THE PROBLEM OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA
1.2 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The unemployment problem is not a new problem in our country (Nigeria). It has assumed a greater dimension in the past few years just it is important to find a solution to the problem. It is equally necessary to understand the differing, nature and dimension of the problem.
What is witnessed in the past and present times is the inability of man to secure employment for his living. The problem erupted where unemployment that is living without job is. This could occur through various means. In the early 1980?s unemployment rose to the very high level that in the 30?s Richard (1988) stated in ?in great Britain, it was reported that at the beginning of 1982, unemployment was about 11 percent of male and 18 percent of females.?
The issue of unemployment also affects us today in our country to the extent that it has eaten deep into the fabrics of nation?s economy. Unemployment in Nigeria raised in the early 80?s where by many Nigerian graduates where seriously in search of employment for their means of living. Unemployment today has caused a lot of social evils such as poverty, increase in dependants, social disorderliness, increase in crime rate, separation of homes etc.
In a nutshell, the problem of unemployment calls for serious government?s intervention. During President Babangida?s Administration, Nigeria?s government propounded in solution by selected unemployed graduates (SUG) to address the issue/problem of mass unemployment that is provide job opportunities for Nigerian graduates in Nigeria and Oyo State in particular.
1.3 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
A decade plus three years now, Selected Unemployment Graduate was brought to life. The Selected Unemployment Graduate (SUG) was established by the Federal Republic of Nigeria on the 22nd of November, 1986.
SUG came into existence at the time the country was gripped with serious problem of employment conservative figure put the rates of unemployment at this period ranging between 10 and 16 percent of the labour force. The problem is highly accelerated in the urban than the rural area. The evil of unemployment arose among the graduates of higher institutions whereby many graduates of higher institutions were leaving the country for European world to secure unemployment. In other words, the labour force was reduced. This social evil proves to be increased day after day and it comes to open the Government eyes to put an end to it.
On March 26, 1986 the former President Ibrahim Babangida inaugurated a committee called the national committee on strategies for dealing with mass unemployment under the auspices of the federal ministry of employment, labour and productivity.
The committee was chaired by a technocrat, Mr. Stephen OkesolaChukuma. To implement the report, the Federal Government established the Selected Unemployment Graduates.
The full implementation of the Selected Unemployment Graduates was not done until 30th January, 1987.
Among its programmes are:
1. Rural Employment programmers (REP)
2. The Vocational Skill Development Programmer (VSDP)
3. The Small Scale Enterprise (SSE).
Therefore, numerous Nigerians had gainfully benefited from all these programmes.
1.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This research work is going to look into the effect made by government in reducing unemployment.
The issue of unemployment has created a lot of social unrest, especially in the areas of poverty, high rate of crime, low standard of living, social disorderliness, increase in dependent rate and so on. TO eradicate the above mentioned programmers, there is need for the creation of job opportunities and to address this issue the role of NDE will be critically examined.
1.5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
i. To examine the effectiveness of government in reducing employment and to examine some of the instruments employed by the government to alleviate the problem such as Operation Feed The Nation (OFN), Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), SFEM, BETTER LIFE Programmes, DIFFRI and various campaign on the encouragement of agriculture.
ii. Access the effectiveness of the government on job creation.
iii. Analyzes the problem faced by the NDE and prefers solution to the problem.
iv. Examine the achievement of NDE so far.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTION
The following hypotheses will be statistically tested:
That the activities of the Federal Government has reduced the rate of unemployment in Nigerian Graduates who are seeking for job as a means of livelihood.
1. Does the Federal Government Employment Programme have impact on the movement of job opportunities for Oyo State Graduates seeking for job?
2. Does the political instability in the country have effect on the programmes of the Government and reducing unemployment in Oyo State.
3. Does the poor economic situation in the country have impact on the Federal Government Financial Programmes of creating more job opportunities for the unemployed Oyo State Graduates?
1.7 Significance of the Study
It is hoped that this study will help to reduce the threat that unemployment have been causing on the society as a whole. The job seeker i.e. the employed Oyo State Graduate will be made to know opportunities created for them through Operation Feed The Nation (OFN), Structural Adjustment Programmes and DIFFRI.
It is envisaged that at the end of the research work, the solutions offered will be of great help to the unemployed Oyo State graduates.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
It is hoped that this study will help to reduce the problem of unemployment in Oyo State. This research will not be only limited to the undergraduates who are also seeking for job opportunities in Nigeria and Oyo State in Particular.
1.9 Definition of Terms
For the purpose of this study, the following terms will be used:
N.D.E ? National Directorate of Employment: is an organization established for the 1986 during President Babangida?s Administration.
SCHEME ? Terms used for plan of each sub-programme in S.U.G programmes.
R.E.P ? Rural Employment Programme: It is one of the S.U.G programs for employment at rural areas.
V.S.D? Vocational Skill Development: A general programmes for vocational training.
S.S.E.P? Small Sales Enterprises Programmes: A programmes established for the job seekers in order to promote their interest a self-employment.
S.P.W? Special Public Works: A programme that is used to provide transitory and temporarty employment to jobless graduate and non-graduates.
W.T.W? Waste to Wealth: it is also one the S.U.G programme?s scheme for training apprentice for converting discarded materials to useful materials.
N.O.A.S? National Open Apprentice Scheme: A scheme for general vocational work.
S.O.W ? School on Wheels one of the NOA?s scheme in N.D.E?s vocational training.
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