CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF SKYE BANK ERUWA)
The concept of business has changed from profit making activities to social welfare activities where businesses are not only responsible to its shareholders but also to all of its stakeholders. The main force that drives companies to adopt corporate social responsibility (CSR) is financial benefit (Rapti and Messa, 2012). Nicolau (2008) defined socially responsible companies as those which in profit-making operational decisions considers the full scope of environmental impact and balances the needs of stakeholders.
Therefore, corporate social responsibility is necessary in Nigeria, especially in the banking sector to allow for the implementation of good governance.It is important for the leaders of the Nigerian banking sector to act responsibly toward shareholders and the society in which they operate for the banking sector to thrive (Babalola, 2012). Corporate social responsibility has not been researched thoroughly in emerging markets, which are vital to the world economy.There is more research on corporate social responsibility in industrialized nations than in developing nations, but the need for CSR is greater in developing nations.
Researchers have conducted studies on CSR in the South African and Nigerian banking sectors, but it has not been in-depth and there are gaps in the literature (Kolk& van Tudler, 2010).
According to Adeyanju (2012), business leaders in Nigeria need CSR to address their issues because social, health, education, and environmental needs are tremendous and business leaders must manage them. The emerging markets in Sub-Saharan Africa, especially Nigeria, are becoming more interesting to institutional investors (Adegbite& Nakajima, 2011).
The banking sector is the engine for economic growth and development of the economy; therefore, leaders must sufficiently manage and guide it to maintain the confidence of the public, who are the ones who invest in the banking sector. The Nigerian banking sector works within and survives on the wealth of the Nigerian economy and should therefore be responsible to Nigeria.
Corporate social responsibility in the Nigerian banking sector should satisfy bankers, shareholders, depositors, and regulators, and be held inhigh regard as a good corporate citizen (Achua, 2008).
Many Nigerians believe that the banking industry is making a large profit in a developing world economy due to unethical practices (Adeyanju, 2012). The unethical practices are shortcomings pertaining to CSR in banking and the sector suffers from fraudulent practices, including bad management and bad credit policy (Achua, 2008; Okpara, 2009). Leaders for the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) have made reforms in an attempt to combat these unethical practices. However, the bank reforms are likely to be detrimental if CSR is not strongly established (Achua, 2008). Corporate social responsibility is a critical tool for the development of society and businesses because organizations positively affect their host communities by achieving profits and operating ethically (Adeyanju, 2012). The practice of CSR by organizations is necessary in developing countries such as Nigeria to protect the rights of individuals (Adeyanju, 2012). All of these factors suggest a strong need for more studies on CSR in the Nigerian banking sector.
This study adds to existing scholarly research by informing individuals of CSR, Nigeria, Nigeria?s banking sector, and the results of my study. Interested scholars should have the ability to either duplicate my study in Nigeria or another location or build on my research to add to the body of knowledge on CSR in banking.
This study sets to investigate corporate social responsibility and organisational performance in the banking industry, Skye Bank Eruwa.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the past ten years or so, corporate social responsibility (CSR) has blossomed as an idea, if not as a coherent practical programme. CSR commands the attention of executives everywhere – if their public statements are to be believed – and especially that of the managers of multinational companies.
But what does it all amounts to, really? The general public, oddly enough, are disappointed. They are starting to suspect that they have been conned. Civil-society advocates of CSR increasingly accuse firms of merely paying lip-service to the idea of good corporate citizenship. Firms are still mainly interested in making money, they note disapprovingly, whatever the CEO may say in the annual report. When commercial interests and broader social welfare collide, profit comes first.
CSR was always intended to be more about how companies conduct themselves in relation to “stakeholders” (such as workers, consumers, the broader society in which firms operate and, as is often argued,’ future generations) than about straightforward gifts to charity. Seen that way, donations, large or small, are not the main thing.
Many of these are expressly intended to help profits as well as do goods. It is unclear whether this kind of CSR quite counts. Some regard it as “win-win”, and something to celebrate; others view it as a sham, the same old tainted profit motive masquerading as altruism. This study shall examine the corporate social responsibility and organizational performance in the banking industry of Nigerianin order to detect the exact motive of this practice.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study tends to achieve corporate social responsibility and organisational performance in the banking industry. The study is also geared towards achieving the following objectives:
i. to investigate the effect of philanthropic CSR activities on organizational performance
ii. to investigate the effect of ethical CSR activities on organizational performance.
iii. to investigate the effect of environmental focused CSR activities on organizational performance.
iv. to investigate the effect of government policy and priority on organization performance.
1.4 Research Questions
i. what is the effect of Philanthropic CSR activities on organizational performance?
ii. what is the effect of Ethical CSR activities on organizational performance?
iii. what is the effect of Environmental focused CSR activities on organizational performance?
iv. what is the effect of government policy and priority on organization performance?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The significance of the study include the following
1) The study will create awareness on the importance of corporate social responsibility
2) The awareness on corporate social responsibility will further improve a bank?s financial performance.
3) Confidence of stakeholders of corporate social responsibility information will be enhanced.
This study will help to improve the knowledge and managerial practices
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of this research would encompass the practice of corporate social responsibility and its organizational performance. The impacts of social services by corporation shall be examined in relations to financial performance employee commitment, and community development. The study shall focus on Skye Bank Plc Eruwa and the perceptions of its staffs and residents of its location in the Eruwa area of Oyo State shall be sought for the purpose of this study.
1.7 Research Hypothesis
The hypotheses were formulated in the null form:
H01: Improved Corporate Social Responsibility performance does not lead to an increase in profit.
H02: Corporate social responsibility has no impact on the financial performance of an organization.
H03: There is positive and significant relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Net Profit.
H04: There is positive and significant relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Earning Per Share.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Business Policy: It is the active process of guiding and directing the course of an organization toward the attainment of objective.
Environment: The environments of an organization are those elements, institutions, organization and system whose activities and services are essential for the effective performance of the organization but are not subject to its control.
Organizations: This is a system of coordinated activities of a group of people working co-operatively towards a common goal, under authority and leadership.
Social Responsibility: This is the reactive responsiveness to an organization?s obligatory operational, activities like economic, productive and legal requirement to its stockholders.
Corporate: A Corporate is a business entity whose operations are recognized by the law. It is often regarded as a separate and independent entity and its vision and mission are profit oriented.
Social Responsibility: Social responsibility can be viewed as a part of the social contract in that is the responsibility of each entity whether it is state, government, corporation, organization or individual that they are contributing to society at large, or on a smaller scale.
Organizational Culture: Organizational culture is a combination of the founders, past leadership, current leadership, crises, events, history, and size. It is the routines, rituals, and the “way things are done” in an organization.
Employee Commitment: Is the relative strength of an individual’s identification with and involvement in a particular organization.
Business Ethics: Business ethics is based on broad principles of integrity and fairness and focuses on internal stakeholder issues such as product quality, customer satisfaction, employee wages and benefits, and local community and environmental responsibilities issues that a company can actually influence.
Financial Performance: This IS the measure of an Organization’s effectiveness in terms of the returns of the company at the end of a financial period. It is often based on figures declared.
1.9 Historical Background of Skye Bank Plc
Skye Bank Plc was given a general license in 1995, which replaced the Standard license given in 1993. When it started operation in the co-operate market in 1996. The first banking audit was held in accordance with international, accounting standards 1996. Skye Bank was accredited within the framework of financial institution development programme and enterprises support program financed by the international bank of representation and development 1977. Skye bank became a pioneer began collaborating with the Us ? Russia investment fund (TUSRIF) under the small and mid-size enterprises finance facility, also in 1997 Skye Bank Plcopened its first trade finance credit lines with western commercial banks and the European bank for reconstruction and development (Errn). In 1997, the commodity credit corporation of the department of agriculture approved a credit limit for Skye bank Plc, participation in the export credit guarantee program (GSM ? 102).
In 1998 during the crisis that stock Russia, Skye Bank was one of the Few Russian banks to continue to service and repay debts to foreign creditor despite the moratoriums on foreign exchange transactions.
Furthermore, Skye Bank was one of the few Russian banks that overcame the crises and preserved positive capital. Skye bank weathered the crisis of its foreign obligations, which amounted to over 340 million. By November of 1998, Skye bank already had access to clean lines of credit from foreign banks in 1999 Skye bank started in arranging the first post crisis syndicated loan for a Russian Corporate client (reversal) with the participation of European banks.
The following year Skye Bank participated as a pilot bank in the joint project with the CBR, the finance ministry, the US agency of international development (USAID) and TACIS, aimed at facilitating the transaction of the Russian banking system to international accounting standard in 2011 Skye Bank became the third Russian bank placed its promissory on the domestic market after the 1998 crisis and also that year Skye bank received a 5 million investment from the international finance corporation (IFC) the private sector arm of the world bank. The investment was made in the form of a subordinated convertible loan such investment in the Russian market size the 1998 crisis in 2002 the world bank increased in the Russian credit limit within the framework of the enterprises support project 10 million up to 25 million.
In 2003 the use of financial institution, Skye Bank increased at shows, it shares in the capital of excess Valga bank up to 86.3% by purchasing additional 27.33% of common shares.
Skye Bank Plc is a product of the merger of five legacy banks as a result of the banking industry consolidation and recapitalization exercise of 2005. The legacy banks were Prudent Bank Plc, EIB International Plc, Bond Bank Limited, Reliance Bank Limited and Co-operative Bank Plc.
Following the merger and the seamless integration of the disparate resources, personnel, IT infrastructure, culture and procedures, the bank has since grown into a formidable financial institution showing strong growth and profitability and providing unique financial solutions to a wide customer base both in Nigeria and in the three West African subsidiaries of Sierra Leone, Gambia and Guinea.
In 2014, in our continuous quest to provide better customer experience, Skye Bank won the bid to acquire the 100 per cent ownership stake of Asset Management Corporation of Nigeria (AMCON) in Mainstreet Bank Limited, a deal which made Skye Bank one of the top four banks in Nigeria.
Mainstreet Bank?s operations has since been integrated into the bank?s operations in one of the smoothest and hitch free integration process recorded in the Nigerian banking industry, enabling it to offer banking services to a wider segment of the Nigerian population and with significant positive impact on the bank?s balance sheet, financial performance and profitability.
Skye Bank is quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) with over 450,000 diverse shareholders with a shareholding structure that puts no more than 5% in the control of any one individual or company.
The Executive Management is made up of a team of seasoned bankers all of whom have over many years of varied experience from diverse areas of banking and finance including:
i. Strategic planning and management
ii. Corporate banking
iii. Project finance, development & Structured finance
iv. International trade finance
v. Consumer & retail banking
vi. Audit & Accounting
vii. Treasury & Money market operations
The Board of the Bank is comprised of accomplished men and women with proven track record of integrity and service. The Board provides strategic policy planning and direction, and establishes risk management and internal control systems for the Bank, establish and ensure the integrity of the Bank’s information and accounting systems. The vision of Skye Bank is to continuously challenge ourselves to provide limitless possibilities to our customers, and our core values are integrity, mutual respect, accessibility and continuous learning.