PRODUCTION OF JAM FROM SOME NIGERIA FRUITS GRAPE, ORANGE AND PAWPAW

3,000.003,200.00 (-6%)

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ABSTRACT

The production of Jam made with some of Nigeria fruit. The aim and objective were mentioned. The composition and important of it was known with the chemical analysis pH, Moisture content, Total solid and Titratable Acidity and sensory evaluation was determined.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER PAGE…………………………………………………………………………………………. i

CERTIFICATION.. iii

DEDICATION.. iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. v

ABSTRACT. vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS.. viii

CHAPTER ONE.. 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION.. 1

1.1 COMPOSITION.. 3

1.2 TO TEST FOR PECTIN.. 5

1.3 OBJECTIVE.. 6

1.4 AIM.. 7

CHAPTER TWO.. 8

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW… 8

2.1 CAUSES OF MOULD DEVELOPMENT AND YEAST GROWN ON THE JAM SAMPLE 9

2.1.1 CAUSES OF CRYSTALLIZATION OF JAM.. 10

2.1.2 CAUSES OF FERMENTATION OF JAM.. 10

2.2 CHOICE OF FRUIT. 10

2.3 QUALITIES OF A GOOD JAM.. 11

2.4 USES OF JAM.. 12

2.5 STORAGE OF JAM.. 12

CHAPTER THREE.. 13

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD.. 13

3.1 PREPARATION FOR JAM PRODUCTION.. 14

3.2 THE TESTS FOR SETTING ARE.. 15

3.3 SUMMARY.. 17

3.4 PROPORTIONS OF INGREDIENTS USED.. 18

3.5 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SAMPLE OF JAM.. 20

3.5.1 pH 20

3.5.2 MOISTURE CONTENT. 21

3.5.3 TOTAL TITRATABLE ACIDITY.. 21

3.5.4 SENSORY EVALUATION.. 21

CHAPTER FOUR.. 23

4.0 RESULTS.. 23

4.1 pH determination of samples of Jam.. 23

4.1.1 MATERIALS.. 23

4.1.2 METHOD.. 23

4.1.3 pH VALUE OF JAM SAMPLES.. 24

4.2 MOISTURE CONTENT. 24

4.2.3 MOISTURE CONTENT OF SAMPLES OF JAM.. 25

4.2.3 MOISTURE CONTENT OF SAMPLES OF JAM.. 26

4.2.1 MATERIAL. 26

4.2.2 METHOD.. 27

4.2.3 AVERAGE MOISTURE CONTENT OF JAM SAMPLES.. 27

4.3 TOTAL SOLID OF JAM SAMPLES.. 28

4.4 MATERIAL AND METHOD.. 28

4.4.1 MATERIALS.. 28

4.4.2 PREPARATION OF IM HCL. 29

4.4.3 STANDARDIZATION OF PREPARED HCL IM29

4.4.4 TITRATING HCL AGAINST Na2Co3. 29

4.4.5 STANDARDIZATION OF IM HCI USING Na2Co3. 30

4.4.6 PREPARATION OF 0.5m NaoH.. 31

4.4.7 STANDARDISATION OF PREPARATION NaoH.. 31

4.4.8 TITRATING Hcl AGAINST NaoH.. 31

4.4.9 TITRATABLE ACIDITY.. 32

4.5 PAWPAW… 33

4.6 SENSORY EVALUATION OF JAM SAMPLES.. 34

4.7 DISCUSSION.. 35

CHAPTER FIVE.. 37

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.. 37

5.1 CONCLUSION.. 37

5.2 RECOMMENDATION.. 37

REFERENCES39

APPENDIX.. 40

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Fruits of many varieties are used in jam making. Fruits that are high both in pectin and acids make good jam.

Fruits are seasonal and usually in abundant supplies at the peak of the production period. Hence they are eaten, preserved or converted into another form. These make it available when they are offseason.

The important of jam is to prevent excessive wastage fruits during other season of harvesting. It can also be a means of using fruits as a food supplement Koydylas 1991.

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PRODUCTION OF JAM FROM SOME NIGERIA FRUITS GRAPE, ORANGE AND PAWPAW

3,000.003,200.00 (-6%)

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