3,000.003,100.00 (-3%)

In stock

Spread the love
6 / 100



1.1     Background to the Study

Since the beginning of creation, humans have always involved themselves in movement activities. This has been a major feature in the history of Africa and the entire globe generally (Akanji, 2012). Migration cannot be inevitable from the history of the story of man, families, villages and nation- state. Therefore, migration can be traced as far back as the existence of man, most especially when man desired to go in search of food during various famine seasons, also another reason for migrating in those days was the desire of separating from the crowd as well as the seeking for independence as earlier revealed. Virtually all individuals and nation states have one or two traces of migration history (Internal and international) mostly influenced by two factors these are the “Pull” and “Push” factors. Migration can be internal or international. Internal migration explains the movement of individuals within same geographical territory which in this case can be from rural to urban or from Lagos to Abuja whereas International Migration has to do with the crossing of borders or international boundaries such as Cameroon to Nigeria described as South-South Migration also known as regional migration, Nigeria to United States of America described also as South-North Migration.

For International Migration which is also known as Emigration and immigration, has implications on the countries involved, evident in the increase which has being described as wide spread, owing to the benefits and awareness of opportunities migrants see and hear about through various platforms such as the television, internet among other mediums. International Migration (particularly emigration) is a sensitive issue in discussions and debates in the international system especially in Africa, as a lot of people are leaving the shores of their countries on a daily basis in search of greener pastures, acts that negatively have constantly affected the economics of such places as most of this people are skilled and trained, for instance doctors and nurses. The benefits for the migrants are a wide range of job opportunities to choose from, international education certifications and interconnectedness, (Fayomi, 2013). Other great benefits among them are the pleasure of being a citizen of the nation state individuals so well desire (Martin et al., 2002). Due to this perceived opportunities International Migration has become a popular culture and trend in our present world (Wickramasinghe, 2016).  

The rate and speed at which International Migration is increasing is alarming as it cannot be completely stopped but can be managed properly to the nation state’s advantage bringing socio-economic development (International Organization Migration, 2004).

A visit to any of the busy airports in Nigeria such as Muritala Muhammed International Airport in Lagos or Akanu Ibiam International Airport in Enugu, you will notice the great outflux of Nigerians into many countries. More so Nigerians finding their way to more developed regions are becoming a function of employment-driven nature of Nigerian emigration. Also, Nigerian emigration to the West is highly selective of the educated, skilled and professionals who are more likely to be attracted by the economic opportunities of more developed regions. Because of this, the most preferred destinations in Europe were the United Kingdom (184,314), Italy (48,073), Spain (36,885), Germany (22,687) and Ireland (18,540) according to the International Organization for Migration country profile of Nigeria 2014. The United States was the single most important destination of Nigerian migrants in 2013, as it had been since 1990, with 252,172 or about 25 per cent of all Nigerian emigrants. This is a clear manifestation of the superb opportunities offered by the United States with respect to employment, education and training, and social and cultural identification compared with other countries in the world. In recent years, there seems to be an influx into China, India and other Asian countries that hitherto had very few Nigerian citizens.

Migration can have a range of social, cultural, political and economic effects, as involves transfer of know-how and skills, financial assets and the transfer of people from one location to another. Migration also has consequences for the individual, the area of origin and the area of destination on the family, household, society, the economy and development as a whole. The effect of international migration is not limited to remittances and cash inflows alone. It includes a wide range of development issues such as; governance, legal protection, employment, social, protection, health services, education, knowledge, skills development, economic growth, financial services, agriculture and environment issues. Over the years Nigeria has been faced with a lot of issues in reference to migration, non-exclusive brain drains and it would be important to address these in order to promote her economic development.

1.2     Statement of the Problem 

Migration is not new to Nigerian’s as negative or low economic growth, population growth, and high level of unemployment rates, combined with unequal income distribution, high pressures on land and urban environments has constantly being reasons that drive people to seek employment abroad due to lack of alternatives in Nigeria, their home country. Poor governance has also been regarded as a major factor for emigration, especially among the highly skilled (Van et al., 2003). Nigeria presently is bedeviled with so many challenges such as erratic power supply, lack of proper management of pipe borne water which has led to lack of its supply to parts of the country, deplorable condition of roads, hospitals and the educational system is being under-funded which has led to crumbling of the educational system in Nigeria which effects can be felt in primary, secondary and tertiary institutions.

Nigerian’s lack trust in the fact that political leaders can provide good living standards, dividends of democracy, protection of human rights, and provision of good and qualitative education, infrastructure and social security, this has made many individuals both old and young in the country to “check out”.  This, they do with the fervent hope that they would live a better and more prosperous life outside the shores of their country and continent. Nepotism also stands as a barrier to economic development of Nigeria, as its when someone isn’t employed for their skills but for their family or tribal relationship.

With all these problems, there has being a need for Nigerian’s to emigrate at a high and alarming rate, this research seeks to look at the possible impacts such movement has on Nigeria as a nation.

1.3     Research Questions

  1. Does Nigerian economy warrant migration of its citizens to other international countries?
  2. Are you aware of policies in Nigeria that guide against excess emigration?
  • Do migrants help in development of their home country?

1.4     Research Hypotheses 

The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested.

H0:    Nigerian economy does not warrant migration of its citizens to other international countries.

H1:    Nigerian economy warrants migration of its citizens to other international countries.

H0:    Nigeria that guide against excess emigration?

H2:    The living standard of Nigerian’s is responsible for the emigration of her citizens to other developed states.

H0:    The reduction in the number of skilled personnel’s and professionals in Nigeria doesn’t have any negative impact on the socio-economic growth of Nigeria.

H3:    The reduction in the number of skilled personnel’s and professionals in Nigeria has negative impacts on the socio-economic growth of Nigeria.

1.5     Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is basically to understand International Migration and its Impact on Nigeria Manpower and Human Resources Management using Lagos state as a case study. The specific objectives are as follows:

  1. To understand in-depth, the consequence’s associated with the migration of people from one country to another, especially as it affects their country of birth.
  2. To understand the migratory trends during the Pre-colonial Era to the Post-Independence Era of Nigerians especially Nigerian professionals in various fields of endeavor.
  • To identify the impact of migration on the socio-economic structure of Nigeria.
  1. To find remedies to correcting human capital flight in terms of brain gain so as to benefit Nigeria as a country.

1.6     Significance of Study

At the theoretical level, this study will provide reasons why Nigeria has been confounded with the issue of economic underdevelopment. The subtle vote of no confidence passed by the citizens of the country and on her government’s failure for the provision of basic amenities and infrastructure by embracing the idea of seeking for greener pastures in the developed western nations; would be more appreciated and understood in this study by seekers and lovers of knowledge.

The empirical and practical significance would provide Nigerian leaders and relevant decision makers with the requisite facts and figures concerning emigrant status of the country, which hopefully will ultimately help in directing them on possible ways to make live better of people to ensure they stay in Nigeria and work towards, its development.

1.7     Scope of the study

The scope of this study focuses on the negative impact migration has on Nigeria and most especially Nigeria’s social and economic growth and development.

1.8     Limitation of the study

This research comes with few challenges such as an opportunity to interact with few Nigerian emigrants abroad and get substantial data on the comparison of life here and there.

Also sourcing of relevant literatures to substantially back this research findings was not easy, although the Nigeria Immigration Service collects a wealth of administrative data on entries, departures and registration, the lack of data separation by sex, age and other relevant characteristics makes meaningful analysis difficult.

There is no known collated official data on Nigerian emigrants from any of the Nigerian ministries or agencies. Embassies may collect data, but these are not made available to the public.

 1.9    Definition of terms according to oxford advanced learners dictionary

Migration: The movement of large numbers of people, birds or animals from one place to another.

Emigrant: A person who leaves their own country in order to settle permanently in another.

Emigration: The act of leaving one’s own country to settle permanently in another; moving abroad.

Immigration: The action of coming to live permanently in a foreign country.

Immigrant: A person or group of people, who has come to live permanently in a country that is not their own.

Brain Drain: The emigration of highly trained

Our Score
Click to rate this post!
[Total: 0 Average: 0]
0/5 (0 Reviews)


There are no reviews yet.

Main Menu


3,000.003,100.00 (-3%)

Add to Cart