INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS NEEDED BY BUSINESS STUDIES TEACHERS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ADAMAWA STATE
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study There has been increasing interest in introducing innovations such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into the teaching and learning of business studies especially when the Nigeria Education and Research Development Council (NERDC) introduced a modern curriculum into the school system. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) involves the use of computers and other electronic devices to process information. Nworgu (2008) stated that ICT refers to a whole range of facilities or technologies involved in information processing and electronic communication to be handled with skills and expertise, for effective achievement and realization of its potentials in Education. In the view of Valasidou (2008), ICT is an innovative instrumental tool that enables the educators to modify the teaching and learning processes in order to increase students? interest. Brown (2009) explained that ICT is considered very crucial for the achievement of various educational objectives in terms of expanding the citizenry access to education at all levels and improving the quality of teaching and learning process. In the explanation of Daniels (2002), the use of Information and Communication Technologies in the educative process has been divided into two broad categories: ICTs for education and ICTs in education. ICTs for education refers to the development of ICT specifically for teaching learning purposes, while the ICTs in education involves the adoption of general components of ICTs in the teaching learning process. Effiong (2005) emphasized that 1 ICT use in school curriculum depends highly on the teachers who will use ICT to teach the students. This requires that teachers should have the ability to incorporate ICT into teaching and 1 learning. Okereke (2008) noted that, application of ICT to teaching and learning makes instructions more effective and productive. In this regard ICT is viewed as innovations that enable business studies teachers facilitate teaching and learning of business studies. Business studies is an academic subject that helps students to be exposed to realities of business practices. The subject is designed to introduce students to the foundational knowledge of the principles and practices of business. Okute (2008) opined that business studies is the fundamental subject which has to do with acquisition, conservation and expedition of wealth. Osuala (2004) stated that business studies help the students to make informed decisions in the everyday business of living. Obi (2005), explained that business studies prepares students for business career or enables those in that career become more efficient and advance to higher business positions. In the view of NERDC (2007), business studies will enable the students to: acquire the basic knowledge of business studies; develop the basic skills in office occupation; prepare for further training in business studies; have basic skills with which to start a life of work; have basic skills for personal use in future; ? relate the knowledge and skills they have acquired to the national economy. These objectives can be achieved through teachers? effectiveness, who is the implementers of curriculum. A teacher is an individual who is trained in pedagogy and teaching areas of a particular subject to impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes to students in an institution. According to Olaitan, Alaribe, and Nwobu (2009), a teacher is a person who communicates knowledge, skills and attitudes to someone in a school. Okute and Agomuo (2010) noted that a teacher is a facilitator of learning; who helps students to realize their full potentials educationally, emotionally, and socially in career selection and transition. Garba and Dambe (2007) defined a teacher as one who possesses practical and theoretical knowledge of his vocation, has clear understanding of the students he teachers, and ensures that he increases in the knowledge of his field at all times. There are male and female business studies teachers. These teachers are trained in different higher institutions of learning where they obtain various qualifications. In this study, a business studies teacher is someone who is trained in pedagogical areas of business education and is charged with the responsibilities of imparting acquired knowledge, skills and attitudes of business studies to students in junior secondary schools. Secondary school is the school for young people between the ages of 11, 16 and 18. National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) defined secondary education as the education children received after primary education and before the tertiary stage. Secondary schools are divided into junior and senior sections. The junior secondary school is both pre-vocation and academic. The ability of business studies teachers to teach students ICT depend on the level of ICT skills possessed. Skill is a person?s ability in performing a given task well as a result of training and practice. Skill as viewed by Soanes (2001) is the ability to do something well especially, as a result of long practice. Obi (2005), defined skill as manual dexterity acquired through repetitive performance of operations. Osinem and Nwaoji (2005) stated that, skill is the proficiency displayed by someone in the performance of a given task. ICT Skill is the ability required by business studies teachers for effective instruction to junior secondary school students in Adamawa State.