A critical analysis of negotiation as a vital tool for effective buying in a construction company


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The research topic is a critical analysis of negotiation as a vital tool for effective buying in a construction company, a case study of Bulletin Construction Company, Ilorin, Kwara State. The research is divided into five chapters. Chapter one contains introduction stage, historical background, statement of the problem, scope of the study, limitation and constraints, setting of hypothesis and definition of terms. Chapter two contains review of various related literature by different authors and the research and development, processes of negotiation and objectives.  Chapter three deals with research study, the instrument or tools that were used for collecting data, research population and sample size, sampling procedure employed and statistical method sued in analyzing the data.  Chapter four contains presentations of data and its analysis, and the proof of hypothesis. Chapter five contains summary of findings, conclusion, and recommendations.


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DescriptionABSTRACT Green procurement refers to acquisition of product and service with smaller ? than ? average environmental footprint. The study analyzed the factors that affect green procurement implementation in the manufacturing industry in Nigeria, A case study of Nigeria Distilleries Limited based on the following variables; organization green capacity; cost of green product; organization green incentives and pressure and green supply capacity. The target population of the study was official in NDL who are directly involved in the procurement function. Random Cluster Sampling method was employed to select a representative sampling which yield to members of the staff from the population of 460. Semi-structured questionnaire were administered, data was analyzed using frequency and regression in SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Information was presented in tables and graphs. The study found out that organizations green capacity, incentives and pressures on the main determinant of green procurement implementation at NDL. The other factors studied cost of product and green supply capacity were not found to significant. This result is an indication that the success of green procurement implementation relied heavily on enhancing the internal capacity of the organization. The findings confirmed study by earlier researchers in the subject while at the same time contradicted others. A number of managerial and policy implementation can be derived from this study. First, whereas some progress has been made in NDL to streamline green procurement, there remains much to be done to take implementation of green procurement to the next level. The research also point to the strong need for public for institution to rely awareness competence and knowledge of its personnel.ABSTRACT This research work was centered on the topic ?the role of transportation on Nigerian Economic Activities. A case study of Ibarapa East Local Government Area, Eruwa. The project is divided into five chapters. Chapter one focused on the introduction of the aspect of the project. To and the study, the researcher formulated the following research question; does road transportation have significant impact on Nigeria economic activities, does road transportation contribute to poverty reduction in the country, does road development adds value and spurs growth during the timeof mailing goods and services, does road transportation have significant relationship on increase in purchasing and supply of goods. Chapter two reflected the review of concepts and issues that are related to the topic i.e ?role of transportation on Nigeria economic activities. Chapter three focused on the explanation of the method used by the researcher. In this research, descriptive survey method was used as a research design, it consists of two variables, the dependent and independent variable. One hundred (100) questionnaires was used to collect data. The residents of Ibarapa East Local Government Area, Eruwa are the research population, 100 respondents were selected though Random Sampling, descriptive statistics (tables and simple percentage) and graphical tables are employed as methods of data analysis. Chapter four was all about presentation, analysis and interpretation of research as well as data that were used in testing of research questions formulated for the study. Chapter five discuss the summary of findings which are as follows; Good transportation system increase purchase and supply of goods and services, There is significant effect impact of road transportation on Nigeria economic activities. Based on the findings, the researcher makes the following recommendations; Policy maker in Nigeria need to develop strategies towards achieving a more efficient transport system, government should improve the conditions of the road to promote safe driving, speed breakers must be present to accident prone areas in order to improve safety conditionsABSTRACT E ? Procurement is more than just a system for making purchase online. Some companies implement eª ? procurement and succeed while others fail. This study was carried out on the critical factors that influence eª ? procurement implementation success in the private sectors. The study three objectives: to find out the level of the implementation of eª ? procurement, to establish the factor, influencing implementation of eª ? procurement, and suppliers on implementation of eª ? procurement in the private sectors. The population consisted of all the Go staff of Ibadan Electricity distribution company. Chapter two, the series of literature we receive help to know what the authors have said about the critical factors that influence eª ? procurement were viewed. Chapter three and four deal with research methodology and data presentation and Analysis respectively. Questionnaire was used to collect the primary data and researcher employed the use of table and simple percentage for the use of presentation and analysis. The summary of our findings recommendation and conclusion were done in chapter five.
The research topic is a critical analysis of negotiation as a vital tool for effective buying in a construction company, a case study of Bulletin Construction Company, Ilorin, Kwara State. The research is divided into five chapters. Chapter one contains introduction stage, historical background, statement of the problem, scope of the study, limitation and constraints, setting of hypothesis and definition of terms. Chapter two contains review of various related literature by different authors and the research and development, processes of negotiation and objectives.  Chapter three deals with research study, the instrument or tools that were used for collecting data, research population and sample size, sampling procedure employed and statistical method sued in analyzing the data.  Chapter four contains presentations of data and its analysis, and the proof of hypothesis. Chapter five contains summary of findings, conclusion, and recommendations.
CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION In every business organization which are profit oriented enterprises international trade originated when nations exchanged products for other which they could not produce themselves or which could only be produce at exorbitant cost at home, it differs from internal trade in a number of ways. For instance, greater risks are involved when a firm has to estimate the size of a market where the people have customs, habits and tastes differing markedly from those of its usual customs. Different languages, currencies and methods of conducting business are some of the other complications. In addition, legal restrictions and the reluctance to move are two of the reasons why capital and labour movements are less frequent when political frontiers are involved. Within the limits set by the opportunity cost ratios, the manner of sharing the gains from specialization and trade between the two countries depends on conditions of supply and demand on a world level, the actual rate at which a nation?s goods exchanged for those of other countries is called the ?Terms of trade? Each nation?s record of its transactions with other countries known as the balance of payments. Since 1970 two abroad classification used in presenting the British balance of payment have been. a. Current account and b. Investment and other capital flows. The current account is split into visible and invisible items. Visible trade refers to the export and import of goods and the different between the values of these two amounts is known as the balance of trade. Normally Britain has a deficit here, imports exceeding export but in 1970 there these was a small surplus of $3 billion ?invisible items refers to the import and export of services. Britain provides financial services for other countries such as banking and insurance and shipping facilities for carrying their goals, and also offers tourist amenities. Also included is the return or earnings on investments abroad exceed sums invested by foreigners here, there is not gain to the balance of payments on this item. There is a net debit under government items, Due to Government grants to developing countries under aid programme, military expenditure aboard, etc. over all, through; Britain does well on ?invisibles? with a net gain being made. Under the heading ?investments and other capital flows? are included various flows of capital, many of which were once included as monetary movements in the balance of payments examples are public sector or Government lending or borrowing overseas on long-term basis, and overseas investment in the U.K. private sectors and British Private investment abroad. This could take the form the purchase of foreign stocks and shares, or the starting of business abroad some of these funds may be liquid assets, such as banks deposits of overseas holders, which can be withdrawn at short note. 1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study is designed to verify: 1. How marketing will require that payment have to be made. 2. The study also examines the effect of how to make payment for goods supplied to a Nigerian importer. 3. Would goods supplied of how to make payments affects the sales volume of fan milk Plc, Eleyele, Ibadan. 1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH The objective of the research of this study is to verify to which extent does how to make payment for goods supplied to a Nigerian importers affect the choice of consumer while making a purchase to verify the possible tools which could used in attracting the attention of the consumers towards the purchases which he/she might want to make. Our research is designed mainly to study and analyze the effectiveness of promoting sales taking Fan Milk Plc. As our case study with the hope that the knowledge could be of immense contribution to the company is solving on how to make payments for goods supplied. This study is designed to find out the following: How to make payment for goods supplied to a Nigerian importer. 1.3 RATIONALE OF THE STUDY This research work will actually reveal the investigating to obtain an effective and reliable logical basis for this project. In view of this both secondary and Primary source of data will be used in the course of this project primary source provide information for accuracy and realistic of information two methods shall be adopted in collecting data from this source. 1. Personal interview 2. Questionnaire The primary source provides personal interaction between the research and objective of the Research where by providing opportunity to ask and request for necessary information of data. 1.4 SCOPE OF RESEARCH This study is limited to How to make payment for goods supplies to a Nigerian importer. And, this is limited to the techniques of the Fan Milk Plc Eleyele, Ibadan. The study will cover so many techniques tools that are combined to design every business organization that as given by many authors, particularly in Fan Milk Plc, Eleyele Ibadan. 1.5 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF FANMILK PLC The Nigeria Fan Milk Plc was incorporated in November 1961, and the diary plant went into production on the 3rd of June, 1963. The first directors of the company were Erik Emborg, Chairman and founding member, Fredrick Clark, William Hardy, Lars Skensued and Chief B. Olufemi Olusola. The initial share capital was N50,000, of which Nigerian investors held 10%. The name of Fan Milk and the Fan Milk Logo exclusively made available by Eric Emborg Daing Technique. Denmark was carefully chosen to associate the nutritious Fan Milk products with their cool refreshment valve. The company started with a modest dairy plant located at the Eleyele industrial layout, Ibadan but in spite of its modest size, equipped with the most modern equipment on the market at that time, the original range of diary products produced was limited to plan full cream milk and chocolate flavored milk both product filled and packed in the revolutionary and the first company to introduce in west Africa. It took some years for the company?s product to penetrate into Nigerian market. During this initial difficult period Erik Embony Diary Technique always had faith in Fan milk and assisted with financial as well as managerial assistance in the late sixties, fan milk gradually expanded the product range with yogurts, cottage choose and frozen flavoured Lollies; the latter packs in a special design of Tetra pack becomes extremely popular all over Nigeria. Another technique put in place was the exploitation of the market on a nation wide has entailing the establishment of a dairy plant in the North and the East and expanding of existing dairy plant and facilities in Ibadan. In order to provide the basis for this increase in activities, the share capital of the company was increased substantially and by 1979 the ownership of fan milk has changed to 6% Nigeria investors and with a paid up capital of N7,250,000. in acknowledgement of the enthusiastic shown by the Nigerians, Mr. E. Embomy expressed his wish to hand over the chairmanship to a Nigerian, named chief O.I. Akinkugbe, who had already served the board for a number of years, accepted the appointment as chairman of the board of directors, a position, which later taken over after many years by chief Oba Otudeko currently the share-holders chairman. Fan Milk utilizes fully the capacity of the diary plants in Ibadan and Kano from the two dairy plants, a fleet of refrigerated trucks delivers the product to 51 distribution centers and more than 70 depots throughout Nigeria from these centers, some 1400 bicycles vendors bring the products to the consumers. Today, Fan Milk has a total staff of approximately 700. Fan milk is today known throughout Nigeria for its range of high quality products future plants to enhance this position include continue development and implementation of improved production methods and marketing initiatives. Fan Milk?s own research department is constantly investigating the possibilities for utilization of local raw-materials they have found that Soya milk is a product, which deserve close attention already completed, is the identification of suitable soya beans and the necessary harvesting and storage methods. Research is undertaken by the company?s own research team and supported by its technical partriers (Fan Milk, 1993). 1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY Judging from the fact that the promotion applied to various establishment all over the country it is never easier considering the time which the project is require to submitted and the financial constrain of going to all the establishment, the relevant to research materials and uncooperative attitude of the respondents are the limitations of the study. Therefore, the researcher has decided to limit the only few available facts and materials to case study Fan Milk Plc, Eleyele, Ibadan.CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 1.1 Introduction Over the years, several projects have been initiated and implemented with the intention of bringing development to rural communities. Most of these projects are not able to achieve their intended objective of bringing development to these rural poor. It can therefore be assumed that these projects lack something that needs to fuel the development. According to the World Congress on Communication for Development (WCCD) (2006), the key to success in development initiatives is to start with the participatory analysis of the needs of local institutions and stakeholders, taking into account local culture and values, and promoting a concerted action for the development. Participatory analysis of needs of the beneficiaries can best be done with the help of communication. Communication and development has been viewed as closely intertwined phenomena, where one is believed to guarantee the other (Servaes, 2008). Communication can be a vital component of initiatives that involve voluntary behavior and change thus communication becomes important in playing advocacy role by listening, gathering data and informing. Again, communication can be used to persuade and train people through social mobilization and to help change behaviors by educating and managing change where people have options to change their ways of life (Servaes, 2008). People?s participation is sine qua non for development (Mohammad, 2010), and as Masilela the deputy Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Research of the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) puts it, ?if peasants do not control or share control of the processes of their own development, there can be no guarantee that it is their interest that is being served? (Ascroft and Masilela, 1994). Modern development scholars such as Robert Chambers have been advocating people's inclusion in development projects as they believe the stated objectives of any project cannot be fully achieved unless people meaningfully participate in it (Mefalopulos, 2003). The emphasis on participation in development also implies increased attention to communication, because there can be no participation without communication. Communication is central to this task in many ways; thus, it enables planners, when identifying and formulating development programs, to consult with people (the stakeholders) in order to take into account their needs, attitudes and traditional knowledge (Diouf, 1994). Development communication is the only way project beneficiaries can become the principal actors to make development programmes successful (FAO, 2004). Communication for Development (ComDev) or development communication can be defined as the planned and systematic use of communication through inter-personal channels, ICTs audio-visuals and mass media for social change. Development is about change, and if development initiatives of any kind are to be sustainable they should start with mechanisms that ensure broad participation by all those who have some interest in the intended change (Mefalopolus, 2008). In ComDev, rural people are at the centre of any given development initiative and so communication is used in this sense for people?s participation and community mobilization, decision making and action, confidence building for raising awareness, sharing knowledge and changing attitudes, behaviour and lifestyles (FAO 2006). According to Adedokun et al. (2010), communication is expected to be used to facilitate community participation in a development planning initiative. Sustenance and people?s participation has become key elements in development projects. This was acknowledged by the World Bank (1994) in its admission that: ?Internationally, emphasis is being placed on the challenge of Sustainable Development, and participation is increasingly recognized as a necessary part of Sustainable Development strategies.? To be truly significant and meaningful, participation needs to be based on the application of genuine two-way communication principles and practices (Mefalopulos, 2003). 1.2 Statement of the Problem According to Anyanwu (1999), community development depends on the effectiveness of communication as it helps in sharing of ideas and opinions and diffusion of good ideas while irrelevant ideas are thrown out. Effective communication therefore enhances participation of community members towards the achievement of the goals of the rural community development. The newer conceptions of development imply a different and, generally, a wider role for communication (Everett Rogers, 2003). According to Stone (1989), unless people themselves are the driving force of their own development, no amount of investment or provision of technology and inputs will bring about any lasting improvements in their living standards. Most projects in the form of community boreholes, clinics, schools, warehouses and some farming projects initiated by some NGO?s and government in Ghana are in deplorable state. Most of these projects come in the form of aids or agricultural inputs such as seeds and fertilizers to the target groups without really knowing whether it would be useful for the people (Dzinavatonga, 2008). Some of these boreholes have even been abandoned. This may be as a result of some measures which were not put in place to ensure the sustenance of the projects after the implementers have left. These measures among other things may include the fact that the communities were not involved wholly in the formulation and implementation of these projects to understand the need to own and sustain them. Too many development programs, including community-driven ones, seem to overlook the aspect of communication, which is intended as the professional use of dialogic methods and tools to promote change (Mefalopulos, 2008). According to Okafor (2005) when communities participate in their own projects they become empowered which in turns improve efficiency, transparency and accountability which enhances service delivery and also encourages donor?s harmonization. Again, when not involved from the beginning, stakeholders tend to be more suspicious of project activities and less prone to support them. Conversely, when communication is used to involve them in the definition of an initiative, their motivation and commitment grow stronger (Okafor, 2005). 1.3 Research Questions i. How does communication influence rural development? ii. What communication channel is used by development agencies and government during projects implementation in The Punch newspaper? iii. How can communication promote projects to help bring change in the lives of people living in rural areas? 1.4 Objectives of the Study As highlighted in the foregoing sections, communication can be a key tool that can enhance community participation in decision-making concerning their own wellbeing. The main objective of this study is to determine the effect of communication on rural development while the specific objectives are; i. To identify how communication influences rural development. ii. To identify the communication channel used by development agencies and government during projects implementation in The Punch newspaper. iii. To identify how communication can promote projects to help bring change in the lives of the people living in rural areas. 1.5 Significance of the Study Rural people have lived together over the years and do things in common such as eating and sleeping together, going to the farms together, helping themselves when it comes to farming (Olukotun, 2008). The way their houses are even built gives room for consultation and sharing of ideas. Common things like roads, schools, health centers and bridges which are all constructed through communal labor and personal contributions are shared in rural communities. Having lived together all their lives and having shared ideas for a long period of time, it feels odd, if not unacceptable to some of them when they get to know of projects in their communities and have no idea about either its conception or implementation (Komalawati, 2008). The projects are therefore hardly accepted by the communities as their own and such projects in most cases suffer abandonment, limited usage or at best poor maintenance (Olukotun, 2008). 1.6 Scope of the Study Communication is more than transmitting information. It entails advocacy, social mobilization and behaviour change. Mefalopulos, (2008) stated that it is about generating new knowledge and consensus in order to facilitate change. Communication is not only about raising awareness, informing, persuading, or changing behavior. It is also about listening, exploring, understanding, empowering, and building consensus for change. This study focused on how communication can be used to ensure a project?s sustenance. It again focused on sponsored projects and programmes in some communities. 1.7 Historical Background of the Study The Punch newspaper was founded by two friends, James Aboderin, an accountant, and Sam Amuka, a columnist and editor at the Daily Times of Nigeria. Amuka became the first editor of the Sunday Punch. In November 1976, a few years after the first print of its Sunday edition, the duo started printing their trademark daily newspaper. Both editions were designed to favour a friendlier apolitical approach to news reporting, combining footage of social events with everyday political news. The paper sustains itself by delving into broad issues that interest myriad people. However, during the twilight of the Second Republic, political exigencies had introduced conflicts to its original intentions, Aboderin and Amuka parted ways due partly to political conflicts. Aboderin later secured the support of his former foe, M. K. O. Abiola, after the latter left the NPN. The paper began to take on a political stance, mostly against the Shagari regime. Supposedly, days before the end of the administration of Shagari, a few Punch editors were aware of a coup approaching and injected strong anti-government tones in their reporting. The Punch was not immune to the excess of authoritarian regimes in the country. In 1990, its editor was jailed for 54 days. In 1993 and 1994, the publishing house was closed on the direction of the nation's ruler. Punch Nigeria Limited was registered on August 8, 1970, under the Companies Act of 1968 to engage in the business of publishing newspapers, magazines and other periodicals of public interest. It was designed to perform the tripartite functions of the popular mass media: informing, educating and entertaining Nigerians and the world at large. The company has a Board of Directors, hereinafter referred to as the Board, which is the highest policy-making organ of the company. Its policies and directives are implemented by a Management team led by the Managing Director (MD) who is the Company's Chief Executive Officer. As a corporate business entity, the company exists to make profit and by doing so, seeks to improve the lot of its owners and employees and also contribute its quota to the country's economic development. In 1971, the company made its debut with the publication of HAPPY HOME, a glossy family-oriented magazine. Its first editor was Bunmi Sofola. On Sunday, March 18, 1973, its first weekly newspaper, Sunday PUNCH, hit the newsstands. Edited by Ajibade Fashina-Thomas. THE PUNCH, a daily tabloid followed on November 1, 1976. Its pioneer editor was Dayo Wright. However, by the 1980s, the two tabloids had been repackaged. On April 29, 1990, a week after an attempted coup d'‚tat against the Federal Military Government, the company was closed down. The closure lasted a month while the then Deputy Editor of THE PUNCH, Chris Mammah, was detained for 54 days. Again in July 1993, The Federal Military Government shut the company's premises, vide Decree No 48 of 1993, and banned all its publications from circulating in the country. The closure followed the political crisis caused by annulment of June 12, 1993, Presidential election. On November 17 of the same year, the proscription order was repealed vide the Decree No 115 of 1993. The Federal Military Government struck on the July 24, 1994, and proscribed all the titles including TOPLIFE, which had been revived and published as a weekly magazine then. The then editor of THE PUNCH, Bola Bolawole, was detained for three days in his office in the old building. During the closure, the government ignored a court order that it should vacate the premises of the company and also pay the sum of N25 million and N100, 000.00 respectively to the company and Bolawole. It was not until October 1, 1995 that government de-proscribed the publication vide a national day broadcast by the Head of State. In spite of all these, the company has pledged not to abdicate its responsibilities to the country. The current Chairman of the Board of Directors, Chief Ajibola Ogunshola, had on March 22, 1996, at the first Victor Adebamgbe Memorial lecture assured that "the company would continue to emphasize the emergence of a free democratic Nigeria with equal opportunities for its entire citizen and all the constituent ethnic groups". For two consecutive years - 1998 and 1999 - the research and marketing services (RMS) Lagos, published independent surveys in which PUNCH was rated as the most widely - read newspaper. Introduced in 1963, the Goss community began life as a single unit sitting on top of a reel stand. At that time it had a maximum speed of 12,000cph and a cut-off 22.75ins or 578mm. In recent years, enhancement made to the Community included speed and functionality upgrades and the addition of high specification model called magnum. Today, the Community offers a range of cut-offs (546-630mm): four-high configurations; web widths up to 1,000mm and a range of jaw and rotary folder options. PUNCH's Goss Community was delivered in November 1998. It is capable of producing 30,000(cphs). The PUNCH press, which has expandable colour units, is capable of printing eight pages of full colour and eight of spot colour at up to 48 pages.CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Introduction According to Coddington, (2013) green procurement is the purchasing of products or services which have a lower impact on the environment over their whole life cycle than the standard equivalent. It involves the integration of environmental issues into purchasing decisions based on price, performance, and quantity. Increasing costs of waste management worker safety and public health concerns, and the emergency of acute a chronic environmental problems both locally and globally are just a few of the issues spurring on local communities to improve the environmental characteristics of their operations (Maignom, Hillebrand & McAlistor, 2012) in the private sector, a large literature has explored engagement with sustainability in supply chain management and has highlighted benefits in the form of risk reduction and performance enhancement (Zhu, Sarkis & Geng, 2009). Sustainability in supply chain management requires a company or organization to carry out on assessment of the environmental consequences of a product at all the various stages of its Lifecycle. This means considering the costs of securing raw materials, and manufacturing, transporting, storing, handling, using and disposing of the product. Green procurement is rooted in the principle of pollution prevention, which strives to eliminate or to reduce risks to human health and the environment (Bolton, 2010). It means evaluating purchases based on a variety of criteria, ranging from the necessity of the purchase in the first place to the options available for its eventual disposal. Many private firms in Nigeria are working to improve the environmental performance of their operations and products and green procurement has been a logical extension of this work. Similar to public buyers, private sector organizations have in the lost two decade adopted green procurement practices for specific products (recycled-content office paper, renewable energy, points, cleaners, etc.), with few others have developed green procurement policies that cover a wider range of products, services and environmental issues. As the business benefits of these efforts better known, green procurement is containing to grow in the private sector. From manufacturing and process oriented firms green procurement practices look at the materials substance and chemicals in the products and services they provide (Theyel, 2012). Subsequently, this approach looks beyond the company?s gates to include the materials substances and chemicals its supplier use. The ongoing efforts to reduce costs, most companies in Nigeria use life cycle assessment and material tracking tools to identify materials, substances and chemicals in their products that pose significant environmental, health and safety risks and re-design their products to reduce or eliminate such materials. There are several regulatory frameworks aimed at greening the Nigeria economy, however the principal legislation concerned with environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) ACT 2007 and the Environmental impact Assessment (EIA) ACT 1992. The NESREA Act replaced the Federal Environmental Protection Agency Act 2004. It establish the national environmental standards are regulations enforcement agency and charges the agency with responsibility, for the protection and development and sustainable of Nigeria?s natural resources in general and environmental technology including coordination, and Liaison with relevant stakeholders within and outside Nigeria on matter of enforcement of environmental. As already mentioned, the second relevant legislation in the EIA Act passed in 1992 to promote proactive environmental management in Nigeria. The art makes EIA mandatory for development projects likely to have adverse impact on the environment prior to implementation. While these environmental regulations focus on environmental protection and pollution control, the application of Green procurement offers another way for demonstrating Nigeria?s commitment to environmental sustainability (Temidayo, Adekunle and Ama, 2013). Daft, Walker and Brammer, (2009), stated that currently, there is political consensus that sustainable development is both wanted and necessary. On the other hand, it has proven difficult to reach an agreement as to which effects are going to lead this green development not least in a globalized world where both goods and pollution are increasingly crossing borders. One of the instruments often debated in green public procurement opposes of green procurement are typically worried about possible additional costs that the public will have to bear and at the same time, they doubt that the state via subsidy policies and the like is able to pick the winner. The publication of Brundtland commission report ?Our Common future? on sustainable development (WECD, 1987) brought forward issues that promote public policies that encourages development and diffusion of environmentally sound goods and services have provided impetus and the much need inspiration towards policy formulation and adoption (Thomas & Jackson, 2007). According to Thai (2006) green purchasing is the adding of environmental aspect to price and performance criteria when making purchasing decision as opposed to the fixation with price as the only criteria. Leading international agencies that have included environmental issues in their procurement guides include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), Africa Development Bank (AfDB) and United Nation (UN). Specific countries that have mainstreamed environmental agenda in their procurement policies include the United State of America (Swanson et al 2005), South Africa (Bolton, 2006, 2008) and Asia (Ho, Diekinson & Chan 2010). In Europe, the directives (2004/17/EC and 2004/18/EC) have specific guidelines that require member countries to implement, thereby bringing about rapid environment diffusion and visibility. Locally green procurement has been a logical extension of this work (Brammer & Walker, 2011), Yet Nigeria as one of the development countries has been slow in taking up structured and policy driven approach to enhancing adoption of green procurement, the benefits occurring notwithstanding (Bolton, 2006, 2008). The public procurement and disposal Act, 2007 and subsequent regulations 2005, which are the cure points of reference on public procurement in Nigeria, were reviewed. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Developed countries have initiated the use of green procurement as a tool to protect the environment, resources and the wellbeing of the earthly residents, developing countries can adopt green culture in other to minimize rapid deterioration of the environment. According to Maron, (2013) environmental issues have become a subject of critical concern for business in recent years worldwide. Environmental obligations have grown substantially as society become more conscious of its environment and legislation relative to the environment in increasing in number that requires companies to be environmentally responsible. In height of increasing cost of waste management, environmental degradation, public health concerns, climate change, resource depletion, and persistent global poverty, the supply management profession increasingly being called upon to contribute to broader organizational goals of sustainable development through the inclusion of social and environmental criteria within procurement processes (Srivastava, 2013). According to Faith ? Ell, Bal Fors & Folkson, (2010) environmental substantiality is still among the issues included in the eight International Development goals (Millennium Development Goals) that were established following the millennium summit of the United Nations in Millennium Declaration. Despite the important role green procurement plays in ensuring environment performance and public health and safety, most of the studies on subject had been conducted in develop countries, yet not much research had been conducted in Nigeria leading to insufficient empirical literature on green procurement (Stephen & Helen, 2011) it was against this background this background that this inquiry to analyze the factors that affect green procurement implementation in the manufacturing sector in Nigeria. This research study provided valuabole unique contribution s to greemn procurenment literature. Career procurement research within manufacturing sector is particularly important considering recent studies indicate a rise in costs of waste management, worker safety and public health concern both locally and globally, implying that it is an area that still needs addressing (Jayaraman et al., 2013). Hence, the study instigated that gap in research by analyzing the factors that affect green procurement implementation in the manufacturing sector in Nigeria. 1.3 GENERAL OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors that affect green procurement implementation the manufacturing industry in Nigeria. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE i. To determine how firm resources capacity affect implementation of green procurement in manufacturing industry in Nigeria. ii. To explore the effect of costs of green procurement on implementation of green procurement in manufacturing industry in Nigeria. 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION i. In what ways does cost of green procurement affect implementation of green procurement in manufacturing industry in Nigeria. ii. Does green procurement implementation in a manufacturing industry in Nigeria affect Nigeria Distilleries Limited? iii. Does firm resources capacity affect implementation of green procurement in Nigeria Distilleries Limited? RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS It is in consideration of the problems stated and above and the objective of the studied environment that the researcher pronounced the following hypotheses. i. Ho1: the cost of green procurement implementation have no significant effect in the organization ii. Ho2: There are no significant relationships between financial resources on implementation of green procurement NDL. 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study is significant especially to the factors that affect the implementation of green procurement in the manufacturing industry. The basic of the study was to ascertain whether green procurement implementation in a manufacturing industry. The study was significant in that it cab guide one on how to carry out a research in the future as scholars may revisit related topics in order to carry out further studies. The study has intended to coordinate to the growing body of literature on green procurement implementation in Nigeria. This project would open awareness for tremendous reduction of the cost of research work (through centralization of research program and motivate young researchers of our time to face the challenges of this millennium 1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY This study is intended to focus on the factors that affect green procurement implementation in the manufacturing industry with particular reference to Nigeria Dissilience Limited Sango Ota, Ogun state. Where the goal is not only to enhance the firm resources capacituy but also to manage the cost effectively. With a view to finding out the level of success recorded in their organization as a result of green procurement implementation. 1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY Though a wide observation of the study will be made, however, because of time and space including resources involved some of the respondents here unwillingly to corporate with the researcher since they derived no financial benefit from the study. Others were apprehensive of the researcher?s intention, suspect ions, that the researcher may disclose their personal information. Financial problem is also another constraint in producing this project as a student financial capacity is limited; scarcity of materials is also one. 1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS Supply Chain Management (SCM) The management of the flow of goods and services, involve the movement and storage of raw materials, of work ? in ? process inventory, and finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption. Environmental Sustainability Is defined as responsible interaction with the environment to avoid depletions degradation of natural resources and allow for long term environmental quality. Sustainability Is defined as sustainable development that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Procurement Procurement is the process of finding, asreeingterius and acquiring goods, services or works from an external source, often via a tendering or competitive bidding process. Industry The manufacturing or technically productive enterprises in a particular field, country, region or economy viewed collectively, or one of the individually. A single industry, is often named after its principal product, for example, the auto industry. Manufacturing Industry Abraneh of manufacture and trade based on the fabrication, processing, or preparation of products from raw materials to finished commodities. This includes all foods chemicals, textiles, machines, and equipment. 1.10 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Nigeria Distilleries, Limited (NDL) incorporated on the 6th of March 1961with 100% Nigerian ownership, is the largest nine and spirits producing company in Nigeria, solely devoted to the manufacturing and marketing of fourteen brands of alcoholic and non alcoholic beverages in 35 different pack Sizes. Nigeria Distilleries Limited (NDL) began production in 1979 with raw materials imported for the blending and bottling of international brands; Dubonnet, Ambassador, suze, Compari, Coitread, Dorville Brandy, Pimms and Mortini. Over the years, with experience and intensive research, ?NDL? have grown adding to their range of hioce brands which include Seamonis Aromatic Schnapps Regal Dry Cuin, Lords Dry Cuin, Bacchus tonic wine, Baecchus Lite, Calypso coconut Liqueur, Apperito, and dark sailor Blended Dark Ruin. The company has more than one thousand employees and has s philosophy of manufacturing Local personnel through training and exposure to modern equipment NDL has achieved phenomenal growth form inception through training and exposure to modern equipment NDL has achieved phenomenal growth form inception through the quality of its workforce. The current beverage capacity of the company is ten million liters per year with distribution outlets spread across the country. The demand for both alcoholic and non ? alcoholic beverages in Nigeria increases daily over the years, with experience and intensive research NDL has expanded and improved its product range and quality level to satisfy its customers and meet the high demand for their products. Currently, NDL is regarded as the company with the best brand of beverages and a foremost leader in the best brand of beverages and a foremost leader in the alcoholic and non ? alcoholic beverage segment of the food and Beverage industry in Nigeria. NDL has a promises outlook derived from its business strategies and focus.CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Background of the Study In Nigeria, the history of transportation dates to the pre-colonial era when today?s transport such as road, rail, water and air transport were non-existence and only the pedestrian bush path like a jigsaw of small disjoined sections was readily available and gladly used by people to move from one place to another. Overtime, road transportation system has been widely preferred as the most predominant mode of transport followed by inland waterways and air transport. By lowering the cost and reducing the time of moving goods and services to where they can be used more efficiently, road development adds value and spurs growth. Over time this process results in increasing the size of markets which is a precondition for realizing economies of scale. Good road projects clearly contribute to poverty reduction by improving the living conditions of people and by augmenting the opportunities available for trade and employment. The economic development of Nigeria has reflected the development of her transport systems. This is particularly true of the road transport system, which is by far the most widely used mode of transport in the country. Of all commodity movements to and from the sea-ports, at least two-thirds are now handled by road transport while up to 90% of all other internal movements of goods and persons take place by roads (Onakomaiya, undated). Transport can contribute to the economy directly through addition to capital stock via increases in transport infrastructure. Transport provides the arteries through which the economic life of the people, information and raw materials as well as finished products can be moved from one place to the other. This therefore helps to build and maintain the society thereby leading to economic growth. It is in that context that the paper considers road development and economic growth in Nigeria. Anyanwu et al (1997) documented that the history of road transport in Nigeria dates back to 1904 when Lord Laggard attempted the construction of a mule road linking Zaria and Zungeru both in the Northern States of Nigeria. The road was later extended from Zaria to Sokoto, Katsina and Maiduguri. However, the road linking Ibadan and Oyo constructed in 1906 is recorded to be the first motorable road ever constructed in Nigeria. At independence in 1960, the Nigerian landscape was dotted with a skeletal network of trunk roads as well as secondary and feeders roads that exhibited the characteristics which reflected the purpose of their construction. They were narrow and winding, being simply meant to facilitate the evacuation of agricultural produce from the interior to the ports for exports in addition to serving as links between scattered human settlements thus permitting ease of administration. In 1925, the central government of Nigeria set up a Road Board. By 1926, H.E. Walker proposed a skeleton trunk road system to link the major administrative centres in the country. These roads were designed as a frame upon which the network of secondary roads could be built thus enabling the general road system to be considered as a co-coordinated whole-rather as a jigsaw of small disjointed sections. The total length of roads maintained by the government rose soon from 6,160 km (5,875 miles) in to 9,453 km (5,875 miles). Data from the various publications of the Federal Office of Statistics in Nigeria show that as at 1951, out of the total of 44,414 km of road in Nigeria, 1,782 km were surfaced, though the roads were lacking in standard designs and were single lane with sharp bends and poor drainage system. Total road length increased from 44,414 km in 1951 to 114,768 km in 1980. While tarred road increased in length from 1782 km in 1951 to 28632 km in 1980, earth/gravel road increased from 4232 km in 1951 to 86136 km in 1980. The Central Bank of Nigeria (2003) documented that the estimated current total road networks in Nigeria is about 200,000 km. In Economy, production takes place when goods and services reach the final consumers and it is through transportation of goods and services that it reaches the final consumers. Moreover, there are some problems/inadequacies in road transportation which handicap or hindering the success of economic activities of Nigeria which include farming activities like movement of farm produce after harvest from farm location to consumption point. Movement of raw materials from extraction point to manufacturing point then to point of usage by consumers and movement of people from their home setting to their working place. 1.2 Statement of the Problem Given the fact that transportation infrastructure is very crucial to the growth of the economy, the situation of Nigeria transportation infrastructure is at a poor state. Recent studies by Adeniji (2000), Innocent C. Obi (2011) shows that: less than 50% of the National road networks are in fair or good condition causing an average death of 50 people per day. Recent studies by Adeniji (2000), Innocent C. Obi (2011) shows that: less than 50% of the National road network are in fair or good condition causing an average death of 50 people per day; Less than 300,000 tonnes of freight and less than 2.3 million passenger are been transported by rail; More occurrences of air crashes in the Aviation sector; High rate of congestion in the sea port; and More vandalization of pipeline. When all this losses are added up to economic cost for loss of productive man-hour, it becomes clear that the situation really need urgent attention. However, various research studies have been descriptive showing the importance of having a better transportation infrastructure in place so as to increase the sector contribution to economic growth and development, although there are few study that are empirical. Thus, this study will enlighten us on the situation and empirical linkage of transportation infrastructure improvement and economic growth, in which more emphasis will be on Nigeria transport infrastructure. 1.3 Objectives of the Study The broad objective of this study is to examine the role of road transportation on Nigerian economic activities. The specific objectives of the study are as follows: i. To evaluate the empirical linkage between road transportation and economic growth. ii. To explore the relationship between transportation and distribution of productive inputs for production of goods iii. To assess the nexus between transportation and distribution of finished products (both agricultural and manufactured). iv. To examine the impact of transportation on training activities especially in the Ibarapa East Local Government Area of Oyo State. 1.4 Research Question Based on the background of this research work, the research questions are as follow: 1. Does road transportation have significant impact on the distribution of productive inputs in Nigeria? 2. Does road development adds value and spurs growth during the time of moving goods and services? 3. Does road transportation impact on the delivery of finished products for consumption to consummate production process? 4. Does road transportation and training activities offer means livelihood to Nigerians and the residents of Ibarapa East Local Government Area in Oyo State. 1.5 Scope of the Study This research work is based on role of road transportation on Nigeria economic activities. A case study of Ibarapa East Local Government, Area Eruwa. 1.6 Limitation of the Study i. The research consumes a lot of time. ii. The research was limited due to the financial constraint of the researcher. 1.7 Significance of the Study The study of the road transportation system in the Nigerian economy is of great importance as the study will create an insight to the value of road transportation in driving economic activities in Nigeria. Efficiency in the road transportation sector of the Nigeria economy through a reduction of elimination of some vital problems will have a positive effect on the national economy. The constitution of new roads proper, check on vehicle worthiness will to a large extent revive the road transportation sector and in torn boost activities in the economy as the road transport sector is invaluably the backbone of all other sector in every economy. This work also tends to check whether or not revenue from the government has contributed significantly to the development of road transportation system in the Nigeria economy and to update frontier knowledge for other researchers. 1.8 Plans of Study This project topic consists of five chapters to enlighten us about the roles of road transportation on Nigerian economic activities. The chapter one covers the introduction, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance of the study, plans of the study of the study, definition of terms. The chapter two contains the review of related works, the chapter give the details of the project topic which is ?the role of road transportation in Nigerian economic activities (a case study of Ibarapa East Local Government Area, Eruwa?. The chapter three deals with the research methodology; research design, sample size and sample procedure, research instrument, validity of the research instrument, reliability of the research instrument, data collection procedure, data analysis techniques. Chapter four is all about the presentation and analysis of data. Chapter five contains discussion of findings, recommendations, and areas for further studies and conclusion. 1.9 Operational Definition of Terms Transportation: Is defined as a particular movement of an organism or thing from a point to another Point. Resources: An economic or productive factor required accomplishing activity, or as means to undertake an enterprise and achieve desired outcome. Economy: The state of a country or region in terms of the production and consumption of goods and services and the supply of money. Society: A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Transport Infrastructure: refers to the framework that supports our transport system. This includes roads, railways, ports and airports. National and local government is responsible for the development of our transport infrastructure Effectiveness: It is the capability of producing a desired result or the ability to produce desired output. When something is deemed effective, it means it has an intended or expected outcome, or produces a deep, vivid impression. Input: What is put in, or operated on by any process or system. Finished Products: A product which have received the final increments of value through manufacturing or processing operations, and which are being held in inventory for delivery, sale, or use. Economic Growth: An increase in the amount of goods and services produced per head of the population over a period of time. 1.10 Historical Background of Ibarapa East Local Government Area The Ibarapa area falls within latitudes 70.15? N and 70.55? N and longitudes 30E and 30.30? E. It is located approximately 100 Km north of the coast of lagos ,and about 95 Km west of the Oyo state capital and neighboring city of Ibadan. They border Yorubas of Onko extraction to the North (Iwajowa, Kajola and Iseyin LGAs) and Yorubas of Oyo extractionto the East (Ibadan). The Yewas or Egbados to the West, and the Egbas to the South. The area is approximately 2,496 kmý in geographical size, and consists mostly of rolling savannah with forests situated along the southern border and in isolated patches along river courses such as the Ogun. The natural vegetation was originally rainforest but that has been mostly transformed into derived type savanna as a result of several centuries of slash & burn agricultural practices. Most of the land lies at elevations ranging between 120 and 200 meters above sea level, but rocky inselbergs and outcrops can be seen rising to 340 meters (approx 1,115 ft) Ibarapa land is traditionally made up of 7 principal towns known as the Ibarapa Meje (Ibarapa Seven), and their surrounding villages and farmsteads. These towns include Igangan, Eruwa, Aiyete, Tapa, Idere, Igbo-Ora, and lanlate. Tapa and Aiyete are in Ibarapa North local government area, Idere and Igbo-Ora are in Ibarapa Central, while Lanlate and Eruwa are located in Ibarapa East local government. The three local governments were created by the federal government of Nigeria authorities in 1996 when Ibarapa East was carved out from the old Ibarapa Local Government while Ibarapa Central and North were carved out of the former Ifeloju Local Government area. The seven principal towns can be subdivided further, based on the villages that are organized around each of them. In totality, about 30 different villages litter the landscape. ?CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION The rise of e ? business in the late 1990?s led to the development of new opportunities related to procurement: e ? procurement, spend management, outsourcing and joint product design (Lancioni, Smith and Oliva, 2000). According to Oyekola (2007), E ? procurement is a collection web technology ? based purchasing solutions aimed at simplifying commercial transactions within and between organization. E ? Procurement practices are the electronic management of all procurement activities. To begin with the buyer has to log into an application system on the computer and send information to the supplier. This process ends when goods are supplied and the invoice issued for the goods are paid for. According to Nevalainen, (2003; 6) e ? procurement practice has more advantages when compared with the paper ? based system. Some of the when are that; all the staff in the organization can take part in the procurement process due to ease ? of ? use; self ? service on the internet, a considerable reduction in the cost of processing an order, shorted lead times, faster products and services delivery due to efficiency. A company?s e ? procurement system and do away with paper, such that the procurement system can communicate to other application system and do away with paper, such that the procurement function becomes focused and an important area for cost saving and also limiting maverick buying practices. The primary focus of a company?s e ? procurement strategy is to better manage its operational costs. Every year billions of dollars go into the drain due to inefficient procurement practices. Most of the companies nowadays can be seen as being composed of three primary processes which are purchasing, manufacturing and distribution based on the overall flow of materials (Thawiwinyu and Laptened, 2009). So, in order for the companies to remain competitive in the market, they must reduce the costs of their component and materials by sourcing from cost saving suppliers. Nowadays most of the organizations are increasingly doing E ? business using information and communication technologies and the additional use of internet too. The traditional procurement which is lowly, back ? end process has been transformed into E ? procurement with the emerging technologies that make everything possible and within reach. Furthermore, with increasing on competitive pressures, supply chain management professionals must continually find solution to reduce costs, increase efficiency, and also to reduce the longest lead time, procurement now is seen as a core quality based competition, cost efficiency, inventory management, and customer uncertainty. 1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM E ? Procurement adoption has both threat and opportunity in terms of business productivity and competitiveness. Even if the benefits of adoption and the potential strategic implications of e ? procurement are recognized, the list of impediments for private sectors includes items that are major potential barriers for an effective adoption: risk, uncertainty, inefficiencies from supplier and catalogue. Content readiness, cultural change, staff resistance, need for firm wide training with likely disruption of on ? going activities each one of these makes it difficult for SMES to implement e ? procurement strategies to the possible extent that the implementation may deemed too difficult. One possible explanation for a slow adoption for a slow adoption process is that the adoption decision is complex. While many benefits arise in the longer term, major impediments and associated potential costs may be very short term (e.g. extensive staff training). Association benefits and costs are difficult to estimate in real terms. It is on this basis that the study examined factors influencing implementation of e ? procurement in private sector. 1.2 RESEARCH OIBJECTIVES i. To find out the level of the implementation of e ? procurement in the private sector. ii. To examine the success of e ? procurement implementation in the private sector. iii. To ascertain the effect of skills id=f private sector employees and supplier on implementation of e ? procurement in private sectors. 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION i. What is the level of the implementation of e ? procurement in the private sector? ii. What is the level of success of e ? procurement implementation in the private sector? iii. What is the effect of skills of private sector employees and suppliers on implementation of e ? procurement 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The study will be used by companies to get more knowledge on factors affecting use of e ? procurement in private sector. The knowledge will be used by the researcher to develop more knowhow on e ? procurement; it will assist the scholars interested in conducting research in e ? procurement and related areas as a source of reference. The study will assist policy makers on e ? procurement in companies both for private and public sectors, which will help shape the procurement sectors to perform better with implementing e ? procurement in business activities. 1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study of critical factors that influence e ?procurement implementation success in the private sector is limited to the Ibadan Electricity Distribution Company, General Gas, Akobo Ibadan. The population selected is made up of the private company. The sample size of the workers chose from the Ibadan Electricity Distribution Company in General Gas, Akobo Ibadan. 1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY High level of illiteracy. The respondents to the questionnaire did not give relevant information needed and most of the questionnaire given out was not return. Sixty questionnaires were given out and only thirty was presented. 1.7 BRIEF HISTORY OF IBADAN ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION COMPANY IBEDC formally came into existence on 1st November 2013, as part of the unbundling at the electricity sector. Which cover the largest Franchise area in Nigeria, made up of Oyo, Ogun, Osun, Kwara, and part of Niger, Ekiti and Kogi state. To ensure effective and competent management of such a large network, they are organized into five regions namely Oyo, Ibadan, Osun, Ogun, and Kwara regions, the regions are made up of Business Hubs. Each region is manned by a regional technical manager.
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