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Extraction and formulation of perfume from plant

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1.1 INTRODUCTION

This research is on Extraction and formulation of perfume from plant. The word perfume derives from the latin ―per fumum‖ meaning through smoke, is fragrant liquid that is sprayed or rubbed on the skin or clothes to give a pleasant smell. Extraction of perfume from various plants resources is of ancient origin. Infact the natives from different tropical regions of the globe have long been extracting oil from numerous oil bearing plants. Human since the ancient time have known how to extract oil from their natural resources. Vegetable oils are naturally occurring esters of higher fatty acids and glycerol. They are widely distributed in nature and were first consumed as food. Later oils were discovered to be used as renewable raw materials for variety of non food production, for instance perfumes, disinfectants, inks to mention but a few.

1.2    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Several thousands of plants distributed throughout the world contain a group of odiferous, fragrance, oily products that are highly volatile organic substances collectively known as essential oils. ―Essential‖ does not mean ―most necessary‖ but rather the concentrated characteristics or quintessence of a natural flavor or fragrance raw material (Coulson et al, 2003). Therefore, perfume may be from essential oils of vegetables or plant origin. It is a complex mixture of aldehydes, ketones, hydrocarbons, alcoholic acid and short chain esters.

The existence of perfume on certain plants has been known for thousands of years. They can be found in leaves, flowers, stems, barks, and roots. Ancient Egyptians extracted essential oils from plants tissues by steam distillation (Ogbu,2005). Other methods of isolating essential oils includes solvent extraction, expression, cold plate or enfleurage. Some of these methods have been adopted by essential oil extracting industries.

Information on perfume when the essential oils have been extracted from plants are of different type of oils and these will ultimately influence the smell of perfume over time namely:

  1.  The base  oil  (Base  notes)-  this  will  produce  the  scent  that  stays longest on the skin and  for this  reason it is usually added to  the mixture e.g vanilla, ginnamon, sandalwood, mosses et
  2. The middle oil (middle notes)- this also influences the smell of the perfume for quite sometime but not as long as the base note does e.g lemon grass, Yalang Ylang et
  3. Top oil (top notes)- this is added to the mixture after the middle notes and may then be followed by some other substances which will help to bridge the scents together e.g orchard, rose, bergamount, lemon,orchid etc.

A formulation or recipe that rightly blend with the oil or fragrance is used and the reason perfume differs is due to the formulation or recipe that will give pleasant odour. It is necessary to choose a good recipe of formulation.

Alcohol is added to the fragrance or essential oils as a primary solvent to reduce the strays of the oils.

Fixatives are also used with the other ingredients like water, essential oils and alcohol to lower the rate of evaporation of the fragrance of essential oils. The reason why a perfume losses its fragrance faster than normal is because only a little amount of fixative was used when preparing the perfume.

1.3  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

There is a high demand of essential oils for various purposes such as medicinal, perfumery, soap making, insecticides to mention but a few have opened up wide opportunities for global warming.

Imported essential oils are very expensive to meet the demand of our local consumer industries, therefore it becomes necessary to source and extract these oils from local source. In particular perfumes that are usually  imported  can  be  produced  locally  from  a  vast  variety  of  oil bearing plants yet to be explored. It has also been observed that high concentration  of  perfumes  in  the  epidermal  tissues  can  cause  skin irritation or peeling due to poor formulation. This problem will be explored on this project. Solvent extraction is the safest method for extracting high quality oil because some herbs and spices cannot be extracted from enfleurage method but it has the disadvantage of having residual solvents in the essential oils.

The research is conducted in order to use hydro distillation as one of the applicable methods to extract essential oils. hydro distillation has the advantage of no solvent residues as an alternative to conventional extraction techniques. This research will reveal the difference in yields by the methods.

1.4   JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

It is hoped that from this research work, optimum extraction parameters like solvent type, solvent ratio, contact time and particle size and the quality of perfume would be established. The result obtained would add to the data bank that could help potential industrialist who intends to go into perfume production from plants. Consequently, more processing industries would lead to a higher production both for domestic consumption and export. Major consumers of essential oils are the perfumery, cosmetics, food and beverages and pharmaceutical industries.

Most of these industries in Nigeria depend on imported essential oils for their   production   and   this   makes   their   products   very   expensive. interesting, some of these source of essential oils are common in Nigeria such as lemon grass, ginger, flowers, eucalyptus to mention but a few.

There is a high potential in this area and it becomes necessary to seek means to explore and exploit area with the aim of providing our local industries with these essential oils. There are great biodiversity in the ecosystem when it is tapped into the economy of Nigeria will be improved upon. It can also create numerous job opportunities for the youth as both industries and farmers will be employers of labour.

1.5   OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH

The main objective of this research is to extract essential oil from lemon grass (cymbopogon citrasus) using solvent extraction, enfleurage, and hydro distillation and formulating the perfume.

1.6   SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH

  1. Investigate the effect of solvent nature on extraction in terms of yield and formulation of the extracted essential oil. Three methods will be used; solvent extraction, enfleurage and hydrodistillation. Attempt will be made to formulate the essential oil into perfume.
  2. To Formulate perfume using appropriate materials.
  3. The composition of perfume and its concentration.

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SettingsExtraction and formulation of perfume from plant removeAssessment of seed extract of pignut Jatropha Curcas for the control of beans weevil Callosobruchus Maculatus removeAn analysis of the conceptual knowledge of drug abuse among biology students removeAvailability and utilization of laboratory resources in teaching and learning biology in Enugu north local government area of Enugu state removeAwareness and preventive measures of HIV/AIDS among undergraduates in Isiala Ngwa south local government area removePhytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Pourpartia birrea remove
NameExtraction and formulation of perfume from plant removeAssessment of seed extract of pignut Jatropha Curcas for the control of beans weevil Callosobruchus Maculatus removeAn analysis of the conceptual knowledge of drug abuse among biology students removeAvailability and utilization of laboratory resources in teaching and learning biology in Enugu north local government area of Enugu state removeAwareness and preventive measures of HIV/AIDS among undergraduates in Isiala Ngwa south local government area removePhytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Pourpartia birrea remove
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Description
Content1.1 INTRODUCTION This research is on Extraction and formulation of perfume from plant. The word perfume derives from the latin ―per fumum‖ meaning through smoke, is fragrant liquid that is sprayed or rubbed on the skin or clothes to give a pleasant smell. Extraction of perfume from various plants resources is of ancient origin. Infact the natives from different tropical regions of the globe have long been extracting oil from numerous oil bearing plants. Human since the ancient time have known how to extract oil from their natural resources. Vegetable oils are naturally occurring esters of higher fatty acids and glycerol. They are widely distributed in nature and were first consumed as food. Later oils were discovered to be used as renewable raw materials for variety of non food production, for instance perfumes, disinfectants, inks to mention but a few. 1.2    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Several thousands of plants distributed throughout the world contain a group of odiferous, fragrance, oily products that are highly volatile organic substances collectively known as essential oils. ―Essential‖ does not mean ―most necessary‖ but rather the concentrated characteristics or quintessence of a natural flavor or fragrance raw material (Coulson et al, 2003). Therefore, perfume may be from essential oils of vegetables or plant origin. It is a complex mixture of aldehydes, ketones, hydrocarbons, alcoholic acid and short chain esters. The existence of perfume on certain plants has been known for thousands of years. They can be found in leaves, flowers, stems, barks, and roots. Ancient Egyptians extracted essential oils from plants tissues by steam distillation (Ogbu,2005). Other methods of isolating essential oils includes solvent extraction, expression, cold plate or enfleurage. Some of these methods have been adopted by essential oil extracting industries. Information on perfume when the essential oils have been extracted from plants are of different type of oils and these will ultimately influence the smell of perfume over time namely:
  1.  The base  oil  (Base  notes)-  this  will  produce  the  scent  that  stays longest on the skin and  for this  reason it is usually added to  the mixture e.g vanilla, ginnamon, sandalwood, mosses et
  2. The middle oil (middle notes)- this also influences the smell of the perfume for quite sometime but not as long as the base note does e.g lemon grass, Yalang Ylang et
  3. Top oil (top notes)- this is added to the mixture after the middle notes and may then be followed by some other substances which will help to bridge the scents together e.g orchard, rose, bergamount, lemon,orchid etc.
A formulation or recipe that rightly blend with the oil or fragrance is used and the reason perfume differs is due to the formulation or recipe that will give pleasant odour. It is necessary to choose a good recipe of formulation. Alcohol is added to the fragrance or essential oils as a primary solvent to reduce the strays of the oils. Fixatives are also used with the other ingredients like water, essential oils and alcohol to lower the rate of evaporation of the fragrance of essential oils. The reason why a perfume losses its fragrance faster than normal is because only a little amount of fixative was used when preparing the perfume. 1.3  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM There is a high demand of essential oils for various purposes such as medicinal, perfumery, soap making, insecticides to mention but a few have opened up wide opportunities for global warming. Imported essential oils are very expensive to meet the demand of our local consumer industries, therefore it becomes necessary to source and extract these oils from local source. In particular perfumes that are usually  imported  can  be  produced  locally  from  a  vast  variety  of  oil bearing plants yet to be explored. It has also been observed that high concentration  of  perfumes  in  the  epidermal  tissues  can  cause  skin irritation or peeling due to poor formulation. This problem will be explored on this project. Solvent extraction is the safest method for extracting high quality oil because some herbs and spices cannot be extracted from enfleurage method but it has the disadvantage of having residual solvents in the essential oils. The research is conducted in order to use hydro distillation as one of the applicable methods to extract essential oils. hydro distillation has the advantage of no solvent residues as an alternative to conventional extraction techniques. This research will reveal the difference in yields by the methods. 1.4   JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY It is hoped that from this research work, optimum extraction parameters like solvent type, solvent ratio, contact time and particle size and the quality of perfume would be established. The result obtained would add to the data bank that could help potential industrialist who intends to go into perfume production from plants. Consequently, more processing industries would lead to a higher production both for domestic consumption and export. Major consumers of essential oils are the perfumery, cosmetics, food and beverages and pharmaceutical industries. Most of these industries in Nigeria depend on imported essential oils for their   production   and   this   makes   their   products   very   expensive. interesting, some of these source of essential oils are common in Nigeria such as lemon grass, ginger, flowers, eucalyptus to mention but a few. There is a high potential in this area and it becomes necessary to seek means to explore and exploit area with the aim of providing our local industries with these essential oils. There are great biodiversity in the ecosystem when it is tapped into the economy of Nigeria will be improved upon. It can also create numerous job opportunities for the youth as both industries and farmers will be employers of labour. 1.5   OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH The main objective of this research is to extract essential oil from lemon grass (cymbopogon citrasus) using solvent extraction, enfleurage, and hydro distillation and formulating the perfume. 1.6   SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH
  1. Investigate the effect of solvent nature on extraction in terms of yield and formulation of the extracted essential oil. Three methods will be used; solvent extraction, enfleurage and hydrodistillation. Attempt will be made to formulate the essential oil into perfume.
  2. To Formulate perfume using appropriate materials.
  3. The composition of perfume and its concentration.
Abstract
A study was conducted on the assessment of seed extract of Jatropha curcas for the control of Callosobruchus maculates. J.curcas seed extract was obtained by using methanol. The plant extract was prepared into different concentrations Percentage weight per unit volume (%w/v) of 1w/v, 2w/v, 3w/v and were compared for their relative bioactivity against C. maculates adult and larva in the laboratory at temperature, 29OC and the parameters assessed were mortality,oviposition rate, adult emergence and seed damage of  C. maculates on the treated beans. The result showed that the mortality of C. maculates increased with exposure period and concentration of extracts and the rate of oviposition decreased seriously on the seventh day were 3% and 2%w/v had a percentage mortality of 76.6% and 66.6% and oviposition rate of 15.33% and 38.67% this shows that  increase in concentration reduces the activity of weevil . It could be concluded that the seed extract is effective against C.maculatus and this can be used to store beans instead of synthetic chemicals
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate youths' drug abuse in Nigeria - a case study of Governors College Kano. To guide this study, four research questions were raised and tested. The design of the study was survey design. The samples of the study consisted of 50 students randomly selected from the area of the study. The major findings of the study include: Marijuana is the most commonly used drug by students of Governors College Kano, also most students start using drugs because of teenage curiosity and joy seeking, and most of the students have had problems with their studies because of drug abuse, majority of the students use drugs out on the streets or during parties, also majority of the students take the drugs in the night. Finally, it was recommended that parents should burry their differences in order to avoid quarrels, separation, and divorce which are one of the great catalysts of drug abuse among their children, communities should identify drug dependence individuals, and refer them to hospitals for treatment. Pushers and sellers are well known by community members, therefore, the community can identify them and send them to court and be charged for possession of illegal drugs, also school authority should know the signs and symptoms of students who abuse drugs and should be able to counsel them or refer them to the appropriate centers for treatment and rehabilitation.

Availability and utilization of laboratory resources in teaching and learning biology in Enugu north local government area of Enugu state. 

Abstract
The survey of availability and utilization of laboratory resources in teaching and learning biology in Enugu North LGA, Enugu State, It adopted a descriptive  survey research design and was guided by one (1) checklist and two (2) research questions. It sought to find out laboratory resources available for teaching and learning biology in secondary schools in Enugu North LGA, the extent of adequacy in the provision of laboratory resources in secondary schools and the extent of utilization of the laboratory resources by the biology teachers in teaching and learning biology.  Descriptive survey research design was employed for the study, a population of thirty six (36) teachers, due to factors that could not be controlled by the researcher a total of (20) respondents were used for the study, the total number of teachers of secondary schools in Enugu North LGA is thirty six(36) for this reason, there was no need for sampling . The instrument used for data collection was a researcher developed questionnaire tagged Questionnaire on Availability and Utilization of Laboratory Resources in teaching and learning Biology (QAULR). The questionnaire has sixty (60) items. Descriptive statistics including percentages, mean and standard deviation were used to answer research questions while frequency was used to ascertain the relative position of the items in their order of priority/effect. It was revealed from the study that a total of sixteen out of the twenty listed items were available of in biology laboratories. The study also revealed that laboratory resources are not adequately provided for in secondary schools. Additionally, due to inadequacy in the quantity and quality of laboratory resources provided to secondary schools, students and teachers find it difficult to utilize the laboratory effectively..
Abstract
This study was aimed at ascertaining knowledge of control measures and management of HIV/AIDS victims among undergraduates in Isiala Ngwa South L.G.A Area of Abia State. The instrument used for data collection was self-developed valid and reliable questionnaire. The instrument wee administered on face to face basis to the respondents by the researcher. Data collected from 290 copies of the questionnaire were tallied and analyzed using percentages. The management and knowledge of control measures of HIV/AIDS victims which were based on Age, sex, and level of education were used. Level of knowledge of the control measures of HIV infection was high while the level of management of AIDS victims was low. Based on the finding and conclusion, it was recommended among others that government, non-government organizations, as well as health educators, should intensively their campaign/ educational programmes on control measures of HIV/AIDs. As well as management of HIV/AIDS victims at the home base
Abstract
In this study, the phytochemical screening and anti-microbial activity of poupartia birrea. Ethanol and methanol were used for the extraction of different plant materials, since most studies have reported that organic solvents were better chemical reagents for consistent extraction of antimicrobial substances from medicinal plants.23,24 The results of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannin, flavonoid and saponin in the 2 extracts of roots, barks and leaves of P. birrea. However, alkaloid was not detected in any of the plant parts. Studies conducted by various investigators have also reported the presence of both tannins, flavonoids, saponins in the alcoholic bark extracts of P. birrea. 23-29 Various pharmacological and biological studies (both in vitro and in vivo) conducted elsewhere have reported the wide ranging antimicrobial  activities of these secondary metabolites produced by some ethno-medicinal plant including P. birrea
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