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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY
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The ultimate quality of service provided will depend on the collective ability of staff, training and individual motivation to produce the services demanded by the guest. Hotels are physical structures supported by human resources that enable the delivery of service. Key in the process of delivering quality service is the individual motivation of all employees whether professional, skilled or unskilled. With the growth of the service industry the hospitality industry now competes for quality service employees. Research finds that it is a challenge for hotel management today to motivate employees to provide quality services as high turnover and absenteeism is widespread in the Nigeria hospitality industry. This study evaluated the motivation factors of employees in LandMark Hotels Enugu. The study centered on why people choose to work for this specific hotel while modeling motivational factors that enable their overall performance. The study also sought to learn if there is a gender based difference in motivational factors. The results of the study revealed that the main reasons people choose to work at the hotel was based on the “quality” class of the hotel, interesting jobs, salary and job security. When considering the gender construct, gender did have a role influencing employees’ perception of motivational factors. Males preferred salary, job security and loyalty to employees, while females preferred interesting jobs, working environment and camaraderie with co-workers.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The motivation of employees, whether professional, skilled or unskilled, is a major issue in all service organizations. For the hotel industry, employee motivation is a major issue. It is a challenge for the management of the hotel industry to motivate employees to stay on the job and to offer the efficient and good service which customers expect (Cheng, 1995). One of a human resource manager’s functions is related to ensuring employees’ workplace motivation. Human resource management’s function is to assist the general manager in keeping the employees satisfied with their jobs. If employees are not satisfied, they will not perform to expected tasks. Workplace dissatisfaction and poor performance usually lead to low employee turnover in the hospitality industry, particularly in developed countries. According to a Hotel and Catering Training Company in the United Kingdom, turnover is the United Kingdom was estimated to have cost the hotel and catering industry 430 million pounds a year, and turnover was higher among men than women (Lucas, 1995). The Hong Kong Hotels Association found in its 1994-1995 annual survey that 41.26 percent of the employees in 63 hotels changed jobs or resigned.
Yu (1999) reported that in order to reduce labor turnover and retain productive employees, management has to improve working conditions and keep the employees properly motivated. Human resource managers need to understand the motivational processes and human needs in different cultures.
To understand employees’ needs, managers should understand key theories that help them learn the basic needs of people. Maslow’s theory is one of many theories that pointed out the basic sorts of needs. They are Physiological needs, Security needs, Belongingness needs, Esteem needs, and Self-actualization needs. The lower level needs must be satisfied before the next higher level. Another theory, Hertzberg’s is based on two distinct sets of factors: hygiene factors such as pay, organizations, policies, working environment and motivating factors such as recognition, promotion, achievement and the intrinsic nature of the work.
Moreover, managers can learn what kind of motivation factors should be provided to employees from many research papers. For example, the study of Dr. Kovach during forty years concluded that good wages ranked the first through the fifth of the ten items of motivational factors (Kovach, 1987). The study of seven Caribbean Hotels, Las Vegas Casino Hotels and 278 hotels located in United States and Canada supported Kovach’s research that good pay is the first priority for employees (Charles and Marshall, 1992). However, from the study of 1,245 employees of the Hong Kong hotels concluded that an opportunity for advancement is the first factor but good pay is the third one (Siu, Tsang and Wong, 1997). So, when managers understand employees’ needs and provide the suitable motivational approach, employees will match their goals with the organizations’ goals. As a result, not only employees will get benefits but also the whole organization will be more successful.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Because of the high turnover and high absenteeism within the hospitality industry service, managers now realize the importance of employee motivation to retain quality staffing. When employees maintain a high level of motivation, quality services will result.
The purpose of this study was to assess the motivational factors of employees at the Landmark Hotel Enugu. The hotel was known to offer consistent quality services, low turnover and satisfied employees.
Objectives of the Study
Three objectives were included in this study:
1. To ascertain the reasons why employees choose to work in the hospitality industry.
2. To determine the workplace motivational factors for hotel employees.
3. To investigate motivational differences between the genders at the hospitality industry.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. Are there elements of motivation on employee in the hospitality industry in Enugu metropolis?
2. What are the impact of motivation on employee productivity?
3. What are the ways of motivating employees productivity
4. Does the motivation of employee’s productivity benefits the hospitality industry?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This work will be of significant to Land Mark Hotel because motivation of workers is a necessity to improving productivity. Hence, this work reveals motivational strategies that can be adopted by Land Mark Hotel in particular and Hospitality in general for more productivity.
Also, it will be of help to other organizations since motivation of workers is paramount to the success of every organization.
Another benefit of the study is that when there is increase in productivity, government generate more revenue since increase in productivity means increase in taxes.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In cause of writing this project the researcher encountered some difficulties which serve as limitations to the study. The limitations include inadequate fund, lack of response, inadequate time frame and difficulties in searching for research materials.