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This research is on the impact of religion on tourism and the hospitality industry.
Tourism according to MCINTOSH and Gupta (1977) as any voluntary activity that temporarily takes person away from his or her usual place of residence in order to satisfy a need either for pleasure, excitement, experience or relaxation. Tourism many be seen to consist senses of encounter in which visitors interact with their hosts.
The history of tourism could be traced back to the days when Jesus Christ was born. The birth of Jesus Christ which inside the three wise men to journey, from the east of Jerusalem to king to visit Jesus Christ with different gifts. Mathew chapter 2 (The holy bible), Tourism is said to be God’s own given gift to man, in the sense that any tourist attraction centre is beautiful, thrilling and a marvellous sight to behold which will leave you thinking of God’s great kindness to man.
Religion according to Socrates (a greek philosopher, 1912) is defined as the practise that depicts the belief of people which are of more importance to their everyday life. It controls the laws, how you think and act, what you believe in, value etc. This have led to a dramatic increase in knowledge about their cultures, norms and also the establishment of economic and social histories of progress.
History has it that the stating point of religion was from the tribal band whose religion is amonistic and involved shamans (a medicine man from a similar region) and totems (an object; species, plant, natural phenomenon symbolising a family). Since the group was tribal, there was no permanent sanctuary for worship with cultic rites centre on identification with wild animals and appeasing spirits of the hunted animals.
Hospitality industry, an aspect of Tourism which cannot be overlooked is defined according to “the prospectors act 1956. section 1 (3) as an establishment held our by the proprietors offering foods and drinks if so required sleeping accommodation without special contract to any traveller presenting himself to be in a fit state of mind to be received and is willing and able to pay for the services rendered to him by the establishment. Its history can be traced to the early civilization of the mind 16th century when the Romans built roads between the main cities and towns of the time along which posting houses known as stabuli were set up to provide holding, food drinks. Thus, Every city/town at this time had ale houses which provides only drink which later advanced to the building of what we now call the hospitality industry (hotel).
Therefore, as stated above, tourism religion and hospitality cannot separated from one another which means that the impacts one has on the other cannot be underemphasized.
The background of the study focused on the surrounding the situation i.e. the course of study and how the issues effect the followers of such religion more so, it will focus on the activities at the place of worship, likes for the leaders and some moral acts that encourage people from religions activities. This study help to unveil the impacts that tourism has on religion and hospitality industry.
The study is aimed at find out how to develop tourism globally and also aimed at looking into the various impacts of religion on tourism and hospitality industry.
It is hoped that through this study, tourists would have better understandings of religion and its impact on tourism and hospitality industry as a whole. It is also hoped that through the findings in this study, people (tourists) would see the relevance of Tourism on Religion.
The significance of the study is based on the fact that if findings of the researcher s are well implemented, it will facilitate and improve the development of Religion towards tourism. It is hoped that this study would answer some questions of what impacts religion have on hospitality and tourism industry. The study will also arouse researchers investigate ways of improving Religion Tourism.
These are the problems encountered during the course of engaging on the religion tourism activities. The major problems include insufficient disposable income to partake and enjoy the various religious activities, transportation problems, accommodation and food and beverages services, and the major things that affects tourist from engaging in the religion tourism.
The research work is focused on the religious activities and events that takes place in the “living faith World” (Winners chapel head quarters) located in Idi-iroko, Out, Ogun State Nigeria and will shed more high on those who are religiously inclined and also examine and show the religious practices which have attracted people as part of tourism.
Tourism Religion, Hospitality Industry, Tourist destination, Tourist attractions, Visitor, Tourist.
Tourism: The relationship of phenomenon arising from voluntary travel and stay of an individual away from his/ her usual place of residence to a pre-determined destination in search of pleasure, leisure etc and are not connected with any remunerated activity.
Tourist:- This is an individual that is involved in tourism activities. According to MCINTOSH and Gupta (1999).
Visitor: – Is someone travelling from his place of usual residence to another place, but not primarily for tourism activities but enjoys such activities during his stay. (Unesco definition of tourism 2001).
Tourist Attractions:- These are the physical and natural images or activities that motivates people (tourists) for visit.
Tourist Destinations: – These refer to the places where the tourist attractions are located or sited.
Religion: These are set of rules that are taught which govern one to follow and to worship his/ her creator spiritually.
Hotel (Hospitality Industry): Is an establishment that renders the services of food and drinks, accommodation to people (tourists) who are willing and able to pay for the services rendered to them by the establishment.
DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION OF CREATIVE TOURISM AS A PANACEA FOR ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY IN EKITI STATE
This project is on development and promotion of creative tourism as a panacea for economic sustainability in Ekiti state. Creative Tourism (or culture tourism) is the subset of tourism concerned with a country or region’s culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of those people, their art, architecture, religion(s), and other elements that helped shape their way of life. Creative tourism includes tourism in urban areas, particularly historic or large cities and their creative facilities such as museums and theatres. It can also include tourism in rural areas showcasing the traditions of indigenous creative communities (i.e. festivals, rituals), and their values and lifestyle, as well as niches like industrial tourism and creative tourism. It is generally agreed that creative tourists spend substantially more than standard tourists do. This form of tourism is also becoming generally more popular throughout the world, and a recent OECD report has highlighted the role that creative tourism can play in regional development in different world regions.
Creative tourism has been defined as ‘the movement of persons to creative attractions away from their normal place of residence, with the intention to gather new information and experiences to satisfy their creative needs’. These creative needs can include the solidification of one’s own creative identity, by observing the exotic “other“.
Creative tourism has a long history, and with its roots in the Grand Tour is arguably the original form of tourism. It is also one of the forms of tourism that most policy makers seem to be betting on for the future. The World Tourism Organisation, for example, asserted that creative tourism accounted for 37% of global tourism, and forecast that it would grow at a rate of 15% per year. Such figures are often quoted in studies of the creative tourism market (e.g. Bywater, 1993), but are rarely backed up with empirical research.
A recent study of the creative consumption habits of Europeans (European Commission 2002) indicated that people visited museums and galleries abroad almost as frequently as they did at home. This underlines the growing importance of creative tourism as a source of creative consumption. The generalisation of creative consumption on holiday, however, points to one of the main problems of defining creative tourism. What is the difference between creative visits on holiday (creative tourism) and creative visits undertaken during leisure time at home? Much of the research undertaken by the Association for Leisure and Tourism Education (ATLAS) on the international creative tourism market (Richards 1996; 2001) has in fact underlined the high degree of continuity between consumption of culture at home and on holiday.
In spite of these problems, policy makers, tourist boards and creative attraction managers around the world continue to view creative tourism as an important potential source of tourism growth. There is a general perception that creative tourism is ’good’ tourism that attracts high spending visitors and does little damage to the environment or local culture while contributing a great deal to the economy and support of culture. Other commentators, however, have suggested that creative tourism may do more harm than good, allowing the creative tourist to penetrate sensitive creative environments as the advance guard of the mass tourist.
One type of cultural tourism destination is living cultural areas. Visiting any culture other than one’s own such as traveling to a foreign country. Other destinations include historical sites, modern urban districts, “ethnic pockets” of town, fairs/festivals, theme parks, and natural ecosystems. It has been shown that cultural attractions and events are particularly strong magnets for tourism. The term cultural tourism is used for journeys that include visits to cultural resources, regardless of whether it is tangible or intangible cultural resources, and regardless of the primary motivation. In order to understand properly the concept of cultural tourism, it is necessary to know the definitions of a number terms such as, for example, culture, tourism, cultural economy, cultural and tourism potentials, cultural and tourist offer, and others.
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:
Through valorization of tradition and indigenous values, small historic towns need to attract modern tourist interests and reposition themselves on the turbulent tourism market as distinctive oases of cultural and creative tourism. The affirmation of selective forms of tourism, especially those based on cultural and historical heritage, creativity and innovation, can enable a sustainable creation of attractive contents for both tourists and the local population (quality of life, encouraging entrepreneurial activity, retaining young population, etc.)
The relevance of this research arises from the hypothesis that small historic towns can position themselves on an increasingly demanding tourism market solely on the basis of an indigenous offer and creative tourism in terms of sustainable development.
In developing a creative destination brand, the research relies on the situation analysis. The analysis of the current situation provides a critical overview of small historic towns and their position on the tourism market, pointing to the unfortunate lack of awareness about the possibilities of creative tourism development and the lack of research on the topic. The paper defines the goals of development and the specific concrete ways of innovating strategies in the affirmation of creative tourism in creating the destination brand. Local residents and businesses need to evolve into key creators of a new tourism offer and a new, personalized view of tourists as active co-creators and promoters of an indigenous offer and a unique experience.
Ekiti is a state in western Nigeria, declared a state on 1 October 1996 alongside five others by the military under the dictatorship of General Sani Abacha. The state, carved out of the territory of old Ondo State, covers the former twelve local government areas that made up the Ekiti Zone of old Ondo State. On creation, it had sixteen Local Government Areas (LGAs), having had an additional four carved out of the old ones. Ekiti State is one of the thirty-six states (Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria)) that constitute Nigeria. Ekiti State is reputed to have produced the highest number of professors in Nigeria. Several pioneer academics are from the state, including Adegoke Olubummo (One of the first Nigerian professors in the field of mathematics), Ekundayo Adeyinka Adeyemi (1st Professor of Architecture in Africa, South of Sahara). Others include Profs J.F. Ade-Ajayi, Niyi Osundare,Sam Aluko, Prof A.A. Agboola.
Following a prolonged political crisis, President Olusegun Obasanjo imposed a military administrator (General Tunji Olurin) on Ekiti State in October 2006. On April 27, 2007 Olurin was replaced by Tope Ademiluyi. In the PDP primary of 2006, 1st-place finisher, Yinka Akerele and 2nd place Prof. Adesegun Ojo were supposed to be in a run-off to determine who would be the nominee of the Nigerian ruling party when President Obasanjo summoned them to Abuja and imposed the candidate who came third – Engineer Segun Oni. He was later elected in the 2007 election as the governor of the state in an election marred by widespread irregularities and the AC candidate, Dr. Kayode Fayemi challenged his election and forced a rerun in May 2009.
The May 2009 rerun was characterized by even worse rigging and the election was disputed again. Eventually, after three years, the election of Oni was thrown out and Dr. Kayode Fayemi was declared the duly elected governor of Ekiti State.
Ekiti was an independent state prior to the British conquest. It was one of the many Yoruba states in what is today Nigeria. Ekiti as a nation and districts of Yoruba race had her progeny in Oduduwa, the father and progenitor of Yoruba race. Just like every major sub ethnic division in [Yoruba land]. Ekiti has her origin from Ile-Ife (the cradle land of Yoruba land). The Olofin, one of the sons of the Oduduwa had sixteen (16) children and in the means of searching for the new land to develop, they all journeyed out of Ile-Ife as they walked through the Iwo – Eleru(crave) near Akure and had stop over at a place called Igbo-Aka(forest of termites) closer to Ile-Oluji.
The Olofin, the sixteen children and some other beloved people continued with their journey, but when they got to a particular lovely and flat land, the Owa-Obokun(the monachy of Ijesha land) and Orangun of Ila decided to stay in the present Ijesha and Igomina land of in Osun state. While the remaining fourteen (14) children continued with the journey and later settled in the present day Ekiti land. They discovered that there were many hills in the place and they said in their mother’s language that this is ‘Ile olokiti’ the land of hills. Therefore, the Okiti later blended to Ekiti. So Ekiti derived her name through hills.
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:
Creative tourism formally known as cultural tourism has been seen as another way of creating employment to reduce the steaming number of unemployment in our country today. It is sad to discover today however that the section of the tourism industry which is so promising has reminded unharnessed by the society who haven’t seen or perceived its richness. This research work therefore will attempt to explore its employment opportunity as have been done in Ekiti state in attempt to get the other states in Nigeria to join suit.
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:
The following forms the objectives of the study;
- To explore the employment opportunity in creative tourism using Ekiti state as a case study
- To educate the unemployed youths have creative gift of nature to venture into creative tourism
- To highlight the challenges facing tourism and creative tourism in Nigeria
- To draw the attention of the government towards the challenges facing the tourism industry in attempt to see these challenges challenged.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS:
In attempt to fully comprehend the topic of discussion, the researcher devised some research questions which he believes will generate a better understanding of the topic through an attempt to answer them. The questions include;
- Are there employment opportunities in the creative tourism sector?
- What are the main challenges facing the creative tourism industry?
- In your state, what is the level of creative tourism?
- Is the government of your state supporting the growth of tourism and creative tourism?
- Do you have gift of creativity?
- What is creative tourism?
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:
The following forms the research hypothesis of the study;
HI: Creative tourism is another section of tourism that can create employment opportunities
HO: Creative tourism is another section of the tourism industry that cannot create employment opportunity.
HI: Encouragement of creative tourism can reduce the rate of unemployment among the youths
HO: Encouragement of creative tourism cannot reduce the rate of unemployment among the youths
HI: Encouragement of creative tourism in the state will reduce crime since more jobs will be created
HO: Encouragement of creative tourism in the state will not reduce crime since no employment opportunities will be created.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
It is the belief of the researcher that the government, the students, the unemployed and the tourism industry stands to benefit from this research work.
The government stands to benefit from the work since it will educate them on the need to support the creative tourism industry to grow since more employment opportunities will be created through it thereby reducing crime in the society.
The students will also benefit from the research as they will learn more about the creative tourism and the opportunities imbedded in it. The unemployed according to the research stands to benefit more from this study since most of them have creative gifts. It is the belief of the researcher that if these youths that are unemployed will venture into creative tourism, they won’t have any need again to look for white collar jobs.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
The project work is sectioned into five different chapters. The chapter one covers the basic introduction concerning the topic, chapter two covers the literature review, chapter three covers the research methodology employed by the researcher, chapter four covers the presentations of the findings of chapter three and chapter five covers the summary, conclusion and recommendation of the study
- LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:
During the course of researching the project work, the researcher came across a lot of challenges which in one way or the other delayed the work. The following are the challenges encountered by the researcher;
- Financial constraints
- Limited time for the research work
- Problem sourcing for materials
- Problem of convincing people to fill in the distributed questionnaires.
EVALUATING THE NEED FOR EFFECTIVE POLICIES AS A PANACEA FOR SUSTAINABLE HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM INDUSTRY
This research is on Evaluating the need for effective policies as a panacea for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry. Policy in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry is a national government responsibility. A policy should classify how the Hospitality and Tourism is seen in the context of the national economy, what possible objectives are to be achieved and how it enters into regional and national planning. These objectives could then be translated into quantified targets and rates of growth in the Hospitality and tourism industry.
Okuwa (1993) defined policy as a definite course of method of action selected from among alternatives and in light of given conditions to guide and determine present and future decisions. The Hospitality and Tourism industry constitutes a means of economic development. On this point, it is the primary reason that seeks to develop the industry through definite action on policy.
Thus, the economic development in today’s complex and global business environment is far from being a simple process. It has its unique requirements, impacts and rewards which are to be fulfilled by minimising negative impact with respect to policy (Lewis, 2004).
Policy is concerned with defining the broad and strategies of an action whether public or private, it refers to aim and course of action followed by the government, organisation or individual (Adam, 2000).
However, policies are found in formal statements such as laws, official documents and speeches which embody goals and strategies that a government has adopted with respect to the Hospitality and Tourism Sector. These goals must be formulated in a way that they would agree with broad national interest and complement the specific objective of national state and local government (Hall and Jekins 2001).
Brief history of the Ondo State Tourism Board, Akure.
The Nigerian Tourism Development Corporation Act, Decree 81 of 1992 gives the approval for the constitution of Tourism Board in all states of the Federation. In order to localise the Act, the state House of Assembly enacted an Act to establish a Board of Tourism in Ondo State on the 29th May, 1992.
Between the year 1992 and 1999, this was the military rule regime where tourism was not well pronounced therefore it made the stated decree ineffective for that period. On the 16th September, 1999, a new Board of Directors for the tourism sub sector was inaugurated with a full time General Manager to fulfil its stated objectives but the board hardly achieved any. Only a total of five hundred and eleven thousand, nine hundred and three naira, eighty four kobo (N511, 903.84) was generated during thus period and it did not meaningfully contribute to the educational and social reawakening integration.
General, tourism in Ondo State has not been given its rightful place by past administrations with regards to injection of the required fund as well as formulation and execution of relevant policy and programme.
On the 2nd of September, 2003 the book tiled “Roadmap to Progress” was officially presented to the head of Ministries and Board of parastatals by Governor Olusegun Agagu and the Commissioner of Tourism then was the past honourable Taiwo Bello who served as a guide with which all public servant actualised government policies within the preview of available resources in their respective ministries and parastatals. No such four year calenderised work plan document has even been prepared in the history of Ondo State.
With her array of natural features and cultural assets, highly educated, enlightened and hospitable citizenry, in a secure and peacefully environment and couple with a determination to faithfully execute the programmes in the policy. Ondo State will emerge a preferred tourist destination in Nigeria.
The statement of the problem includes:
- Insufficient machinery needed for effective policy implementation in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry
- Ineffective policy that has been responsible for the static growth of the Hospitality and Tourism Industry.
Political instability in a case whereby a particular government formulate a policy and is not able to implement it. Thus, new Government emerge while the earlier policies that were already formulated are discarded.
- The study is aimed at understanding the various policies guiding the Hospitality and Tourism Industry.
- To understand the roles policies play in the development of the Hospitality and Tourism development in Nigeria
- To understand ways and how policies in the Hospitality and Tourism industry are been formulated.
- To understand how effective policy could serve as a panacea to the Hospitality and Tourism Industry.
The significance of the study is as follows:
- To help examine the significance of policy formulation and its impact in the development and promotion of policy in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry.
- To know how effective policy has contributed and can be used as a perfect tool for the promotion and development of the Hospitality and Tourism Industry.
- To help facilitate the effectiveness of policy as a panacea for sustainable Hospitality and Tourism Industry.
- To know how effective policy has been used to solve problems inhibiting the development of the Hospitality and Tourism Industry.
The Research Questions of the study are as follows:
- Does the extent of policy formulation and implementation affect the Hospitality and Tourism Industry?
- Do you agree if necessary machineries have been set in place for the implementation of Hospitality and Tourisms policy in Nigeria?
- Does government oversee to the implementation of effective policy in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry?
- Do you think there is enough manpower to implement the policy?
- Does the level of funding determine the extent of the implementation of Tourism policy?
The research study will cover Ondo State Tourism Board Akure as a yardstick for evaluating the need for effective policy for the sustainability of the Hospitality and Tourism Industry. It will also highlight the concept and types of policies in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry.
This study is limited to Ondo State Tourism Board Akure for effective research study. It will be limited by time and finance factors which made it impossible for the researcher to get access to more relevant information.
Development: Is a word that has to do with advancement, improvement on change.
Hospitality: This means cordial and generous reception of a disposition towards guests.
Implementation: Implement is the execution of identified and selected planned line of conduct highlighted in the policy formulated to effect the desired change.
Planning: The process of setting goals, developing strategies, outlining tasks and schedules to accomplish the goals.
Policy: A definite course on method of action selected (by government, institution, groups or individual) from among alternatives and in the light of given conditions to guide and usually to determine present and future decisions.
Policy Formulation: In a systematic arrangement of a line up of actions to effect and affect certain plans to change the cause of an already existing activity or targeted at the achievement of specific goals and objectives in organisation scheme of operations whether in the civil service or in the private sector organisation.
Strategy: Strategy is the mode of application of appropriate skills, human and maternal resources.
Sustainability: Pertains to the ability of a destination to maintain the quality of its physical, social, cultural and environmental resources.
Tourism: This is the totality of the relationship and phenomenon arising from travel and stay which does not imply the establishment of permanent interest and not connected with any remunerated activities.
Tourism Policy: Is a statement clearly stated, by which tourism objectives are to be attained.