The role of radio in the development of rural areas


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The role of radio in the development of rural areas. The roles of radio in the development of rural areas (a case study of ——- local government area). The Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS) Enugu like many other electronic media establishments in Nigeria has been carrying out its communication function of informing, educating entertaining, persuading and public enlightenment and advertisement and other social programmes using the social scientific method of questionnaire survey and in-depth interview method on the project work. The work is handled in five chapters. Chapter one introduces the electronic media and the guide on the handling of the topic and the significance/rationale of the study. The chapter two continued with reviewing literature which ex-rayed the summary of related literature reviewed chapter three explained the research methodology used to study the topic. The research method includes the questionnaire and survey method and interviews while in chapter four data presentation and result findings are made relevant to the research questions. Chapter five finally handled the discussion, implication, recommendation, discussion of result and conclusion.


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SettingsThe role of radio in the development of rural areas removeTHE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE RADIO AS AN AGENT OF SOCIAL MOBILIZATION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES. (A CASE STUDY OF ANAMBRA STATE) removeTHE EFFECTS OF UNETHICAL PRACTICES IN ADVERTISING:(A CASE STUDY OF VITAFOAM IN NIGERIA) removeCoverage of foreign news by Nigerian newspapers: A content analysis of vanguard and daily sun newspapers removeAudience perception of Nigerian newspapers on the internet removeCOMMUNICATION GAP: EFFECT ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (A STUDY OF NNEWI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA SECREATARIAT) remove
NameThe role of radio in the development of rural areas removeTHE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE RADIO AS AN AGENT OF SOCIAL MOBILIZATION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES. (A CASE STUDY OF ANAMBRA STATE) removeTHE EFFECTS OF UNETHICAL PRACTICES IN ADVERTISING:(A CASE STUDY OF VITAFOAM IN NIGERIA) removeCoverage of foreign news by Nigerian newspapers: A content analysis of vanguard and daily sun newspapers removeAudience perception of Nigerian newspapers on the internet removeCOMMUNICATION GAP: EFFECT ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (A STUDY OF NNEWI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA SECREATARIAT) remove
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DescriptionABSTRACT Through survey research method. This study focused on the effectiveness of the radio as an agent of social mobilization in rural communities, using a case study of Anambra state. The primary objective of this work boiled down from examining the various ways by which the effectiveness of the radio can serve as an agent for social mobilization in rural communities. Some problems were highlighted, like using the radio to restore hope in hopeless situation the radio can be used in carrying out a new social order for the rural communities, taken their suggestion about any issues. This work equally solve some problem on how to use radio effectively to achieve the desired impact and improve the work of the radio as an agent of social mobilization.ABSTRACT This study is on the effects of unethical practices in advertising:(a case study of Vitafoam in Nigeria). Our country, Nigeria is more of a capitalist state and everyone in his kind of business wants to maximize profit. By the way of negligence of the ethical standards, some advertisers, regardless of the decency, truthfulness and social values which advertising upholds stick to unethical advertising practice, thus, causing loss of lives, discomfort, and dissatisfaction to the consumers of some goods and services. In the words of Ifedayo Daramola (1999) “a number of advertisements carried by Nigerian newspapers, radio and television are illegal and libelous; while some contain malice” This work has been structured in five chapters to make an ideal project. Chapter one embodies background of the study, which deals on advertising in its entirely. The chapter two of this work, made an indepth review of related literatures. These literatures bother on enhancing social responsibility through advertising, the power of persuasive communication in advertising, factors affecting buying behaviour, the theoretical framework and measures to enhance ethical standards in advertising practice. The third chapter covers the methodology with which the study is carried on. In this regard, the sample survey technique was chosen. The technique evaluated the description of research population, sample and sampling techniques, instrument of data collection, techniques of data collection and limitations of the methodology. In chapter four, the presentation and interpretation of data collected is done. This is based on description of data according to its relevance to a given research question. Also, discussion and interpretation of results are carefully made.ABSTRACT This study is on Communication gap: effect on organizational performance (a study of Nnewi north local government area secretariat). This project is aimed at the effect of communication on organizational performance, communication subsist and impact upon everything that is, an event or occurrence worth nothing. It is this pervasiveness of communication that has, with the development of man, animal and the elements developed into a major area of study as well as formidable social force. It is an every day thing because it pervades our very existence. Moreover, survey method is used in the design of the study and questionnaire, personal interview, personal observation, official record etc were used to gather primary and secondary data which were used to analyze using statistical technique like simple percentage. The population includes both senior and junior staff of Nnewi North Local Government area secretariat. Random sampling methods were adopted to elicit the responses. The methods used in disseminating information, the effect of such information on staff, how management takes suggestions from others as it relates to organizational policies were also discussed. However, the result of the survey revealed that the organization agrees that communication is imperative in the successful operation of management. In the cause of the research there were some recommendations made. And one of these recommendations was that the way communication process should be use by the members of the staff.
ContentAbstract The role of radio in the development of rural areas. The roles of radio in the development of rural areas (a case study of ------- local government area). The Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS) Enugu like many other electronic media establishments in Nigeria has been carrying out its communication function of informing, educating entertaining, persuading and public enlightenment and advertisement and other social programmes using the social scientific method of questionnaire survey and in-depth interview method on the project work. The work is handled in five chapters. Chapter one introduces the electronic media and the guide on the handling of the topic and the significance/rationale of the study. The chapter two continued with reviewing literature which ex-rayed the summary of related literature reviewed chapter three explained the research methodology used to study the topic. The research method includes the questionnaire and survey method and interviews while in chapter four data presentation and result findings are made relevant to the research questions. Chapter five finally handled the discussion, implication, recommendation, discussion of result and conclusion.CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Introduction The exposition of principles for this study boils down to the fact on any mobilization effort going in the country or within a geographical area which radio becomes an important instrument for social mobilization. The main content of radio is not designed to challenge or modify the social and political structure of nation either in a non-party state or in a democratic society. This effort of radio stemmed in emphasizing the ability of view presented in the media. Which emphasize the fundamental impact of control. The enlightenment of radio programme introduced by the military regime of late general Sani Abacha was to carry out a new social order and towards the enthronement of fourth republic in a situation where most Nigerians have lost faith in military toward a sincere transition programme as a result of the latest statement of 3rd republic. The radio become a necessary instrument to let people know all things that is happening. Bringing to the notice in radio programme the rural communities agency (R.C.A) was established by Late General Sani Abacha administration in 1995 on the ashes of the radio mobilization for social justice, economic recovery and self reliance (MAMSTER) agency radio serves as instruments for control with the study in the so-called new nation of Africa. According to Donald A. Hobbs and Stuartly Blank (1986) of increasing significance in modern time is the influence of radio in the form of available literature and sit television programme. The mass media can be used both to promote social stability and to effect special change. Its effectiveness his on its ability to reach masses of people immediately at once and in dealing with people regardless of the race or geographical location. It is very necessary in teaching the people extensively and making the people to feel the impact of what is going on in their country or to feel the programme you are intending to introduce. This is where the radio come in, because no society exist in vacuum and as such making people to feel the impact of what you are doing which is necessary to achieve he desired effect. Consequently the Nigeria radio channel area not vibrant to its zineth, the journalist works tooth and nail to make the Nigeria media performance an excellence in performing the duty of social mobilization the attitude toward Nigerian should be known by effectiveness of radio as an agent of social mobilization. Daniel Learner (1968: Pg 50) posited in standard of living urbanization, literacy and exposure to the radio during the process of transition from traditional to modern society. According to W.I Thamas (1995:pg 17) He said the native language of radio supplied an important element of group integration and a linkage to wider community. 1.2 Background Information of Rural Communities Agent The communities Agency (R.C.A) was established by Late General Sani Abacha administration in (1996) on the reason of Mass Mobilization for social justice Economic recovery. Self reliance (MAMSER) in carrying out a new social order for the country. The agency was mandated by the government to ensure that all this polices and programme are carried to the people as quickly, fast and effectively as much as the following can be seen to be functions of (R.C.A) a) To serve as a bridge between the government and the people. b) To ensure that the policies and programmes of the government are explained and communicated to the masses of the country. c) To intermediate the information gap between the government and the masses in the grassroots. d) To inform, educate and entertain the masses. e) To take the findings of the people living in the rural are and communicate them back to the government. f) To foster discipline and sense of belonging in the audience. g) To help in creating awareness of the government policies and programme. h) To promote culture and social order i) To help in the enlightment of the people based on the above function. It is difficulty for the rural communities agency to achieve the desired impact with the use of the radio. 1.3 Statement of Problem This research work is directed at the following problems. a) The problem of creating awareness to the grass root in a rural area. b) The problem of how to mobilize people toward a certain goal concerning the issue of social mobilization. c) The problem of how rural community Agency (RCA) can make their aspiration in knowing people of rural area their need. The above mentioned problems are the issues to be looked into in the cause of this subject work. The issue of creating awareness particularly to the grass roots who are largely hetrogenous, is not an easy task and should be a cause for concern for the agency in carrying out the onerous duty. Also the problem of effectively mobilizing the people is at the same time not an easy one, because different people has a different ways of responding to an issues. Equally radio on its part, will be trying to devise a means of making his aspirations known to the people without being accused of basic or necessarily an organ of propaganda. 1.4 Purpose of Study The purpose of this study is to find out how the activities of the radio affect the programme of the rural communities agency (R.C.A) the work which is focused in finding out how radio can be used effectively in mobilization effort in the country. Particularly a reference to Anambra State. Also to find out how (R.C.A) can be more productive in achieving the desired result using the radio as an instrument of mobilization. Moreover, emphasis on discovering specific reaction and change generated by media content which tends to produce a basic distortion or limitation in their findings. 1.5 Significance of Study The need and important for this study is to stress the fact that the press is an indomitable concept of the rural communities agency (R.C.A) which is meant in achieving the desired impact intended, it is also intended to highlight how the radio can be used in mobilization effort to build a harmonious relationship between the masses and the government. Also the study intend to stress the importance of radio as an instrument of hope restoration in a hopeless situation life the perilous time of military regime. Also the radio can be veritable vehicle to carry information from the government to the people. Which brought about possibility of a good organized information flow throughout the country. 1.6 Research Questions a) To what extend does the role of radio affect any social mobilization effort?. b) Does any role played by radio in crisis situation affect the reaction of the people in the situation? c) To what extend can the radio be used in mobilization effort in carrying out a new social order ? 1.7 Limitation of Study In the cause of carrying out this study, this following problems arose, they are: 1) The non co-operation of all respondent: In this case not all the respondent co-operated to the study of cause; out of 350 questionnaire, it was only 300 that was responded and this is one of the factor in contribution to the rise of problem in carrying out this study. 2) Financial constraint: Due to excruciating financial handicap and economic problem. The researchers went through some financial draw back in the process of gathering data for conclusive project work, money for travel to area where the data for this project work could be obtained is lacked, money for buying books for reference purpose, money for typing and binding the whole project work, infact money is needed in all aspect to carry out this work into completeness. 3) Time: Limited time is also another factor that militate against this study this time issue is also the problem which the researcher of this work faced in act of putting together this work. The time allotted for us the students for completion and submission of this project work was so short that the researcher tears that it may affect the reliability and validity of this research work if totality of research was to be considered. 1.8 Scope of Study This research work only focused and covered the activities of the rural communities Agency (R.C.A) of grass root levels in Anambra state of Nigeria pertaining its social mobilization effort and not the whole state in Nigeria or the entire country. 1.9 Definition of Terms The key words used in this research documentation are: a) RADIO: This refers or pertaining to electromagnetic wave with frequencies between those of infrared radiation and x-rays, hence, pertaining to broadcast radio. b) Effectiveness: This refers to the subject scores of the ability or power of the total understanding and appreciation of subject in its activeness in the desired effect. c) Electronic medium: It encompasses all form communication that are broadcast through the news radio and television. d) Print medium: This term comprises of all form of communication which is printed in visible form through the newspaper and magazine. e) Agent: The term agent have to do with human beings living as a group in a situation requiring that they should have dealing with one another. Like in social form. f) Mobilization: To be mobilized or to become organized and make ready for use or ready for required action. (R.C.A) this is an organ created by Late General Sani Abacha administration charged with the mandate or role of people acting as a vehicle of explaining government policies and programme to the people. g) Social mobilization: This involves the act of creating social awareness in people (i.e) letting people know the social operandi of a place. Which can be, cultural, political, economical, social etc. It can be for awaken old value or new value. h) Anambra: This is one of the South eastern state in Nigeria. The occupant of Anambra state is dominantly Igbo people, speaking Igbo language Anambra state is one of the 36 state in Nigeria that make up the Federal Republic of Nigeria.CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY This study is on the effects of unethical practices in advertising:(a case study of Vitafoam in Nigeria). Advertising as a concept, can be defined as a form of communication through the media about product, services, ideas, personalities or organizations, paid for by an identified sponsor writer Alide in Okunna (2002: 99). Bovee and Arens (1985) gave a more widely accepted definition of advertising as the non-personal communication of information, usually paid for any usually persuasive in nature about products (goods and services) or ideas by an identified sponsor through various media. It is an exciting, dynamic, and challenging enterprise. Its often a persuasive communication in that it tries to persuade the reader, the listener or the viewer to take to the sponsor’s own point of view and also to take some appropriate action. It is not personal or face to face communication, rather it is directed to a group of people. Advertising is also controlled, identifiable information and persuasion by means of mass communication media. Defined by Wright and Zeight (1982:10). Gillran Dyer says that in its simplest sense, the word “advertising” means drawing attention to something or notifying or informing somebody of something. According to the understanding of Advertising practitioners council of Nigeria (APCON) “advertising is a form of communication through the media about products, services or ideas, paid for by an identified sponsor”. The terms advertising was coined from the Latin word “advertere” which mean literally means to draw attention. This is when you are getting the evidence mind in a product, notifying or informing somebody/people of something. There is no doubt that advertising has brought prosperity to different countries of the world through different means. It has helped in speeding up the introduction of new inventions and has most importantly widened markets for mass-produced goods and services. Consumers of industrial goods and service and all over the world today enjoy the choice of a wide variety of such goods and services. Advertising has also been of immense benefit humanity and has contributed in no small measure rapid industrialization and expansion processes all over the world. Infact, advertising has contributed in making the world a better place to live in. Tracing the history of advertising however, it is evident that its practice is as old as man. Weppner (1979) in Okunna (2002: 85) reveals that advertising seems is be part of human nature evidenced since ancient times. Groom in his own view stated that “advertising” was first century AD and has been employed ever since in one form or another”. It has no specific date, any way, but Groom further maintains it as an instrument of marketing in the past 4000 B.C.E. Highlighting its existence in a Nigeria advertising has been part of commercial activities even before the arrival of whitemen remarks Abayomi in Okunna (2002: 86) Quoting Ogbodo (1990), Abayomi in Okunna pointed out the common practices in our locality like town criers do, hawking and display of available waves were the earliest method of advertising in Nigeria. This is still obtainable in the free-market these days as sellers cry above their voices to draw the attention of buyers to their waves. The introduction of modern advertising in Nigeria was made possible in 1859 by a newspaper called “Iwe Irohin”. It was owned by an English Reverend gentleman known as Henry Townsend. It was an eight page newspaper with four pages English version and four pages “Yoruba” version. This newspaper attracted a lot of readership, this creating space for advertisement on births, weddings and obituaries, vacances for houseboys and maids, church activities, ship schedules and other social events. Abayomi in Okunna (2002: 86) records that other newspaper such as the logos observer, the Eagle, the Lagos critic and others joined the music. The business of advertising enjoyed a great boast in the 1920s as notable companies such as Releigh Bicycle, PZ, lever Brothers, Cadbury, Ovaltine and others sprang up to patronize the services of West African Publicity (WAP) who provided advertising services like radio and television there was a considerable advancement in Radio/TV advertisement for over four decades. This began with the establishment of Western Nigeria Broadcasting Services (WNBS) and Western Nigeria Television (WNTN) by the defunct Western Religion, Okunna. At this point, it is pertinent to note that the practice of advertising in Nigeria has been legalized. The legalized was masterminded by APCON which was established by Decree 55 of 1988 amended by Decree 93 of 1992. The APCON, as produced by the code of advertising practice is charged with the responsibility of among other things. a). Determining who are advertisers b). Conducting examinations in the profession and, c). Regulating and controlling advertising in all this aspects and ramifications. The strict adherence to the provisions of this, code has really made advertising an interest oriented, fascinating and fantastic professions. The code of Advertising practice catalogued the essence of good advertising as outlined below. The codes provides that all advertisement in Nigeria should; a). Be legal, decent, honest, truthful and respectful of Nigeria’s culture. b). Be prepared with a high sense of social responsibility and should not show disregard for the interest of consumers and the wider Nigeria society. c). Conform to the principles of fair competition generally accepted in business and fair comment expected in human communication. d). Enhance public confidence in advertising. Unfortunately advertisers have chosen the unethical means of practicing this profession, neglected the good sense of advertising which revolves around social responsibility. In his words, Osunbiyi (1999:27) “advertising on the whole can be rumours, ie it can be deceptive and misleading. It can manipulate the “vulnerable psyche”. No doubt, advertising can be ruinous when some illegal advertisers make claims that are untruce about a product of services. As the consumers of such product testifies that the claims surrounding the product are not time, he automatically stops patronage. A more chronic effects of unethical practice of advertising by F.M. ODUAH (2017:285) is “passing off’, Passing off is a situation where a producer of a given product imitates, in a very close identify, the name, colour graphic design, size and shape of a product of that with a mark of quality, in order to enjoy plenty safes under the umbrella of the original product. It is a also a form of fraud in which a company tries to sell its own product by deceiving buyers into thinking it is another product. It is also making some false representation likely to induce a person to believe that the goods or service are those of another. Passing off-to misrepresent that one’s business is that of, or connected with another, in a way likely to cause damage. The implication of this ugly act is that is attracts loss of loyalty and patronage to the ‘main’ product. Hence, it affects the economic viability of such company and their product. This is obtainable in almost all products in the market such ones are TURA medicated soap which has another imitation product called TULA. Most people, especially the less lettered, who had been enlightened about tura soap quickly buy the ‘TULA’ with the mind frame that is the same thing as the original one. A product like Philip electric iron is not exempted in the passing off. It has imitators like Philip and Dhilip in radio. Other electronic gadgets like SONY products are plagued by such ones like sunny, sonic, sony-multi, sony prestige etc. In BYG products we now have GYC, BIC, VIC, BYG, all sounding almost the same, with the same design not qualitative, thus attracting bad name to the product. Talk of Bournvita food drink, Bomvita, Bovita, Bonveta etc have filled the market, making it difficult for customers to identify the real one. In fact, the list is in exhaustible. Over the years, vitafoam has been noted as a long lasting, soft and qualify mattress. It has been enjoying good name, hence its sustain ability in the market vitafoam is not left out in the “Passing off problem and its effects. In this work, the researcher has chosen VITAFOAM product of VITAFOAM NIGERIA PLC, Aba, for a case study. BRIEF HISTORY OF VITAFOAM NIGERIA PLC The foam company known as vitafoam Nigeria Plc today is an offshoot of Vita international limited, an internationally renowned products of all kinds of quality mattresses, cushions, pillows and upholstery sheetings. Vitafoam is less tossing and turning by evenly distributing the body weight and it create better blood circulation. Vitafoam Nigeria Plc was incorporated in Nigeria as a private company on 4th August, 1962. In 1963, the company opened its first factory at Ikeja, Lagos State for the production of latex form mattresses. The installation of its first urethane foam production plant in the Ikeja premises in 1966 paved way for the production of carpet underlay, fibre pillows, rigid urethane insulating materials and Vitabond Adhesive. Beside the Ikeja factory which is vitafoam Nigeria became the first foam manufacturing company in Nigeria to win the much converted international quality award NIS ISO 9002 certificate for the manufacture and sale of flexible and rigid poly urethane foam, fibre pillows and adhesive. Thus emphasizes their quality policy which states thus: Our policy at vitafoam Nigeria Plc is to continually provide goods and services and conform to international standard and surpass customers expectations at a price that represents value. Vitafoam battles with identical mattresses with such brand names as vitafoam, vitafoam, vitafoam, mitafoam, mitafoam, vitafosfoam, vitalinefoam etc. Worthy of note is that these imitators have contributed a lot to deceiving vitafoam customers to make wrong choices, thereby losing their loyalty to the company. As a parts of the provisions of APCON Code of Advertising Practice under medical products and treatments (4.7:12) “no advertisement should claim that the product, medicine or treatment advertised will promote sexual virility or be effective in treating sexual weakness, or habits associated with sexual excess or indulgence, or any ailment, illness or disease associated with these habits”. Even the pharmaceutical companies, these days make claims that a given drug can cure a member of diseases. But all are based on false claims. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM In the bid to maximize profit in the prevalent get rich-quick syndrome of some fraudulent entrepreneurs, some indulge in ill-practice of advertising. These unethical practice thus, endangers the well-being of the society and the Nigeria culture in particular. Absolute social responsibility to the customers of advertised goods and service is not ensured due to the fact that buyers are often miss led by chronic imitators. As a result of a lot of people haven fallen victim of the unethical practice of advertising known as passing off. This has been a serious problem facing the Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON). The researcher in this, study, attempts to find in solution of these problems aforementioned and to particularly evaluate its effects to vitafoam, as a product and measures the company has put in place to correct the problem. 1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY This research work aims at, 1. To bringing to limelight why illegal practice of advertising is on the increase. 2. To evaluate why some advertisers neglect the laid down ethics of advertising to pass through the “backdoor”. 3. To pin-point the set of advertisers who practice advertising unethically. 4. To look into the extent of effects unethical practice of advertising has caused. 5. To finally review whether APCON has devised other strict measures to penalize illegal practitioners. 1.4 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY It is the belief of the researcher that this study would serve as immense useful purpose to its potential and prospective users. Students, scholars, consumers of goods and services policy makers, advertisers, advertising agencies and advertising researchers would stand to gain a lot from the facts contained in this work. This study upholds the high standard of an ideal advertising practice and therefore benefits the advertisers and feaming consumers of advertised goods and services. It serves as an eye opener to a good sense of advertising because the interest of the consumers is paramount. After close study of this research work, the evil effects of unethical practice of advertising will be drastically reduced, if not bought to an end. 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS To provide a framework for eliciting solution to the research problems, it is necessary that some research questions be formulated. A number of research questions are hereby given below for this reason. 1. Why do some advertisers neglect the ethics of advertising practice? 2. What effects have unethical practice of advertising caused? 3. Has APCON stipulated any measures to curb illegal advertising? 4. Does advertising lack professional application? 5. Why are the media involved in promoting illegal advertising? H3: APCON stipulated measures to curb illegal advertising. H4: Advertising lacks professional application. H0: Advertising does not lack professional application. H5: Media involves in promoting illegal advertising. Ho: Media do not involve in promoting illegal advertising. 1.6. CONCEPTUALLY AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS In the interest of the render, this writer wishes to outline and explain some key concepts used in this study. They are necessary to guide the reader to note the exact meaning of the words, expressions or phrases as used in the passage for easy understanding. Possibly, a word might have more than one meaning and this study taken operationalized the concept as far as this project work is concerned. Conceptually definition EXPLORING: Means to seek for something or after someone, to examine or investigate something systematically. UNETHICAL means not connected with beliefs and principles about what is right and wrong. It is not morally correct acceptable. It is means of promoting advertising. PRATICE it means that it is a way of doing something that is usual or expected way in a particular organization or situation. ADVERTISING it is a form of communication intend to persuade if viewers, readers or listeners to take some action. It is an exciting, dynamic, and challenging enterprise. Its often pervasive, fascinating and materialistic nature makes it an object of criticism and misunderstanding. Advertising is also a profession in which a body of experts in involved in the conceptualization, planning, creating, packaging and placing of advertisements on the media. NIGERIA-Nigeria is a country in West Africa sub-region within the African continent which got their independent in 1960. The evolution of Nigeria state was the creative ingenuity of the British Colonial Masters, especially, lord Lugard, who in 1914 amalgamented the Northern and Southern protectorates in the Nigeria area and thus created one of the largest countries in Africa called Nigeria. Nigerian is a geographical/entity area that contains many nations and state. VITA FOAM is defined as a means of tossing and turning by evenly distributing the body weight. It is a foam that we lay down on when sleeping for a comfortable relaxation after work, activity or when we are tired even feeling sleeping. Operational definition EXPLORING: According to British Dictionary, exploring means to seek for something or look after someone. Here, am going to seek for unethical practices of advertising in Vita Form Plc. UNETHICAL This is obtainable when there is a deviation from what is supposed to be. That is to say that one may have exhibited an unacceptable behaviour against ones organization or society where the person finds himself. Negative practice by vitafoam advertisers in Nigeria. To this end, unethical here means paying no regard to the laid down principles of advertising. PRACTICE When we say practice, if entails the practicality of what is said, as in theory and practice. In football, for instance, there is a time when the players are told what to do with the football. And they yet to perfect in those lectures by practicing what is taught them. ADVERTISING Advertising, like other promotional techniques informs, persuades and reminds. It can change consumer’s, beliefs, attitudes, images, and behaviour. But for advertising to be effective on a national level, enormous expenditures are required. Advertising is a giant industry. Advertising is an avenue of creating awareness of vitafoam in Nigeria. NIGERIA It is a geographical entity or area that we practice advertising. It is also a continent in African or a country in West Africa sub-region within the African continent were advertisers shows unethical practice. VITA FOAM It is a company which practices advertising of foam in Nigeria. A company under the Nigeria study of foam advert. 1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION It is important to point out that the scope of this study is to the vitafoam Nigeria Plc to determine the effects of unethical practice of advertising in Nigeria. The case study is a renowned company which produces quality mattresses, cushions, pillows and upholstery sheeting's. The researchers choice of this area as her scope of study is for her generate data capable of representing the needs find answers to the research questions. Also it is to use a company that has the same business and environmental characteristics with the within the target population. This is to a largest extent will lead to the validity and reliability of the instruments used for the study. Despite all these opportunities, a lot of obstacles were encounter by the researcher during the process of putting the project together. Among them are: a). Time Constraints: A limited time frame was allotted to the research for gathering of data and sourcing to research materials. b). Finance: Money was required at all stages of this study but could not gotten easily. Effort was made by the research to ensure that the research was carried out under conditions that led to scientifically valid conclusion despite the financial problem. 1.8 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY In this study, it is simply assumed that any study on the effects of unethical practice of advertising in Nigeria is a welcomed development. The assumptions of such effects are therefore based on a case study of Vitafoam Nigeria Plc. Therefore the research study assumes that i). Some advertisers neglect the ethics of advertising practice. ii). APCON has stipulated some measures to curb illegal advertising. iii). Advertising lack professional application. iv). The media are involved in promoting illegal advertising. v). Unethical practice in advertising cause some effects.This work focuses on the coverage of foreign news by Nigerian Newspapers using Vanguard and Daily Sun as case studies. The researcher made use of content analysis while simple random sampling was used to select 24 editions of the two newspapers which amounted to 48 editions as the sample size for the period of six months of this study. The findings show that Nigerian newspapers report foreign news frequently but do not give it prominence that is most foreign news reported were buried in the inside pages of the newspapers. Also the Nigerian newspapers report more of negative foreign news which does not have any bearing on development purposes. This work concludes that the concept of imbalance in news flow should be given less attention and be accepted as a characteristic of media system.This study is aimed at finding out the state of Nigerian newspapers published on the internet with a view to ascertaining the perception of Nigerian readers (audience) to them. The study will also look at the challenges and prospects of internet newspaper publishing the various problems encountered by readers as well as finding out the effectiveness of the internet as a feedback medium to newspapers stories on the internet. In the same vein, the study will also find out if the internet has also played any role in the transformation of the newspaper industry in Nigeria. The methodology for this study will be survey as it seeks to measure audience perception. Respondents for this research will be purposively sampled from the population of newspaper readers (both online and conventional) in Owerri the capital city of Imo State. Recommendations based on the later findings of this research will be made at the end of the study.CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY This study is on Communication gap: effect on organizational performance (a study of Nnewi north local government area secretariat). Every needs to communicate with those around him to share experience, jokes, furniture, hopes and ideas. By the time we read our teens, we probably take the ability to communicate for granted as merely doing what comes naturally. Whether we realize it or not, each of us has learn about language and communication by the time we become teenagers. In early childhood, we learnt how to write and interprete numbers and digrames. We even come to understand the silent language of communication expressed in false gestures and body movement which is the body language of non verbal communication. This army of skills has helped us to be active members of the family, school, work group and society at large. Communication occurs when a person transmits meaning understanding message to another person or group. Having known this, it is of require goo communication since it is regarded as the foundation upon which an organization system must be developed and maintained to get an idea passed to others in order to bring intended performance. Without the process of communication the various part of organization would not be bound together and the organization would not exist. In other to be successful, the organization needs people who can communicate effectively and efficiency. Communication is very important tool in every organization. John MP Fiffner saw communication as a galaxy of connotation each of which is valuable and useful for its particular context. It is indeed common that the mere mention of the world communication conjure s pictures of the letters, telegram, radio, cable, telephone etc. in the mind of the people in the street. The word communication came from a Latin word “communication”, meaning to share. It is a way of sharing ideas, thought, feeling, message or information by speech, visual signals writing or behaviour. According to Lee (2011) without the means, the capacity and the will to communicate, what we knew as business government and community activities could not be but is not enough for people to talk with each other, they need to know how to talk with others too. The first executive fixation according to Bernard (1990) is to maintain a system of communication. It is only when people have come to know others work, play or study that they are prepared to open up and to trust others with their secrets communication is the meaningful exchange of information between two or more living creatures, hence animal language. It can be act by which human pass information, knowledge etc. According to Uzozie Raphael (1992 : pg 10) he says that communication is all the possible method of conveying or passing information, idea, feeling etc from one source to another, in a systematic way (sentence formation ways) using channel which are recognized and accepted by all the participant in the communication gap. Uwadiegwu (2010 : pg 155) defines communication as a process of giving peoples information through the means of previews agreed symbols, signs, signals, or patterns. Mbiti (1987) sees communication as the transfer of information from one person to the other, information sent out all supposed to be understood and react to it with the desired response. in the same vein, Graham et al (1992) state that communication must include facts, intention and attitude. The chief purpose of communication is to make the receiver of the message to understand what is in the mind of the sender. Therefore, it is no exaggeration to assert that communication is playing operation of our business. We have more people to inform more people to listen to and more people to help us solve our problem and more things to talk about. Its function is the means by which social inputs are fed into social system or organization, the means by which behaviour is modified, changed is effected, information is made productive and goal are achieved, be it in business, the military, the government etc. very organization is get up to obtain same defined objective. Some business organization like Nnewi North Local Government Area Secretariat is set up to improve the standard of education and render social service. The co-operative in this case is not that of making profit. However, the objective of any organization has been achieved through the instrumentality of individual persons who form the basic nucleus of any organization. The people have to be managed effectively and efficiently in order to ensure their readiness to perform for the attainment of goals and objective of organization. “Management” is defined by Denyer (1972: pg 46) is concerted with the direction and control of an enterprise and involves planning and direction of the work of other. These managerial functions cannot successfully carry out in the absence of communication is what all managers do. It breeds life into planning, organizing, motivating, controlling and budgeting. It is the way we get meaningful work accomplished by coordinating the effort of their individual and groups. Communication as defined by Brown (1950:pg 16) is the process of transmitting ideas or thought from one person to another for the purpose of creating understanding in the thinking of the person receiving the communication. It is also the act of imparting information or the mutual exchange of information and understanding by the use of symbols, language and signs. The goals of any communication his either to change behaviours, get actions, get information or to persuade and ensure understanding. Drucker (1954:pg 12) while discussing the importance of communication said: The managers has a specific tool which is information. He does not handle people, he motivate, guides, organize people to do their own work and to do this, is the spoken and written word or the language of numbers. No matter whether the managers job is engine accounting, legislating or selling, his effectiveness depends on his ability caused by the lack of effective communication are among the greatest problem managers faces in today’s competitive business world. Skill are needed to get ideas and thoughts across other people as well as skill in finding out what other people are after, a kind of impulse feeling. Drucker assertion implies that communication are needed to convey information necessary for on going operation and that communication can have an effect on the attitude of people in the organization and consequently on the general performance of the organization. Managers spend a lot of their time in order to co-ordinate human and physical resources of an organization into effective efficient and co-ordinate work unit. It is only through this, the human and material elements of an organization can be achieved. As average manager spend between 80 to 95 percent of his time communicating in one form or the other, interviewing applicants for position, holding meeting, writing letters, memos and repots, telephoning clients, listening and reading. Relevant information, facts, feeling and ideas must be communicated within an organization before any organizational decision can be made. Communication in recent years has been regarded as a managerial function because of its indispensable important in any organization coupled with the fact that it has been realized that communication is need in born but has to e learnt and developed along line. Language, which is deemed the most important tools of communication. Researchers have proved that there are more than 280 languages in Nigeria. It was also observed that the organization Nnewi North Local Government Area Secretariat which serves as a study for this research have worker from different ethnic groups with different languages, different social and cultural backgrounds. This shows that effective communication in any organization cannot be predicted accurately. As S.I Hayakawa (1979:pg 1) said “the meaning of words are not in the word”. They are in its and no word ever has exactly the meaning. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Misunderstanding and distrust caused by lack of effective communication are among the greatest problems Nigerian managers face todays competitive business world. This is why the attention of many organization today and focused on the task of improving communication. List of obstacles of effective communication is almost unless each failure can mean serious losses, errors, delays, bottlenecks and misunderstanding. One need not to emphasize on the simple fact that communication is the way management gets it job done. The ability to communicate is the most important of all the skill a manager must develop and when the most valuable ability administration may exercise. It is estimated that close to 70 percent of our communication efforts are likely to be misunderstood thereby any human society. There are several reason for these, some of the reasons include lack of clarity of the message, receivers perception of the sender and the senders bias regarding the message. Other may be due to lack of interest in the message, poor listening and inability to concentrate. Therefore, it becomes imperative to undertake a study on how communication is handled coupled with communication problem in the organization. 1. In the light of this, the following formats are the statement of problems. In what ways have the use of effective communication in Nnewi North Local Government Areas Secretariat contributed to the achievement of its objectives? 2. Has the achievement of the objectives been encumbered due to lack of proper communication facilities? 3. Which process of communication does the management of the organization adopt in passing down their message? 4. Has this process been suitable enough to get done at when expected or has it been a hindrance to work progress? 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of this study are: 1. To examine whether there is resultant effects of communication gap in Nnewi North Local Government Area Secretariat. 2. To find out the process and identify barriers in communication. 3. To find out the most appropriate communication method for better organizational performance. 4. To investigate whether there is any communication gap between the employees and the management. 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. Is there any resultant effects of communication gap in Nnwei North Local Government Area Secretariat? 2. Do communication gap exist between the employees and the management? 3. Is there any appropriate communication method for better organizational performance? 1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY This research topic limited its study to Nnwei north local government area secretariat to communication gap in respect to its effect on organization performance with special attention. Nnwei north local government area secretariat comprises of female and male staff who are involved in various work. There are also student who are doing industrial training. The study also covers the role of communication in organizational mobilization in Nnewi north local government area secretariat. 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Communication has remained an essential and an indispensable aspect of any organization as far as administration and management are concerned. Although most managers do not share the same view, however it is imperative that I spot out any gap in communication and to find a good solution to such problems. The worked will also focus on the task of providing a milieu for improving communication in Nnwei north local government area secretariat or government owned, individual association infact, every human society will benefit immensely from this study. Finally, it is expected to provide a basis which further research work covered be conducted in future. This study will highlight the important of communication as a vehicle organizational mobilization in a transition era. 1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. COMMUNICATION: The act of impacting information or the mutual exchange of information and understanding by the use of symbols language and signs. It is a social transaction which involves getting ones ideas across in a way a person can be understand by the other person of whom the message is been addressed. 2. INFORMATION: Information knowledge, items of knowledge news. 3. MOTIVATION; It is a force that influence human behaviour. In other word, it is a force that drives individual towards communication or acting in a particular way. 4. PUBLIC: A section of the community grouped because of a common interest or activity. It can also refer to employee and the group of people, the organization conduct business with. 5. ORGANISATION: A business concern united and constructed for a particular end. 6. FEEDBACK: Process of bringing a response to the original speaker/sender or source. It is the ultimate judge of effectiveness of communication. 7. GAP: Break, incompleteness and unwholesome.
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