2021 Biochemistry project topics and materials, research work PDF and DOC (MS WORD) for OND, HND, Degree, masters, PHD undergraduate students in Nigeria

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    The global scenario is now supporting the development of modern drugs from less toxic plant products with proven medicinal properties. Each part of the neem plant Azadirachta indica A. Juss reportedly has various medicinal properties and has been in use in many continents for centuries. In this project work, water extract from Neem leaves Azadirachta indica A Juss with the modern atomic absorption spectrophotometer was presented. The mineral and chemical properties in the water extract of Neem leaf were studied. Results showed that the neem leaf contains some essential minerals needed by the biochemical system. It is obvious that the water extract of Azadirachta indica is significantly high in sodium ion Na and potassium ion K concentrations which are responsible in the conduction of impulses along the axons of the central nervous system. Iron is another element determined. This element is significantly low in the water extract of the sample used neem leaf.



    Neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss is one of the very few trees known in the Indian subcontinent Puri, 1999. This tree belonged to Meliceae family, and grows rapidly in the tropic and semitropic climate. It is also observed that this tree could survive in very dry and arid conditions.Puri, 1999. The Neem Tree is an incredible plant that has been declared the Tree of the 21st century by the United Nations Puri, 1999.In India, it is variously known as Divine Tree, Life giving tree, Natures Drugstore, Village Pharmacy and Panacea for all diseases. It is one of the major components in Ayurvedic medicine, which has been practiced in India since many centuries.

    Extracts from the Neem tree Azadirachta indica A Juss also called Dogonyaro in Nigeria are most consistently recommended in ancient medical texts for gastrointestinal upsets, diarrhoea and intestinal infections, skin ulcers and malaria Schmutterer, 1995. All parts of Neem plant such as leaves, bark, flower, fruit, seed and root have advantages in medical treatment and industrial products. Its leaves can be used as drug for diabetes, eczema and reduce fever. Barks of Neem can be used to make toothbrush and the roots has an ability to heal diseases and against insects. Puri, 1999. The seed of Neem tree has a high concentration of oil. Neem oil is widely used as insecticides, lubricant, drugs for variety of diseases such as diabetes and tuberculosis Puri, 1999; Ragasa et al., 1996.




    Many of the developing countries including African countries like Nigeria practice traditional medicine as its main source of health care. This traditional medicine is normally gotten from plant origin Rehan Ahmad et al, 2008, Stephen bent, 2008.Today nearly 88 percent of the global populations switch to plant derived medicines as their first line of defence for maintaining health and combating diseases Kintzois et al,2006. Presently there are about 60 types of medicinal plants that have been recognised in primary health care and are classified according to their pharmacological actions such as peptic ulcers, anti flatulence, laxative, anti diarrhoea and anti hepaticViomolos et al,2003. However in future the discovery of novel therapeutic agents will be only dependent on plant origin Perulmalsamy et al, 1999.

    Senna tora is an example of traditional medicine with pharmacological actions as anticholesterolemic,antispasmodic,carninitative, emolliants, ophthalmic and purgative Polunin and Stanton,1984,Yeung,1985,Manandhar, 2002. It can be cardiotonic, antiperiodic, anthelminitic and expectorant and can also be used in treating cogh,leprosy ,ring worm ,colic,flatulence,constipation and other disordersNature serve,2007. Senna tora formally regarded as cassia tora is capable of suppressing the production of prostaglandins and other inflammatory agonists such as cytokines, histamine, kinin and free radical.manila,1998 buttressed his observations confirming its use in the treatment of constipation, edema and liver protection in Korea.

    Liver, the largest internal organ of the human body performs more than five hundred functions, all of which are very vital to life. The liver can regenerate or grow back cells that have been destroyed by short term

    injury or disease, but if the liver is damaged repeatedly over a long period of time, it may undergo irreversible changes which permanently interferes with its function.

    Carbon tetrachloride is a toxic substance that interrupts the liver and its functions. This is to say that it damages the liver when ingested.CCL4 is stable in the presence of air and light, it is also inflammable. Despite its toxic effect on the liver, it is useful as grain fumigant ,pesticide etc. Equilibrium of the body fluids and secretions are altered as a result of carbon tetrachloride. For instance lipid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism and biotransformation functions of the liver are terminated or altered in the presence of CCL4.Thus carbon tetrachloride is lethal. The liver produces some enzyme such as aspartate amino transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase,gamma glutamyl transsferase etc which catalyses the biochemical activities of the body, and on the attack of CCL4 to the liver ,these enzymes will not be produced.

    Free radicals are highly reactive compounds with uneven number of electrons in their outermost orbit. This can react with cellular compounds like unsaturated fatty acids and can generate new free radicals which result in irreversible biochemical injury like membrane damage, apotosis and cell necrosis. Antioxidants scavenge free radicals and stop the subsequent reactions hence protecting the macromolecules and cellular environment from toxicity and degeneration Hong B.O. Shao et al, 2008.The oxygen consumption inherent in cell growth leads to the generation of series of reactive oxygen species ROS.The ROS are molecules such as superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicalsOH. ROS may be very damaging attacking the lipids of cell membrane and DNA mutation which may further propagate the propagation of many diseasesValontao et al 2002,Gulcin et al 2003. Reactive oxygen species are continuously produced during normal

    Physiological events and are removed by antioxidants defence mechanism Buyukokuroglu et al,2001. Many results have shown that some of the cassia species have acquired antimicrobial substances and antioxidant activities.


    The aim of this research is to find out hepatoproductive effects of sena tora leave extract on carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity.



    1.0 PREAMBLE


    In our world today, the geometric increase of the population has raised alarming concerns on the food security to sustain the teeming population Sridhar, 2007. The worse hit is developing countries in Africa, especially Nigeria that still lacks the capacity to manage food production tasks arising from the current global warming and other environmental changes. The few food products usually lack adequate proteins, essential fatty acids and vitamins leading to the common form of malnutrition in individuals.

    Interestingly, unconventional legumes are promising in terms of nutrition, provisions of food security, agricultural development and in crop rotation in developing countries Sridhar, 2007. The wild legume varieties have different quantities of protein, carbohydrates, fiber, lipid/fatty acids and minerals.

    Mucuna pruriens var.utilis is a tropical legume of the family Fabaceae and genus Mucuna. Some of its common names are Agbara Igbo, Yerepe Yoruba, Mauritius bean, cow itch, cow hage, Jackbohne German. Velvet bean is an annual perennial, herbaceous, vigorous climbing vine that growso 318cm in height. It is indigenous of the tropical regions especially Africa, India and the West Indies. Its pods are sigmoid, turgid, longitudinally ribbed and always clustered on the stem and the pods are covered with reddishorange hairs that dislodge readily causing intense irritation on the skin. The pods contain seeds that are black or white Siddhuraju, 2000; Leslie, 2005; Sridhar, 2007.

    The oil contents of Mucuna seed may be edible and consist of different fatty acid which is a characteristic identify of most oil seeds. The chemical composition of an oil extract gives a qualitative identification of such oil in selection of areas while it can be applied or utilized despite differences in processing and extraction of the oil Ofoegbu, 2006.

    The aim of this work thus is to extract the oil from the white seeds of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, characterize it and determine the applicability, based on the quantities, in industries such beverage, pharmaceutical and/or soap manufacturing.


    This work was inspired by the need to find alternative sources of good oils for human utilization in industries.


    This work is intended:

    1 To determine the percentage of oil content of white seeds of Mucuna pruriens var.utilis

    2 To determine the moisture contents of the seeds used

    3 To characterize, by obtaining the physiochemical properties of the oil

    4 To suggest possible industry the oil can be utilized based on the results and the information provided in literature on oils.



    Locally brewed beer sorghum beer is an indigenous alcohol average. It is produced mainly from sorghum grain Sorghum vulgare and the process of brewing involves malting, mashing, souring, fermentation and packaging. Locally brewed beer without hops has a short shelflife. The aqueous extract of a tropical plant, bitterleaf was used as the hop .Two type of drink were produced, one with hops and another without hops. Chemical analyses were carried out on both drinks, which gave a significant p0.05 difference. Sorghum beer with hops has a total acidity of 0.5620.03, fixed acidity of 0.2030.001, Volatile acidity 0.3600.02, PH 3.93, specific gravity 1.0420.003, total dissolved solids 1.12105ppm, total suspended solids 1.65105ppm, ethanol content of 3.430.03 respectively. While sorghum beer without hops has a total acidity of 0.652 0.002, fixed acidity of 0.1760.002, volatile acidity of 0.4760.03, PH of 3.50 specific gravity of 1.0210.003, total dissolved solid of 1.15105ppm, total suspended solids of 1.5105ppm and an ethanol content of 3.650.02. The microbial count for sorghum beer with hop had no growth of E.coli, streptococcus and staphylococcus but aspergillus was present from the 4th day and heaviest on the 8th day. While the drink without hop had growth of staphylococcus and aspergillus which was seen from the 2nd day and heaviest on the 4th day but E.coli and streptococcus was absent. From the results, the drink with hops could keep for a longer period of time than the other drink without hops. Thus, the aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina could extend the shelflife of locally brewed sorghum beer.

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