2021 Criminology project topics and materials, research work PDF and DOC (MS WORD) for OND, HND, Degree, masters, PHD undergraduate students in Nigeria

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    This study is focused on the private security companies and crime prevention in Niger State. The study identified methods of providing security needs of Nigerlites during the traditional era and through this, factors that necessitate the establishment of PSCs in Nigeria. This study also evaluate the effectiveness of PSCs in their security functions, it also highlight major constraints of the PSCs in carrying out their functions and project strategies for overcoming their constraints for efficient service delivery especially as it affects PSCs and the police. The hypotheses were tested using chi-square (x2). Hypothesis I revealed that the presence of guards/PSCs has reduced crime in the society which further corroborates hypothesis II that both the guards and subscribers feel satisfied with the services provided by these companies. And Hypothesis III which revealed that trained guards are more effective than those not trained emphasized the need for adequate training of PSCs/guards for the purpose of securing the society.

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    The study was designed to determine prevalence and patterns of Psychoactive Substance use among Senior Secondary School Students in Dala Local Government Area (LGA), Kano State Nigeria. The study adopted a cross sectional descriptive survey design. Simple random sampling procedure was used to select two Secondary Schools out of the ten Government Senior Secondary School in Dala LGA, of Kano State. Both Schools have a combined population of 2293 students made up 1202 boys and 1096 girls. The two Schools sample were Government Secondary School Kurna Asabe for boys and Government Senior Secondary School Kuka bulukiya for girls. The instrument for Data collection was a WHO Youth Drug Survey (WHOYDSQ) adapted questionnaire. The reliability of the instrument was established using a test re-test and computed using Pearson Moment Correlation. Coefficient of 0.82 was obtained. Data generated was subjected to descriptive statistics and analysed using Chi-square. The prevalence of psychoactive substance use among Government Senior Secondary School in Dala LGA, of Kano State shows that majority (91.1%) of the respondents have been using psychoactive substances. The commonest substances used were kola nut (87.4%), tobacco (15%) and cannabis (5.5%). more than half of the users of each of the substances take it occasionally, using them on one to five days in a month except kolanut taken on twenty or more days in a month. They include male (52.9%), female (47.1%). Majority (68.1%) of the respondents were between 18-20 years. Most of the respondents who use psychoactive substances were introduced by their friends (60.6%), family (27.6%) and by nobody (5.7%). Most (27.9%) first use kolanut at the age less than 10 years, alcoholic beverages at the age of 11-12years (25.6%) while others like tobacco, cannabis at 19-and above years (38.3%). Major reasons for using psychoactive substance include to be sociable (25.4%) and for enjoyment (24.4%). There was significant difference (p < 0.05) between Males and females in psychoactive substance use. The pattern of use is dependent on the type of psychoactive substances (p < 0.05). Also the psychoactive substances use based on lifetime use is dependent on the age at first use (p < 0.05). In conclusion the prevalence of substance abuse among Senior Secondary School students is high as such Government, Parents and Teachers needs to joint hands and address the problems.

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  • PORT SECURITY-Threats and VulnerabilitSies


    The main objective of this thesis is to identify the threats and the vulnerabilities concerning Nigeria port, and finally recommend measure to overcome the identified threats and vulÂnerabilities. Various categories of potential threats and vulnerabilities have been studied throughout the literature review. However, because each port presents a unique sets of threats and vulnerabilities, there was a need to look critically into how Nigeria port operaÂtions are being conducted in other to identity the potential threats and vulnerabilities perÂtaining to the said port. This study applied Case Study Approach as a research strategy by using Qualitative research method as a means of exploring and understanding how individual or group ascribe to social or human problem, and also identify new theoretical propositions or managerial actions is needed. The empirical data for this study was collected through primary and secondary sources. With primary source, questionnaire, observation as well as informal discussion were used. Whereas with secondary source, raw data and publish summaries that have been colÂlected by organizations and individual, excluding researchers were used.
    The results of the study revealed the strength and the vulnerabilities within security system at the port of Nigeria. Apart from the strength and weaknesses, potential threats that conÂfront the security systems, were also identified through the result. This thesis provides the recommendation needed to tackle the identified vulnerabilities and threats that are likely to disturb the effectiveness and efficient operating of the security systems.
    In the future, it is important to identify how human factor impact the successful implementaÂtion of port security measures. Further research in this particular area will help reduce the threat that human factor poses to the successful implementation of Port security measures

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    Background of the Study
    The period 1967-1970 is a very remarkable period in the history of Nigeria. During this period, the country witnessed a devastating civil war characterized by unwanted destruction of lives and property.
    The Nigeria Civil War is so significant that the history if this country would be incomplete without a survey of the circumstances that led to the war and the effects it had on the people that fought the war and the neighboring communities. Although Nigeria as a whole witnessed the impact of the war, the people of the Eastern region suffered most because the war was fought in their territory.
    This study is designed to investigate the effects of the Nigerian Civil War on Aboh-Mbaise L.G.A of Imo State, which was torn apart by the cruel war. This prosperous community was ravaged of her progressive and population. While the war lasted, it influenced both men and women by bringing them face to face with the ghastly realities of battle in a town where the sound of gun and other weapons of war were never heard before, it exposed children to hunger and death. The happy days of men and women at work on their own occasion and for their own profit disappeared from millions of people.
    War is always a terrible things, it most often connotes deaths, injury, hunger and suffering. however courteous the soldier may be, by their nature, by their training and orders, they must seek to destroy their enemies. The very events of the recent conflict in Nigeria have inevitably made matters worse than might have been the case.
    The effect of the war on Aboh-Mbaise is a turning point in the history of Nigeria and the then Eastern region and Aboh-Mbaise in particular. It marked a new dispensation in the government of the communities in Aboh-Mbaise.
    Statement of the Problem
    The Nigerian Civil War has come and gone but the stigma has remained. This is because of the negative effects of the war on the economic, social and political life of the people of Aboh mbaise. forty two years after the Civil War, people from other ethnic groups in Nigeria regarded the Igbos as enemies when in actual fact, it should not be so, Instead of looking at the war as a unifying factor, some people still approach it from a secessionist point of view.
    This pre-conserved notion should be changed in order to ensure peace, unity and progress of the country.
    It should be stated here that having officially declared an end to the war on the 10th of January 1970, the Federal Government adopted the slogan ÒNo Victor, No vanquishedÓ. In line with the above slogan, one would have expected the government of the federal Republic of Nigeria to integrate the Igbos as was the case in the United States of America. After the Nigeria Civil War however, certain policies of federal government were deliberatly aimed at discriminating and marginalizing the Igbos.
    This research work by acting as a catalyst would explore areas through which the country would remain together and forge ahead based on equitable distribution of resources, equal participation in governance and equality before the law. It is therefore believed that at the end of this study, peoplesÕ attitude to the war will be inclined towards the appreciation of itÕs positive consequences.
    Purpose of Study
    This study is aimed at investigating the following.
    1. The impact of the Nigerian Civil War on the Socio economic Development of Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area.
    2. The impact of the Nigerian Civil War on the Political Development of Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area.
    3. The Impact of the Nigerian Civil War on the Educational Development of Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area.
    Significance of Study
    This research work would be of immense benefit to the people of Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area as it will help to rediscover their socio-economic, political and educational background.
    Furthermore, the Ministry of Education would benefit from this research work since it offers an opportunity on educational planning and policy making.
    The Federal Government would benefit immensely from this research work as it would provide solutions to the lingering ethnic rivalry and political imbalance plaguing the Nigerian Political System.
    Research Questions
    This research work is focusing on the effect of Nigerian Civil War on Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area of Imo State. In order to achieve the set objectives, the underlisted research questions were formulated to guide the study.
    They are as follows:
    1. To what extent did the Nigerian Civil War affect the Socio economic Development of Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area of Imo State?
    2. To what extent did the Nigerian Civil War affect the Political development of Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area?
    3. To what extent did the Nigerian Civil War affected the educational development of Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area?

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    The purpose of this study is to know the factors that influence the Niger Delta crisis and its implication on Socio-political development of Nigeria. The study continued to evaluate the extent of damages the Niger Delta Crisis lure on political development of the nation. The crisis are a threat to both local and foreign investors. The researcher after various investigation and the researcherÕs findings about the Niger Delta crisis, the researcher concluded that the crisis is as a result of high degree of neglect of the oil exploration areas. The researcher still makes some recommendation of how the problems of Niger Delta crisis can be solved.

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    This research work seeks to reveal the Causes and effects of insecurity in Nigeria and the challenges and relevance of the Nigerian police force as a panacea. It is on this premise that the study bases its emphasis on the Nigerian police force to appraise and ascertain efforts and limitation encountered in providing adequate security to Nigerians. The subject matter is both timely and pivotal in this era when NigeriaÕs image and freedom internationally and locally is deteriorating due to the pervasive insecurity being experienced today. This has bedeviled the Nations march towards socio-economic growth and development. The study however, focuses on the causes and effect of insecurity in Nigeria, factors that have inhibited the Nigerian police force in performing its statutory functions and steps to be made to enhance greater security in Nigeria and to make the Nigeria police force more responsive to her duties. This work also gave a chronological historical antecedent of insecurity in Nigeria. It also delves into the purview of the history, structure, mission and vision of the Nigerian police force. Moreover, the study revealed that the relevance of the Nigerian police force in relation to the security of the country is incapacitated by the inability of the government to address root causes of insecurity and proffer solution to these root causes. This is manifested in the inequality and high rate of poverty currently experienced in the country even in the midst of plenty. The chapters in the study address various aspect of the problem. The revelation and recommendation made in this work will be invaluable and important to the Nigerian police, government, private and corporate organization, as well as, researchers in proffering solution that will boost security in Nigeria.

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    This research project is designed to bring out the importance of audit to the effective working of the organization using First Bank Nigeria Plc Okpara Avenue, Enugu state.
    In pursuant to this, data were collected by personal interview, questionnaires and through researcherÕs observation. Secondary data were collected from journals, publications and related works.
    Also, findings showed that all the strategies for effective working operations are applicable in the case study. It was revealed that because of the laws guiding auditors, the attitude and perception of auditors to effective working operation in my case study was adequate.
    Finally, based on these findings, various recommendations were made amongst which include, that for auditorÕs work to be relied upon by other or for the work of auditors not to be subjected to any loss or damage, they should not accept gifts or packages, have personal relationship with clients and should carry out their duties in compliance with statutory requirements.

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    The crime of kidnapping in Nigeria is becoming so alarming to an extent that no body knows who next to be affected by it. This study looked at the perceived effects, causes, reasons and solution to the problem of kidnapping in Nigeria particularly in Enugu East Senatorial District. It used questionnaire and in-depth interview in its data collection and found that the causative factors of kidnapping are payment of ransom, non cooperation with the police, lack of instruction on moral and too much emphasis on material gains. Therefore it recommends the introduction of youth empowerment programmes by the NGOSÕ and government as the key instrument to its solution. It also recommends that more sophisticated and computerised equipments and ammunitions should be distributed to all state headquarters and area commands in order to detect the hoodlums and combat the advancement of the crime.

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    1.1 Background to the Study
    Man, nations, regions and the world would be severely limited in development without transportation, which is a key factor for physical and economic growth (Oyesiku, 2002). Transportation systems and land use are interdependent. Indeed findings of earlier studies indicate compelling and consistent connections amongst them (Ewing and Cervero, 2001; Polzin, 2004). According to Bailey, Mokhtarian, and Littlel (2008), transportation route is part of distinct development pattern or road network and mostly described by regular street patterns as an indispensable factor of human existence, development and civilization. The route network coupled with increased transport investment result in changed levels of accessibility reflected through Cost Benefit Analysis, savings in travel time, and other benefits. These benefits are noticeable in increased catchment areas for services and facilities like shops, schools, offices, banks, and leisure activities.
    Road networks are observed in terms of its components of accessibility, connectivity, traffic density, level of service, compactness, and density of particular roads. Level of service is a measure by which the quality of service on transportation devices or infrastructure is determined, and it is a holistic approach considering several factors regarded as measures of traffic density and congestion rather than overall speed of the journey (Mannering, Walter, and Scott, 2004).
    Access to major roads provides relative advantages consequent upon which commercial users locate to enjoy the advantages. Modern businesses, industries, trades and general activities depend on transport and transport infrastructure, with movement of goods and services from place to place becoming vital and inseparable aspects of global and urban economic survival. Developments of various transportation modes have become pivotal to physical and economic developments. Such modes include human porterage, railways, ropeways and cableways, pipelines, inland waterways, sea, air, and roads (Said and Shah, 2008).
    According to Oyesiku (2002), urbanization in Nigeria has a long history in its growth and development. Extensive development being a feature of the 19th and 20th centuries, with concentration of economic and administrative decision-making in Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Jos, and Enugu, and high degree of specialization and larger population associated with greater specialization of goods and services. Wyatt (1997) states that urban areas have tendency to develop at nodal points in transport network and places with good road network will possess relative advantage over locations having poor network. Urban locations with such relative advantage are found where different transport routes converge with high degree of compactness, connectivity, density, length and accessibility exhibited within the intra- and inter- urban road networks.
    Ikeja is a typical example in the history of growth and development of cities in Nigeria. The city became capital of Lagos State in 1976 with improved road networks developed to cater for increase in concentration of pedestrian and vehicular movements. Similarly, commercial activities like banking, retail/wholesale businesses, and professional services congregated to take advantage of nearness to seat of governance. Concentration of activities attracted consumers and ancillary service providers. This partly caused increase in demand for commercial space and its concomitant effects on commercial property values along arterial roads in the metropolis.
    The present position concerning commercial properties in Ikeja is that majority are located along arterial roads that deliver much of the vehicular and pedestrian movements. There have been increases in rental values along the individual arterial roads although not at equal rates. It is against this background that this research analyzed the arterial roads, determined the levels of accessibility, connectivity, traffic density of the individual arterial roads, examined the pattern of commercial property values and the relationship between the explanatory variables of the road network in Ikej a Nigeria.
    1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
    The relationship between transportation and urban property values has been the focus of many studies (for example, Dewees, 1976; Damm et al, 1980; Wolf, 1992; Singh, 2005). Some of the earlier studies returned positive relationship between transport and property values while others showed negative relationship. For instance, in a study on the relationship between rail travel cost and residential property values, a replacement of streetcar with subway increased site rent at a location that is perpendicular to the facility within a one-third mile walk to the station (Dewees, 1976); and there was positive influence of permanent transportation improvements on land values (Wolf, 1992). It was established that there was statistically significant relationship between distance of a parcel of land to the nearest Metro station and land price (Damm, Lerner-Lam, and Young, 1980), while there was evidence that residential property prices decrease immediately around the transport investment or station value uplift through changes in land values (Singh, 2005).
    The urban areas all over the world offer a number of advantages in terms of concentration of people followed by demand for commercial properties and transportation. Ikeja is a classical example of a city that has developed rapidly since 1976 when it became the Lagos State capital. Construction of roads increased substantially with the opening up of residential precincts that also benefitted from increasing demand for lettable spaces in commercial properties. Many private companies, retail stores, commercial banks aggregate in the metropolis to take advantage of opportunities afforded by locations near the seat of governance thus attracting complimentary services. This led to high concentration of vehicular and pedestrian movements especially along the access roads.
    The roads exhibit a number of nodes and linkages to form networks of both arterial and minor routes along which commercial properties locate. Commercial users displaced residential users, causing sites to be at highest and best uses with concomitant increases in the values of commercial properties. Accessibility within the road network is affected by the compact nature of various routes that sometimes impede volume of traffic. The road network is made up of nodal points and links that determine the degree of connectivity and accessibility in the network.
    A number of factors affect values of properties. These factors may be intrinsic or extrinsic. The extrinsic factors include increase in demand for lettable space, location, condition of adjoining properties, nearness to park and leisure, local and national economic conditions. External factors are due to natural characteristics of the property which affect the city where the property is located. Intrinsic factors arise from within the nature of the property itself and relate to the physical attributes, including size of room, state of repair, decoration, and facilities. Other attributes that increase or decrease the amount that users are willing and able to pay in an open market transaction include physical characteristics of the structure, change in taste and demand, effect of adjacent activities, economic activities, inflation, and changes in legislation. The demand for commercial properties itself is affected by changes in population, planning and development schemes, legislation, and availability of good road networks (Hendon, 1971; William, Davies, and Johnson, 1980; Richmond, 1982; Millington, 1982; Olayiwola, Adeleye and Oduwaye, 2006).
    Earlier theorists (Burgess, 1925; Hoyt, 1939; Harris and Ullman, 1951; Lean and Goodall, 1977) generally believe that sites adjacent to main transport routes have relative advantages over those located some distance away, and other sites located at route intersections possess relative advantage with greater advantages belonging to sites located at focus of transport system. These advantages are determined in relation to accessibility, which has different characteristics in relation to individual sites thus differentiating between sites in terms of accessibility advantages.
    Many of the aforementioned studies emphasized the effects of the factors on values of properties generally with little consideration given to road network pattern and its effects on values of commercial properties. Possible relationships between road networks, location attribute, demand and supply, and accessibility and commercial property values have therefore elicited the interest of the researcher in this direction. The relationship cannot be determined without due consideration given to the explanatory variables on one hand and commercial property values on the other. The use of roads leads to a study of urban areas in relation to land uses, especially commercial properties. It is against this background that this study was conceived.
    1.3 Research Questions
    1. What are the relationships between commercial property values and arterial road network in the presence or absence of other explanatory variables?
    2. What are the individual contributions of the explanatory variables to variability in commercial property values?
    3. What are the models to explain and predict the relationship between the explanatory variables and commercial property values?
    1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Research
    a. Determine the relationships between commercial property values and road network, in the presence or absence of other variables, in the study area;
    b. Determine the contributions of individual explanatory variables to variability in commercial property values in the study area;
    c. Derive models for predicting variability in commercial property values in relation to the explanatory variables.
    1.5 Scope of the Study
    Preliminary study revealed that there are five types of commercial properties in the study area. These are retail shop premises, banking spaces, office properties, warehouses, and non-specific commercial properties. In respect of this research, focus was on offices, shops, banking spaces and other types of commercial users along the arterial routes to the exclusion of residential, industrial, and non-specific type of commercial properties.
    Due to the magnitude, terrain and complex nature of Lagos State roads, the study was limited to Ikeja intra-city roads. Ikeja is the predominant component of Ikeja Local Government, which itself is one of four zones identified within the larger Lagos metropolis. The four zones (Lagos Island, Apapa, Lagos Mainland, and Ikeja) represent commercial hubs of Lagos metropolis, which as revealed by preliminary observation, shows activity areas where employment, commercial, transportation terminals, and other businesses are concentrated (Oni, 2008).
    Road network analysis was carried out to determine the levels of accessibility and connectivity of nodal points as well as road and traffic densities in the hope of predicting commercial property values along each arterial road. In doing so, only the arterial roads identified as commercial axes in the study area were the focus of the research to the exclusion of secondary connector roads, while the relationship between arterial roads and commercial properties in the study area were examined.
    Many factors have dictated the choice of Ikeja. First, it is the capital of Lagos State of Nigeria and a socially heterogeneous city with variety of local, state and federal government roads. Second, the property market in the study area is well developed and it is possible to identify and analyze variations. Comprehensive data are available on commercial property values in Ikeja, which is one of the few cities in Nigeria offering opportunity for comprehensive survey of its commercial properties, with enlightened occupiers of commercial premises thereby making data collection possible. Third, a number of property magazines are in circulation in the city where professional Estate Surveyors and Valuers advertise commercial properties available for sale or letting. This makes the property market very active and up-to-date with stakeholders, prospective tenants, property owners, and investors versatile and knowledgeable about the goings-on in the market. Fourth, judging from what is applicable in Nigeria, the Ikeja road network is one of the most complex in terms of linkages, human and vehicular movements with availability of computerized and up- to-date data and satellite images of the road network.
    1.6 Limitations of the Study
    The study focused on analysis of arterial roads and commercial property values in Ikeja. It did not attempt to investigate the structural stability of the arterial road network or assess the methods and accuracy of methods adopted by respondents in fixing the values of commercial properties in the study area. It simply analyzed accessibility, connectivity, arterial road network, distance to most central place in the study area, demand and supply of commercial properties in relation to commercial property values in the study area. Graph theoretic technique was used to analyze the arterial road network while opinions of Estate Surveyors and Valuers practicing in the study area were relied upon. The accuracy, or otherwise, of such opinions although not in doubt was not investigated.
    Some challenges were encountered during the study. By virtue of the busy nature of Estate Surveying and Valuation practitioners and ÒcarefulnessÓ of occupiers of the sampled commercial properties, there was considerable reluctance on their parts to volunteer information. Some of the respondents, especially Estate Surveyors and Valuers, delayed in completing the questionnaires and it took personal influence of the researcher (as their colleague) and assistance of the Lagos State Branch Chairman of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers to obtain their eventual impressive responses. In addition, the researcher took time to allay the fears of Occupiers by educating them about the essence of the research, that it would in no way expose them to imposition of levies or charges or any liability to the Lagos State Government.
    The populations of commercial properties and occupiers in the study area were indeterminate. The study population was too large and there was no census available to ascertain them thereby making determination of their number somewhat tasking. The researcher however found a way out of the challenge by using a form of sampling based on estimated population of occupiers and adopting direct observation of the sampled properties to determine the average number of occupiers. These limitations however neither affected the quality of data collected nor the conclusions drawn from it.
    The various opinions of Estate Surveyors and Valuers were relied upon, in some cases, to the exclusion of those of occupiers especially in respect of questions that required a form of professional opinion. This was consequent upon the findings from the pilot tests earlier conducted which showed that the occupiers found such questions too technical. Hence, questions like rating of the roads in the study area in terms of accessibility, supply and demand of commercial properties were subsequently limited to the Estate Surveyors and Valuers.
    1.7 The Study Area
    Ikeja city is a large component of the Lagos metropolis. Lagos itself is the largest city in Nigeria, located at 6¡34’60”N, 3¡19’59”E along the West African coast and was the capital city of the country before it was replaced with Abuja on 12th December, 1991. However, Lagos remains the commercial nerve centre of Nigeria. The city is a typical example in the history of growth and development of urban areas in Nigeria. The Western Region administered the city along with Agege, Mushin, Ikorodu, Epe, and Badagry until Lagos State took off as an administrative entity, and in 1976 Ikeja replaced Lagos Island as the capital of Lagos State; consequently, more roads were constructed.
    In the general context, Lagos State is made up of twenty local government council areas out of which sixteen form the metropolitan Lagos and Ikeja Local Government area is one of them. Ikeja is both the administrative capital and Headquarters of Ikeja Local Government Council Area of Lagos State. Ikeja Local Government Council Area is located in the north-central part sharing boundaries with Ifako-Ijaiye, Agege, and Alimosho Local Government Council Areas in the western perimeter; Kosofe, and Mushin Local Government Council Areas in the eastern side, while Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Council Area forms the boundary in the southern part and Ogun State in the north as shown in Fig. 1.1

    Sources: Map – Bohr (2006)

    Described in terms of its operational structures, Ikeja is divided into seven sectors. Sector One lies in the north-central part of the metropolis and consists mainly of residential neighbourhoods with occasional commercial users of banks and service offices, and Isheri-Agege Road is the only arterial road traversing the Sector. Sector Two is of predominantly industrial concerns around WEMPCO, ACME and Lateef Jakande Roads; Sector Three is almost centrally located in the study area and consists of Oba Akran Avenue, Adeniyi Jones, Aromire Avenue, and Obafemi Awolowo Way that serve as demarcation between Sectors Three and Five. The sector is predominantly residential interspersed by few industrial concerns and commercial outfits that over the years have displaced residential users along the arterial roads.
    Sector Four lies in the eastern part of the study area served by Secretariat Road, Ikosi Road, Oregun Road, 7-up Road and bounded by Lagos/Ibadan Expressway and Ikorodu Road. Sector Five, which is bounded, by Sectors Three, Four and Six consists of Allen Avenue, Opebi Road, Ola Ayeni Street, Toyin Street, Olowu Street, Kodesho Street, Simbiat Abiola Road, Otigba Street and Opebi Link-Road. The sector is characterized by concentration of commercial properties and represents the main commercial sector of the study area (Fig. 1.2).
    Also from Fig. 1.2, Sector Six occupies the southern part of the study area and consists of Government Residential Area (G.R.A), and institutional properties (Army Barracks, Police Barracks, High and Magistrate Courts, Lagos State Administrative Centre, Passport Office and Nigeria Telecommunication Limited). Properties along the major roads in the Sector have undergone a change from residential to commercial use. Roads within the Sector include Mobolaji Bank-Anthony Way, Adekunle Fajuyi Way, Isaac John Street, Oba Akinjobi Street; while Sector Seven which lies at the western part consists of Murtala Muhammed International Airport.

    Source: Lagos State Planning Information Centre, Ikeja

    2.1 Introduction
    In this Chapter, available literature was reviewed along subject matter of the research project, which are arterial road network and commercial property values; the central theme being road transport, accessibility and commercial property values. To address the theme, this Chapter undertakes a review of literature on individual components of the central theme and combinations of such individual components, as basis for developing the researcherÕs ideas on the general concept of the study. The review of literature, in addition, aims at providing detailed account of earlier studies in order to identify the gap that exists in the literature, which the thesis attempted to fill. Literature from extant disciplines such as land economics, transportation management, and regional planning, amongst others found useful for addressing the central themes were studied. Specifically, emphasis was on previous writings on transportation, road network pattern and analysis, intra-urban accessibility, centrality and urban land value, and commercial property value.
    2.2 Road Network Pattern and Analysis
    Road network consists of large number of interwoven roads exhibiting many patterns ranging from star-like to grid-like with irregular patterns becoming recognized (Zang and Lund University, 2004). It consists of large amounts of roads that interweave with each other to exhibit a pattern. Patterns are defined as characteristics and properties found in repeated and regular manner within one object, or between a number of objects with such repetition in the form of shape, density, distribution, linkages, connection or orientation. These occur among the same kind of objects or different kinds of objects or within an object, or between objects repeated with sufficient regularity. Such repeated properties may be shape, orientation, connectedness, density or distribution. The frequency of such patterns enables development of prototypical views of geographical processes (Mackaness and Edwards, 2002).
    The route network is a set of nodes representing spatial locations and displays topological and geometric variations, while topology itself refers to the arrangement and connectivity of nodes and links of a network (Wyatt, 1997). The route network consists of primary and secondary roads known as arterial and minor roads respectively. Arterial roads are moderate or high-capacity roads that are below highway level of service, carrying large volumes of traffic between areas in urban centres and designed for traffic between neighbourhoods. They have intersections with collector and local streets, and commercial areas such as shopping centres, petrol stations and other businesses are located along such roads. In addition, arterial roads link up to expressways and freeways with inter-changes (Wikipedia contributors, 2008).
    According to Aderamo (2003), road network constitutes an important element in urban development as roads provide accessibility required by different land uses and the proper functioning of such urban areas depends on efficient transport network, which is a backbone to their very existence. The analysis of the road network involves the recognition of the patterns and qualities of the roads. Zacks and Tversky (2001) examined the idea of events as objects and argued that patterns themselves are objects bounded in space, organized hierarchically, and recognizable by a set of distinctive qualities. The qualities can be emphasized through the process of abstraction and symbolization, by which pattern is viewed as complexes of primitive objects and relationship between the primitives. This gives the shape, extent, orientation, density, topology and configuration as their intrinsic properties. Topology, according to Xie and Levinson (2006), is an arrangement and connectivity of nodes and links of measuring the spatial structure while configuration refers to collection of objects that comprise the pattern of road networks.
    In computing density, the network indicator approach was used to partition road network into different parts in reasonable way before the roads inside each part were extracted and the density calculated using indirectly related parameters. This results in number of connections to describe density differences in road networks. The parameter records how many roads connect to each road in a network. For two roads with the same length, the ones in the dense area will connect to more roads than that in a sparse area, and the connection differences will indicate the density differences to some extent; this is by number of connections to show the differences in density among a network (Zhang, 2004). According to Inforain online (2008), road density can also be calculated as the total length of all known roads divided by the total land area in a road network.
    Many techniques had earliier been used in analyzing road network patterns (Mackaness and Beard, 1993; Mackaness, 1995; Thomson and Richardson, 1995; Mackaness and Edwards, 2002; Jiang and Claramunt, 2004; and, Jiang and Harrie, 2004) namely, connectivity, shortest path spanning tree, and minimum cost spanning tree from graph theory to facilitate structural analysis and road selection in the road networks. Another approach based on perceptual grouping was equally used to group road segments according to continuation principle by ordering and selecting strokes into which the roads are segmented (Thomson and Richardson, 1995).
    Modern techniques introduced for the explanation of the effects of accessibility on property values range from geographically weighted regression technique, multinomial logit models, to geo-spatial analysis adopting the Geographical Information Systems (GIS). For instance, a study on office rents in Berlin between 1991 and 1997 adopted a regression model to derive residual figure for rent not explained by non-location factors. The residuals were plotted based on the use of GIS and found that the street system is modeled as a network and calculated as accessibility values based on the relationship between individual streets and configuration of the system as a whole (Desyllas, 1998).

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  • investigation into the rate of hospitality growth in Nigeria

    Hospitality growth in Nigeria have become a strand part of many economies of many countries of the world, serving as a backbone upon which service sectors thrive with a backward and forward interconnectivity; wherewith different counties of the world interrelate along same tide (Ayeni and Ebohon, 2012). Wherewith the benefits of hospitality growth are a matter of controversy, it cannot be undermine that hospitality growth provides higher returns on invested capitals; effects to increase agriculture production, and employment; generates foreign exchange, government revenue; finance for infrastructure development, and generally increases citizens welfare, helps capitals flights esp. when associated with overseas trips for holiday and proper overall economic growth (Bankole, 2002:77). The term hospitality growth has been defined differently and some authors choose to define the term with somewhat similarities. It is serious and yet difficult for analysts in the hospitality growth to come to a compromise with regards to a universal definition of hospitality growth. Again, the vague nature of the growth makes it a herculean task in evaluating the investigation into the rate of hospitality growth on the economy when compared to other sectors of the economy (Lickorish and Jenkins, 1999: 1-2). The hospitality subsector ensured the provision of services for individuals, family, group of people, organizations etc., that were away from their homes for a particular period. However, it must be noted that the patterns of rendering services either by restaurants or hospitalitys often vary in the context of specific needs and desires of the guests regardless of the operatorsÕ rendering activities and services. Hospitality was among the oldest of the human professions, which entailed ensuring a guest, client etc., to feel welcome and comfortable. It was further affirmed that it had been in practice before many professions. Well, such statement is debatable. Hospitality goes beyond hospitalitys and restaurants, but could also mean other legalized institutions that specialize in either providing shelter or food, or better still, both services to people as long as it is away from their respective homes. Nigeria have benefited immensely as a result of mutual understanding between the hospitality growth and the financial sector (i.e. banks) to increase revenue to central purse of the governments via their collaborations for economic development. It was apparent that food and shelter remained significant to the livelihood of people and sustenance to the larger society to reduce poverty. For instance, Banks during seminars and conferences make use of hospitalitys, restaurants, resorts etc., during break time, food and drinks were often served by food department of the hospitalitys that is, either directly or indirectly there were more to an existing association between the sectors of interest ( hospitality), which is, funds availability. Despite the increasing trends of globalization, the investigation into the rate of hospitality growth in Nigeria particularly in ebonyi state, has been worrisome even before global financial crunch in the first quarter of 2008 the recent continuous decline in the global crude oil prices; thereby affecting the liquidity performance of the economy, and becoming difficult to channel funds to the hospitality growth, The present recession period being experienced by Nigerian economy has affected all sectors leading to the reduction of the expected profitability trends of hospitality sectors and drastically reducing number of guests visiting the hospitalitys and customers. To have considered some of the functions of hospitality which include; to accumulate surplus funds and make it available to
    deficit sectors of the economy, thereby making profits via strong lending
    and borrowing patterns. Therefore, the smaller the size of the financial institutions, the smaller is the returns and expenditure vice versa. Severally, were always directed to ensure a stable capital in order to absorb operational exposures or unexpected shocks, to achieve profit and consequently minimize risks and losses so as to achieve national economic growth. However, with the help of provision of finance / funds in Nigeria (financial intermediation roles) in ebonyi state, a simple hospitality business could become a conglomerate where it could specialize in the provision of food service operations in different areas such as recreation centers, sports stadiums, primary and secondary schools (e.g. free meal for primary
    school pupils by federal government), university campuses, either individual or group home services, convention centers etc., with liberality and good will.

    1.2 Statement of Problems
    Hospitality account for a large proportion of individual (quest in this country and are faced with numerous problem. These problems under the growth and development of hospitality in Nigeria. Thereby limiting their potential contributions to the growth of nigeria economy. However, the hospitality industries have many roles the play in the economic growth of less development country like Nigeria of course they remain important in the economyÕs the problems of hospitality growth are lack of fund by the proprietors and the difficulty the encounter in raising funds. Due to limited capital at their disposal and high interest rate f banks, they find it less attractive going to the banks for loan the level of education of most hospitality proprietors implses difficulty in managerial in capacity many even go hospitality business without easy training in the area lack of technology and operation problems confronting hospitality growth makes it difficult for them to grow:
    1. The researcher should take the problems facing investigation into the rate of hospitality growth in Nigeria, in the area of maintaining good management.
    2. How can hospitality are encouraged to improve their activities in Nigeria
    3. To investigate in what ways Nigeria could overcome the obstacles of political and economic isolation, institutional governance and personalized political structures in relation to its investigation into the rate of ospitality growth.
    A good management of Nigerian hospitalities can enormously result in the improved rate of hospitality growth in nigeria.
    Objective of the study
    The main objective is to examine the investigation into the rate of hospitality growth in Nigeria: issues and challenges. The specific objectives include;
    ¥ To determine the contribution of banking sector to the growth of hospitality in Nigeria.
    ¥ To identify the challenges facing the investigation into the rate of hospitality growth in Nigeria.
    ¥ To examine the challenges facing the hospitality growth Nigeria.
    ¥ To determine the contemporary issues in hospitality growth in Nigeria.

    Research Question
    The under listed questions required answers in the course of the study;
    ¥ Can the banking sector contribute to the development of hospitality growth in Nigeria?
    ¥ What are the challenges faced by hospitality growth in Nigeria?
    ¥ What are the challenges faced by hospitality growth in Nigeria
    ¥ What are the contemporary issues in the hospitality growth?

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    Since Nigeria got her independence from Britain in 1960, the countryÕs political structural arrangement has been under one central government called Federal Government (via a Federal Republic) and was blessed with unquantifiable natural, human and material resources. In spite of that, the average NigerianÕs income per capita does not give the real picture due to the high income inequalities in the country. As majority of Nigerians are living in abject poverty, particularly in the Northeastern area. However, under the Federal system arrangement, instead of having a smooth level of interaction among individual ethnic groups, cultures, traditions and religions, there thrives a persistent lack of trust among Nigerians due to fear of domination, marginalization, control and intolerance. This ugly development led to the acquisition of fire arms among ethnic, political, religious and social militia groups. Similarly, with the return of the country to democratic rule, the situation has worsened with the politicians prosecuting their political ambitions. Furthermore, the situation also became more terrible when these groups started fighting government and its agencies. As a result, many people were killed while millions of people were displaced and properties worth millions of naira were also destroyed more especially in the North-east and north central areas. The insecurity situation in the country was alleged to have been attributed to some factors. Among this include poor government policies, corruption, poverty, unemployment, poor leadership, weak judiciary system etc. Consequently, this affected the region economically, socially, politically etc. Finally, recommendations were made and that Government should improve standard of living of the people through the creation of more entrepreneurship centers across the country more especially in the North and North-east in particular. Also, government should intensify more effort in fighting against corruption and this can be done through good legislation and stiff penalties for those found wanting.

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    In the early traditional Nigeria society, human sacrifice perpetuated kidnapping. Ugwuoke (2010: 197) rightly asserts that individuals were kidnapped for ritual or social reasons. The African traditional worshipers solely believed in sacrificing to appease the gods. The sacrifice may transcend animal sacrifice, and the priest could be inspired by the gods to order for human beings; to accomplish this kind of sacrifice, the required person could be kidnapped and killed in a sacrificial procedure. Ugwuoke explained that insecurity and kidnappingwas mainly for the purpose of sacrifice either to appease the gods or for the burial of a prominent chief or warrior. Precisely, to carry out a successful burial of important citizen like chiefs and prominent warriors required human head. Hence, warriors engaged themselves in search of victims to be kidnapped. Besides Nwadiorah and Nkwocha (2011: 3) observed that the act of insecurity and kidnappingincreased in Nigeria after the Nigerian civil was in 1970 which exposed many youths with military experience to some criminality. The above account reveals that insecurity and kidnappingis very old in the history of man as it is also recorded in section 364 of the Nigeria Criminal Code.
    Though insecurity and kidnappingis not new, and has been in Nigeria criminal statues, ransom insecurity and kidnappingis a new trend and was not known in Nigeria until recently. Moreover it was obvious in 2006 when it was announced that foreign oil workers were kidnapped (Inyang, 2009). However, those expatriates were released after paying huge ransom in millions of naira. Since then, insecurity and kidnappingfor ransom has spread to most parts of Nigerian states and Imo state Senatorial District is also affected by it. Many people have been kidnapped and only released after the payment of ransom while in some cases dead bodies were recovered. Igwe Uche Nwaechime, the proprietor of Mac Royale Hotels ltd, from Nkanu West Local Government , Enugu State was kidnapped and slaughtered by the kidnappers. His body was found by a search party at a refuse dump site on the Enugu Port Harcourt express way (Ugwulebo, 2011). Dr. Paul Edemobi, the proprietor Paul and Grace Foundation and brother to Prof. Dora Akuyili, was kidnapped in Enugu on Monday 1st December 2008 from his 10B Savage Cresent GRA Enugu (Ojukwu, 2011). The wife of Sam Ngene, the then Chairman of Enugu South Local Government Area was kidnapped on March 2009. Also, Nkem Owoh, the popular Nollywood actor was kidnapped along Enugu-Port Harcourt express way (Ugwulebo, 2011). Payment of ransom, tragic recovery of dead bodies and other facts and events as a result of insecurity and kidnappingshapes peoples perception of the crime. Furthermore, Anosike (2009) stated that the incidence of insecurity and kidnappingis a common occurrence in the eastern states. Anosike also noted that states ranging from Abia to Anambra and Enugu were greatly alarmed by the wave of kidnapping.
    However, in 2009, rebranding project was frantically directed towards redeeming the image of Nigeria due to the fact that most countries of the world and Nigerians themselves perceive Nigerians negatively (Dieye and Iwele, 2011: 78). Incidentally, in that same 2009 there was rise in insecurity and kidnappingas available statistics shows that there was 512 incidence of insecurity and kidnappingin 2009 against 353 in 2008 (Ojukwu, 2011: 380). Ojukwu also noted that the ambassador of the rebranding Nigeria project, Pete Edochie was kidnapped in Onitsha on his way to his home town- Nteje. Since then, insecurity and kidnappinghas drastically affected the countryÕs image and major businesses in the country.
    Furthermore, insecurity and kidnappingfor ransom posses serious threat to the well ordering and functioning of the society and many factors were perceived as its causes. In Nigeria, such factors include corruption among the Nigeria Police Force (Adibe, 2009), unemployment, poverty and leadership failure (Diara, 2010), failure of the government to provide basic amenities and the use of cult gangs and militants by politicians in electoral processes (Okengwu, 2011: 1), access to large quantities of small arms and light weapons (International
    Crisis Group, 2006 as cited in Iduh, 2011: 126). This study will lay emphasis on the perception of people in Imo state Senatorial District concerning insecurity and kidnappingin Nigeria. There is no doubt that insecurity and kidnappingin Nigeria is in part, a syndrome from many parts of the world- Iraq, the Philippines, Afghanistan, India, Russia, Palestinian Territory, Mexico, Nepal and American (Abati, 2009). Episodes of ransom insecurity and kidnappingin the annals of American history include the case of four year old Charlie Ross in 1874 (Cyntrax, Wilson and Wilson as cited in Ugwuoke, 2010 :197) and Lindbergh case in 1932 ( Allison, 2000: 110). In the LindberghÕs case, LindberghÕs child was the centre of a plot, the suffering of the childÕs parents, and the difficulties of the police enquiry, were exacerbated by widespread speculation, misinformation and serial random notes (Alexander and Klein 2009: 16). Alexander and Klein further noted that in the 17th century, children were stolen from their families and exported to North American colonies as servants and labourers, hence, ÔkidÕ meaning ÔchildÕ and ÔnapÕ or ÔnabÕ meaning Ôto snatchÕ. Insecurity and kidnappingwas therefore connected to the staling of children but the word has come to be used interchangeably with both children and adults. Nevertheless, past account of insecurity and kidnappingrevealed that death penalty was ordered as a punishment for insecurity and kidnappingin ancient Rome when the Emperor Constantine (AD 315) became so alarmed by the incidence of the crime (Akpan, 2010: 33).
    However, the early African societies were marked with the incidence of slave trade. In this vein, Ugwu (2010 : 2)., asserted that the weak and the poor were captured and sold into slavery. Ugwulebo (2011: 26) noted that during the colonial era, the colonialists came to some parts of the world, such as Africa, took their able bodied men and women and sold them to far away nations who needed human labour for their plantation and other services. (Onimode as cited in Ugwulebo, 2011: 26-27) had noted that gun powder, gin, mm and other materials were offered by the Europeans to the Africans in exchange for slaves shipped
    annually from ports in Nigeria. Therefore, slavery and insecurity and kidnappingwere like two sides of a coin.


    Meanwhile in order to ameliorate the problem of kidnapping, the Nigerian government granted amnesty and an unconditional pardon to militants in the Niger Delta (Ogege, 2009: 148). Despite governmentsÕ efforts, insecurity and kidnappingfor ransom increased in its spread to most Nigerian states. In response to massive challenges to security, Anosike (2009) noted that the executive councils of most Nigerian states convened at the state government houses countless number of times to devise means of solving the problem. However, at one of the meetings, governors of Abia, Anambra and Akwa Ibom, insisted that modern security equipments should be deployed in high crime areas, in order to combat insecurity and kidnapping(Guardian, July 25, 2010 p 16). At a meeting of the South East governors in Enugu, they resolved to tackle the trend by seizing the property of people that allow it to be used as operation base by kidnappers (Guardian, July 27, 2010 p 51). The House of Representatives
    Insecurity and kidnappingin Nigeria is a very serious contemporary social problem which was noted by Iduh (2011: 125) as the outcome of decades of peaceful protests in the Niger – Delta region. Insecurity and kidnappingfirst attracted national attention on 20th February 2006 when Niger – Delta militants kidnapped foreign oil workers to press their demand (Nwadiorah and Nkwocha, 2011). Since then, many Nigerians have been kidnapped and only released on huge ransom whose re-payment they may not be able to make for the rest of their lives (Oshio, 2009: 13). The statistics of insecurity and kidnappingby the Distress Call Base (DBC, Anti-Insecurity and kidnappingSquad Enugu, 2012) show that from January to December 2009, there were nine reported cases of kidnapping, eight victims of kidnapping, five victims of insecurity and kidnappingrescued, one victim killed and twenty two arrested kidnappers. Furthermore in 2010, there were twenty six reported cases against nine cases in 2009, twelve kidnapped victims against eight in 2009, eleven rescued victims against five in 2009 and thirty eight arrested kidnappers against twenty-two in 2009. Also in 2011 the data reveal rise in insecurity and kidnappingas there were forty six reported cases of kidnapping, fifty eight kidnap victims, fifty five rescued victims, one victim killed and one hundred and thirty six kidnappers arrested. In three months from January to March 2012, there were five reported cases of kidnapping, six kidnap victims, five rescued victims and six kidnappers arrested.
    in addition, proposed death penalty for kidnappers (Guardian, September 22, 2010 p 3). In spite of all these efforts, the crime of insecurity and kidnappinghas remained unabated.
    However, seeking to know shy insecurity and kidnappingbecame a serious problem in Nigeria at the time authorities were talking about rebranding the county positively is essential. Contries like Singapore, Malaysia and Ghana have rebranded without even altering a word; but rebranding of Nigeria with all the seminars and Symposia held in London, New York and other western capitals failed (Guardian, July 17, 2010 p46). Nwora (2006:17) argued that Nigeria should focus on socio economic reforms and putting her house in order, after which she could then open her door to the rest of the world. It is also noted by Dieye and Iwele (2011 : 78) that the relative decay and fast degradation of the standard of values and moral character formation that has defamed the Nigerian image demands an urgent attention. It had also been noted that perceptional management would have been a useful tool in rebranding project if it was effectively managed (Guardian, July 17, 2010 p46). Therefore the problem of insecurity and kidnappinghas not been solved because there is the need for perceptional management (i.e, finding peoplesÕ attitude viewpoint and approach towards the causes, reasons and methods of tackling a problem with the aim of using it to control the rise of such of problem) in Nigeria. Meanwhile in order to realize public perception by getting the negative as well as positive answers from the public with questions directed towards such answers and manage it effectively a study of public perception on insecurity and kidnappingis important. The above necessitates the interest in this study. This study will therefore examine peoplesÕ perception on issues of insecurity and kidnappingin Imo state Senatorial District.
    The following questions will guide this study;
    1. What is the relationship between gender and perception on insecurity and kidnappingamong the people in Imo state Senatorial District?
    2. Does place of residence influence the perception on insecurity and kidnappingamong the people in Imo state Senatorial District?
    3. Does age influence the perception on insecurity and kidnappingamong the people in Imo state Senatorial District?
    4. What is the relationship between occupation and perception on insecurity and kidnappingamong the people in Imo state Senatorial District?
    5. Does the level of education of people in Imo state Senatorial District influence their perception about kidnapping?
    6. What are the probable strategies that can help to reduce the incidence of insecurity and kidnappingin Imo state Senatorial District?
    The main objective of this study is to ascertain the perceptions of the people in Imo state Senatorial District on insecurity and kidnappingin Nigeria, from which the following specific objectives were drawn.
    1. Senatorial District concerning kidnapping.
    2. To find out the relationship between occupation and perception on insecurity and kidnappingin Imo state Senatorial District.
    3. To ascertain if the perception of the people in Imo state Senatorial District concerning insecurity and kidnappingis influenced by their level of education.
    4. To suggest probable strategies that can help to reduce the incidence of insecurity and kidnappingImo state Senatorial District.
    This study has also practical significance especially with reference to policy making. It will multivalve policy makers to make policies that will discourage insecurity and kidnappingand improve the well being of citizens. It will also enlighten the general public about the causes and trend of insecurity and kidnappingin Imo state Senatorial District in particular and Nigeria at large. This study is also expected to be beneficial to law makers, law enforcement agents and government officials. It will also necessitate decision making for improvement of the standard of living of the citizens. The findings of this study will be useful to other agencies and organizations interested in the issue of insecurity and kidnappingin Nigeria.
    Adulthood – This is the number of years for single and married male and female, based on young and old age, which is from eighteen to sixty years. In this study, it is divided into younger and older adults.
    Educated – This is high standard of educational qualification in terms of degree and above. Those who are educated are seen as graduates with or without other qualifications. Insecurity and kidnapping- This is a violent crime that is often perpetuated by taking the victim away by force and for the purpose of gaining ransom.
    Little education – This is educational qualification in terms of junior secondary
    school which is JSS3, primary school and no formal education.
    Older adults – These are people that are aged, who may as well be classified as more
    mature in reasoning, aged 40 years and above.
    Place of residence – In this study place of residence is seen as housing areas in the
    rural and urban region.
    Public perception – In this study, public perception is seen as the views of people
    concerning the incidence of kidnapping. That is the interpretation given to the incidence of insecurity and kidnappingby different individuals.
    Urbanization – Urbanization in this study is a process whereby young adults migrate
    from the rural to the urban areas in search of greener pasture.
    Younger adults – These are the people whose ages fall within the range of
    eighteen years to thirty nine years. They are as well within the youthful ages.

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