
Over the years, the behavior of commercial drivers on the roads, the conditions of their vehicles, their attitudes to passengers (particularly when they are advised) have been carefully observed. Poor conditions of our roads have also been watched.
Also, we have listened to news both on the Radio and Televisions about occurrences of accidents and its painful consequences. Sides of our road are also littered with damaged vehicles, which resulted from road accidents.
Therefore, this study intends to look into the rate of death as a result of road accidents with particular reference to Osun State of Nigeria.
It also aims at finding the means and possibilities of solving the problems by proposing possible remedy.
With the pains suffered by accident victims who escaped death but suffered either a partial damage or total loss of part of the body, the unnecessary or additional burden bore by relatives of these victims and at times loss of bread winners in families and or important persons in the nation which greatly hinder national development, it should be seen that the significance of a study of this nature cannot be over emphasized.
This study is very significant in many areas. It will identify the sources of blamer in regard to the frequently of accidents on our roads. It is hoped that the result will enable the pedestrians, road users; the management and staff of Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) see the rate, the effects of road accidents glaringly and be ready to work towards the reduction of accidents.
Finally, it is hope that this study will help Federal Government of Nigeria to see the urgency in the need for the repairs of our major roads.
The main aim of the project is to find the relationship between road accidents and death occurrence, using correlation and regression analysis as our statistical tool.
The objectives of the project are:-
- To estimate the extent of linear relationship between death and number of serious and fatal cases of accident.
- To estimate the number of death, occurring per the number of fatal and serious cases of accident.
- To determine a linear mathematical method relating the number of persons killed to the number of fatal and serious cases of accidents.
- To make possible inference on data collection.
- To make some recommendation in order to control the future accidents.
- To know the variation in the value of Y (death) that can be predicted to change in the value of X (road accident)
The scope (i.e. field) of the study of this project covers the relationship between the rate of accidents and that of death rate with particular reference to Osun State of Nigeria. There cannot but some problems in the course of collecting any classified under technical and attitudinal problems.
Technical problems include problems of coverage, time factor and lack of sufficient and competent enumerators. In the project some technical problems faced are:-
In ability to go to every state of the country to collect data. We concentrated our effort in Osun State of FRSC.
Although, this is still a true representative of the problems in other states of the Nation.
Therefore, it is used as our sample of statistical survey. Other problem is time constraint (time in collecting the data is short).
Hence, our reference to Osun State. Also, inability to meet respondents on time, we went to the state office of FRSC on several occasions before we could obtain the data.
Attitudinal problems are the most serious problems we are facing in Nigeria today, some of the attitudinal problems are financial factors.
Economic problems are due to fuel scarcity constitute a great problem as transportation to the source of statistical data was uneasy and expensive.
Finally, the time of the project survey is short and to make any statistical investigation a success, there must be enough time for the easiness of the study.
Statistical data are available in several forms some can be collected through experimentation in which the person that collects the data will have to carry out the experiment and record his observations which will serve as his data. Some could be collected through interviews whether direct, oral or indirect personal interview, which are classified as primary and secondary mode of data collection.
The data used in this project work are collected on daily, monthly and yearly basis in respect of numbers of accidents and number of deaths, number of people injured and number of vehicles involved e.t.c. from federal road safety commission (FESC) in osun state of Nigeria.
In order to provide fruitful information, attempt has been made to give brief historical background of FRSC our source of statistical data.
The Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) was established by decree 45 of 1988, which was later amended by decree of 35 of 1993. It was mandated to do the following function:-
- prevent road traffic accidents.
- Do research on causes of road traffic accidents.
- Patrol all high ways to enforce traffic law and regulations.
- To educate motorists on the uses of the road vehicles registered in Nigeria.
- to enforce off recent the use of safety belt while driving.
- To give services to accident victims.
- Clear obstruction from the highways.
- To arrest anybody that commits road offence and charges him/her to court of law.
- To stop drivers from over loading of people and baggage.
Before the civil war and after it, the engineer corps of the Nigeria Army was carrying out these noble function, but in 1984 during the economic submit in Kenya, it was observed that accidents claim more lifes in Nigeria than the dreaded acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hence the need to establish the FRSC over the years, the FRSC has been able to carry out these responsibilities, thereby reducing road traffic accident on the roads.
The federal road safety commission has achieved a lot especially on the areas of prevention of road traffic accidents. In recent times road traffic accidents has reduced considerably. They also patrol the high ways on daily basis to enforce the rules. They have come out with uniform license for all road users in Nigeria. The federal road safety commission has also been able to bring about the reflecting plate in Nigeria.
The Federal Road Safety Commission has also set up road safety clubs and special marshal to bring about road safety culture to our local areas or grass roots.
The Federal Road Safety Commission has also established hospital in some major high ways in Nigeria; some are along Sagamu, Gbongan, Ijebu-JESA AND Brimu Gwari road. These help areas are used to give rescue/first aid to accident victims. Recently, the FRSC has started campaigning about traveling at night. The campaign is carried out in major motor parks in populace. The FRSC has over the year trained drivers, okada riders, trailer drivers on various techniques of driving. And this has assisted a long way in reducing road traffic accidents on our road.
The FRSC has put in place a lot a lot of programmes on radio and television to educate the motorists on how best to use the roads. These are some of their achievement over the years.
- The higher the rate of accidents the lower the rate of death.
- The higher the encouragement on education on road traffics and establishment of commission the lower the rate of accidents as well as death.
- Statistical Data: – information obtained through numerical data is known as statistical data.
- The Investigator: this is the person or body seeking information for his own or the researchers use.
- The Respondent: this is the person or body that supplies information for research use.
- The Interviewer:- this is the person sent by the investigator (or the investigator himself) to collect the required information from the appropriate quarters.
- Questionnaire: this is the form containing prepared questions to which the respondent is expected to supply answer.
- Population: it consists of object, which may be living or non-living, must be countable and may be finite or infinite. Population is finite when it has a specific and known number and infinite is when the number is too large to be known precisely.
- Highway Code: this is a booklet that contains the rules and regulations of using the roads.
- Sample: this is the point of the population on which further analysis is brought.
- Working Population: this is active population of the country. These are people of working age class.
- Rate: this is the amount, degree of anything in relation to unit of something else.
- Hypothesis: this is a statement about a distribution of a number of random variable intended to correspond to some statement about the real work or it is a statement about a population which we want to verify on the basis of information available from a sample.
- Null Hypothesis: this is the hypothesis we have set for the purpose of rejection.
- Alternative Hypothesis: this is the hypothesis we have set for the purpose of acceptance.
- Literature: this is the previous writing on a particular project.
- Survey: a detailed study made by gathering and analysis information.