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    Effective use of a tropical hop named bitter leaf [Vernonia Amygdalina] extract as a means of extending the shelf Life of locally brewed millet beer

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    ABSTRACT

    This research is on Effective use of a tropical hop named bitter leaf [Vernonia Amygdalina] extract as a means of extending the shelf Life of locally brewed millet beer. This  local  beer is  brewed  from  a   cereal  grain  called  millet, and  it  is  brewed  with  bitter  leave  extract  acting  as  hop  substitute  to  see  if  it  can  increase  the  shelf – life  of this  beer. The  production  process  include  malting, mashing, fermentation, and  maturation. The microorganisms  associated  with  fermentation  include  Saccharomyces  Cerevisiae and  Saccharomyces  Charelienia. These  yeast  hasten  fermentation  by  converting  the  sugar  in  the  beer  to  alcohol. Kunu  is  an  indigenous  alcoholic  beverages  that  is  traditionally  brewed  with out hops, and  because  of  this  it  has  a  shot shelf  life  as  compared  with  that brewed  with  the  tropical  hops. There   is  a  significant [P≥ 0.05] difference  in  chemical  properties of millet  with  hops  and  without  hops. Millet  with  hops  is  the  best  with  alcoholic  content  of  0.325 ± 0.004, total  acidity  of 0.645 ± 0.011(% lactic  acid),fixed  acidity  of  0.041± 0.002, specific gravity of 1.199±0.015 and  pH  of  4.03± 0.02.But  without  hops  we  have  an  alcoholic  content  of  0.316± 0.005, total  acidity(lactic  acid) of  0.427± 0.002, fixed  acidity  of  0.034± 0.005,specific  gravity  of  1.049± 0.007, and  pH  of  3.32±0.02.From  the  result  the beer without  hops  is  the  lowest  in  acceptance  of  chemical  properties  so  it  is  advisable  that  the local millet  beer  be  brewed  with  the tropical  hops (Vernonia Amygdalina).                                                                                               

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    THE USE OF BITTERLEAF (VERNONIA AMYGDALINA) EXTRACT AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING THE SHELF-LIFE OF LOCALLY BREWED SORGHUM BEER

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    ABSTRACT

    This project is on the use of bitter leaf (vernonia amygdalina) extract as a means of extending the shelf-life of locally brewed sorghum beer. Locally brewed beer (sorghum beer) is an indigenous alcohol average. It is produced mainly from sorghum grain (Sorghum vulgare ) and the process of brewing involves malting, mashing, souring, fermentation and packaging. Locally brewed beer without hops has a short shelf-life. The aqueous extract of a tropical plant, bitter-leaf was used as the hop .Two type of drink were produced, one with hops and another without hops. Chemical analyses were carried out on both drinks, which gave a significant (p≤0.05) difference. Sorghum beer with hops has a total acidity of 0.562±0.03, fixed acidity of 0.203±0.001, Volatile acidity 0.360±0.02, PH 3.93, specific gravity 1.042±0.003, total dissolved solids 1.12×105ppm, total suspended solids 1.65×105ppm, ethanol content of 3.43±0.03 respectively. While sorghum beer without hops has a total acidity of 0.652 ±0.002, fixed acidity of  0.176±0.002, volatile acidity of 0.476±0.03, PH of 3.50 specific gravity of 1.021±0.003,  total dissolved solid of 1.15×105ppm, total suspended solids of 1.5×105ppm and an ethanol content  of 3.65±0.02. The microbial count for sorghum beer with hop had no growth of E.coli, streptococcus and staphylococcus but aspergillus was present from the 4th day and heaviest on the 8th day. While the drink without hop had growth of staphylococcus and aspergillus which was seen from the 2nd day and heaviest on the 4th day but E.coli and streptococcus was absent. From the results, the drink with hops could keep for a longer period of time than the other drink without hops. Thus, the aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina could extend the shelf-life of locally brewed sorghum beer.

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