This research is on Development of an online examination system. Case study: YABATECH. Online examination systems are being used by an ever-increasing number of institutions to help reduce time deficiency, cost, exam malpractices such as impersonation and other unethical exam-related exercises that take place in most independent and national examinations. In this study, an explanation of how online examination systems are related to some traditional or manual based analysis, and techniques are presented and how online examination systems help institutions increase the efficiency of result generation. The project describes various limitations of current system methods and discusses possible solutions that can improve online examination system and makes it applicable to an even broader range of institutions. This project was carried out using tools like PHP to develop the front end and MYSQL for the back end of the software-online examination system. Evaluation of the project strictly shows that the software system can reduce 50% of the present examination malpractices problem in the current manual system.
MODERN OFFICE EQUIPMENTS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SUCCESS OF A BUSINESS ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF NNPC ENUGU DEPOT)
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This research is on Modern office equipment’s and their contributions to the success of a business organization (a case study of NNPC Enugu depot). The use of modern office equipment is inevitable to offices in this modern era- until the 15th century before the advent of typewriters, publication of business documents was a difficult job and bored mostly to secretaries because everything has to be handwritten.
With time and technological growth, business organizations witnessed information overload due to over increasing commercial transactions. Business therefore, needs technology to turn out words effectively, efficiently and continuously.
These days, the world of work is changing fast, as we approach the new millennium modern equipment are fast replacing manual machines in the workplace, computer automated machines have gradually taken the work of men. With the level of sophistication and cut throat competition in our society, nobody is resting on their oars in the new technological age.
Before now, most employers of labour needed all kinds of categories of workers. Some were trained on the job, while others came as experts. In the factories, people were employed in their thousands to do all kinds of jobs. Production machines, acquired long age, took time to warm up for use while workers took their turn in churning out the large number of workforce.
Most management, employers of labour are of the view that the introduction of high technology to the workplace has made the work easier, faster, saves time and cost, especially on overhead, better than employing a multitude with no result.
Again, with the introduction of new technologies, business men have been saved from carrying huge sums of money all over the place, the advent of electronic fund transfer is a pointer to this topic.
The use of internet, E-mail, pagers, digitized telephone services, mobile phones, answering machines have made the job of executive, top managers less cumbersome and communication gap has been bridged with the popularization of these gadgets. Business and transactions can be discussed through these services.
Even in terms of society for the workplace it is common feature in some big organization to mount circuit television, to monitor movement of people. Big time executive also use close circuit television to wade off intruders and those they don’t want to see, with this, productivity is thus enhanced.
BRIEF HISTORY OF NIGERIAN NATIONAL PETROLEUM CORPORATION (NNPC) ENUGU DEPOT
NNPC (Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation) depot Enugu is located at Emene in Enugu East local government of Enugu state. Commissioned on 25th August, 1979 by the military Administration of the then Anambra state Col. D.S Abubakar.
It has a total capacity of 12 million liters of petroleum products. It has only three by products in stock which include Premium Motor Sprit (PMS) otherwise called petrol, Dual Purpose Kerosene (DPK) and Automobile Gas Oil (AGO) ago or diesel for onward distribution to her customers the oil marketing companies.
Enugu depot has a total number of six departments namely: Administrative, sales, security, accounts operation and safely departments with a total workforce of 250 workers. Each department is managed by the head of such department who equally reports to the depot manager who is the overall boss.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In a developing country like Nigeria, the use of modern office equipment in the office is still minimal because they lack the technical know how to put the one their disposal to good use. Lack of stilled manpower to update and maintain already acquired machines. Besides, constant power failure from the public electricity supply has not helped matters in any way.
More over, some office worker especially secretaries sees the technological improvement as a challenge and also as threat to their job. These problems and anxiety in the minds of office workers, is likely to lead to a drastic reduction in production in most office.
Finally, this situation calls for serious policies by management dealing with the problem, which psychologically destroys the mental and emotional state of workers.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
For every act, there must be a reason and in light of this, the purposes of this study are:
- To discover what office equipment is all about.
- To identify the contributions of modern office equipment on the success of business organization.
- To examine the training needed for the operation of these office equipments.
- To identify how to maintain them in the office.
- To discover the problems associated with the use of these equipments.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
- What is office equipment all about?
- Do these modern office equipments actually have any contribution on the success of business organization?
- Do the operation of these modern equipments need any training program?
- Do these modern office equipments require proper maintence?
- Is there any problem associated with the use of these modern equipments?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study “modern office equipments and their contributions to the success of a business organization, a case study of NNPC Enugu depot” is that it will create awareness as well provide information on the roles these modern office equipment plays in seeing that NNPC Enugu depot achieve their goals and also meet up the standard. It is also recommended to the society in general and whosoever wishes to achieve efficiency on prudent.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The researcher is concerned with the contributions of modern office equipments to the success of business organization with particular reference to Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) Enugu depot in Enugu east local government area in Enugu state.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Office: it is a place /room /building where clerical duties are carried out.
- Modern: involving up-to-date techniques or equipment. it is also refers as most recent or current
- Equipment: the tools / items needed for a particular purpose. In order words, it also means things that are needed to carry out work / job in the office; it could be electrical or manual.
- Researcher: person that carry out the piece of work.
- Accuracy: error free presentation.
- Machine: a device with an electrical power attached to it used in office production.
- Crude/Manual: equipment that require physical exertion of energy to operate.
- Efficiency: prompt delivering of jobs.
- Business: knowledge of commercial procedures i.e. buying and selling.
- Operation: the manner in which business is carried out.
- Production: output, increase in manpower.
- NNPC: Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation
EFFECT AND CAUSES OF CORRUPTION IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC SERVICE. ( A CASE STUDY OF THE NIGERIAN POLICE FORCE OWERRI, IMO STATE)
According to Max Weber he defined bureaucracy as an organization with a hierarchy of paid, full-time officials who formed a chain of command and these are concerned with the business of administration with controlling, managing and coordinating a complex series of task. Bureaucracy is a system of control, it is a hierarchical organization in which superiors strictly control and discipline the activities of the subordinates. ORUEBOR, A.A (2007:142) According to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2000) defines corruption as “dishonest or illegal behavior, especially of people in authority; the act or effect or making somebody change from moral to immoral standards of behavior” corruption is a deviation from following the normal accepted standard of behavior by a public official in order to serve social economic or political interest. CHINELO AROH (2010:50).
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Nigerian police Authority have and will continue to be one of the prime mores of development in different parts of the world and their importance and impact on daily activities of citizens cannot be over emphasized. Before the independence of Nigeria in 1960, public relations practice was not popular because only a few Nigerians know what it was. In Nigeria, public relation was introduced on 1st January, 1944 with the establishment of the first ever public relations office in the country though it was not popular. The lack of adequate knowledge of public relations as a career and the absence of public relation programmes for understanding its practice hindered many Nigerian organizations until recently, when the Federal Republic of Nigeria promulgated Decree No.16 of June,1990,establishing and upholding the practice of public relations in Nigeria.
The origin of the police is a product of social crisis in the society. The word Police is derived from the Greek word “polis” meaning that part of non ecclesiastical administration having to do with the safety, health and order of the state. Policing and police work did not start as a paid profession. It started as a noble, incorruptible and distinction. It was the justices of the peace system, which corrupted the parish constable system. The 1960 constitution established the Nigerian police force as a federal force charged with the responsibility for maintenance of law and order throughout Nigeria. However, the constitution did not prevent the regions from establishing their own local police force. The command of the Nigerian police force was under the inspector general of police (IGP) while those of the regions were under the command of commissioners of police. Recently, the Nigerian police force (NPF) dropped the force in its name and now answers the Nigerian police. Do not be surprised to read the Nigerian police in place of the Nigerian police force.
The Nigerian police is grouped into departments A-F; “A” department takes care of administration personnel promotion, dismissal, transfer and posting, medical budgeting, pay and accounts, public relations and printing etc. “B” department and “F” have their own respective duties, our major concern is “A” department where public relations belongs or categorized.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Here, the unfortunate aspect of corruption in Nigeria is that there are enabling laws to fight it but the leadership find it difficult to enforce these laws. The menace of corruption leads to slow movement of files in the offices, police extortion e.g. “In collecting twenty naira from bus drivers causing traffic congestion and even road accidents if any of the drivers refuses to give them money, they will start shooting guns to deflate their tires. The funds allocated for their welfare disappear into this air. Thus, it is believed by many in the society that corruption is endemic in all government. Corruption is found in democratic and dictation politics, feudal, capitalist and socialist economies.
The leaders as well as their followers are corrupt. If there is lack of control of corruption in every sphere in the nation, it is then like the old saying “When water chokes you, what do you take to wash it down?”(The philosophy of Aristotle, 451-ME2783, p.355). Corruption is as a result of man made factors such as greedy people, especially our leaders, who are not contented with what they have so that they will use public funds for selfish gains. Also, many people in Nigeria, especially the youths want to get-rich-quick, so that they indulge in all types of crimes to make money, kidnapping, electoral fund (thuggery), armed robbery, yahoo yahoo, 419, the list is endless, yet the elders who are to correct them end in praising them. Nigerian police force was known in the eighties and nineties for early dispatch of services, result oriented performance and high productivity.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The aim and objective of this project are as follows:
- To solve the problem of corruption in the Nigerian public service for better governance.
- To know how bureaucracy structure and control encourage the police force to achieve its objectives.
- To find out how bureaucracy improve decision making.
- To ascertain how bureaucracy improve productivity.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
- `Why is corruption a viable enterprise in the 3rd world, nay, Nigeria?
- To what extent does the poor living condition and welfare of the police affect their performance?
- To what extent does police brutality and extortion damage its image to the public?
- How cordial is the relationship between the police and the press?
- To what extent do the Nigerian police effectively handle crowd and crisis management?
The purpose of this research is to answer the uplisted research questions that bother both the police and civilians in the state.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
- The findings in this study shall be of immense help to administrators and managers in correcting animates coherent in a bureaucracy set up.
- It will aid the government and television authority to avoid bureaucracy bottle neck, red tapism and i do not care attitude portrayed by workers.
- It will help the police force also in boasting productivity.
- Corporate bodies and entrepreneurs that wish to share their own business police force would find this study invaluable in their endeavours.
- Academically, it will help other researchers in further research analysis.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Since in large police force corruption in eminent and inevitable for the success of such television authority, the study shall focus on Nigerian police authority and due to its structural largeness the study shall be narrowed down to the administrative sections.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the study, the researcher encountered certain constraints that impede the academic work. These are:
- Time Constraints: This posed as a limitation to the study, as the time frame work constructed by the department for the kick off of the study was incompatible with out academic work load.
- Unwillingness of staff to give out information: The researcher myself could not gather as much information and facts due to non compliance and non-cha/llant attitude of respondents of workers against the study.
- Funding: Due to economic problem, the researcher myself is faced with lack of adequate finance was not available for mobilisation of the work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
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- An organization: This is a group of people who forms a business together to achieve a goal.
- Bureaucracy: This is the official rules and ways of doing things that a government or the police force has with positions of an authority will defined hierarchically so as to facilitate the attainment of police force goals.
- Administration: This is seen from a government perspective where it is being used as a machinery for implementing government policy.
- Objectives: Something that one tries to achieve, it is also the aim or goals the police force or government seek to achieve.
- Hierarchy: This is a system with grades of authority or status from the lowest to the highest. At each level of the hierarchy, officials enjoy the right of issuing directives to subordinates who have the duty to obey them.
APPRAISAL OF THE ACCOUNTING FRAMEWORK IN THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM. (A CASE STUDY OF MBAITOLI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA), NIGERIA
This project is on Appraisal of the accounting framework in the local government system. (a case study of Mbaitoli local government area). The management of public resources has always been a turbulent issue. This is precisely the heart of any governmental administration. Government business in whatever for, be it policies, programmes, activities or function is run in accordance with the laid down formalities. These formalities in the area of government accounting and financial control and procedures may include laws, rules and accepted norms certain financial memorandum of the local government system. The accounting framework regulates the account format for the preparation of government account in local government system in an instrument for introduction of new policies and guide lines, before inclusion into the financial regulation as a part of a more permanent code of regulation. It is used to aid the achievement of probity and accountability in government. The frameworks specify action acceptable and those doomed unacceptable. The system is set to ensure uniformly and conformity of application.
This work examined the general background and concept of the research topic listing the aims, objectives, statements of problems and the scope and limitations of the research work. The existing literature on the accounting framework was examined so as to create in theoretical base for the study.
COOPERATE GOVERNANCE AND FRAUD MANAGEMENT, THE ROLE OF EXTERNAL AUDITOR PUBLIC QUOTED COMPANY IN NIGERIA (THE CASE STUDY OF CARBURY NIGERIA LIMITED)
This research is on Cooperate governance and fraud management, the role of external auditor public quoted company in Nigeria (the case study of Cadbury Nigeria limited). The rising spate of fraud in public quoted company has assumed an enormous dimension. This development has eroded public trust in financial statements. Auditors in their duty to expressing professional opinion on the truth and fairness of financials are ostensibly bedeviled with quantum of challenges which could result in the issuance of a clean bill of health to corruption-riddled establishments. It is against this background that this paper critically examines the challenges corruption poses to auditors and audit reporting, and proffers formidable cures to ameliorate the Achilles heels and to redeem the auditing profession from impeding collapse. This called for the need for this study and the purpose of this study therefore is to identify the causes of fraud, measure its impact and identify means of controlling it. The study is a survey research and questionnaire was used for the collection of primary data while libraries, journals, write-ups, seminar papers and books by popular authors were used for secondary data. The findings show that poor management, inexperienced personnel, overstretching, job rotation, poor remuneration, frustration, poor book-keeping, inadequate training, communication gap and poor leadership skills are the greatest causes of fraud in the ruralby external auditors in public quoted company in nigeria. It was concluded that adequate internal control systems should be put in place and that workers satisfaction and comfort should be taken care off.
THE ASSESSMENT OF IGBO TRADITIONAL RULERS. (A CASE STUDY OF AMANDUGBA AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY IN ISU L.G.A. IMO STATE).
This research is on the assessment of Igbo traditional rulers. (a case study of amandugba autonomous community in isu LGA Imo state). This project work was an insight into the roles and contributions of Igbo Traditional Rulers to nation building. After independence, Nigeria leaders were faced with the challenge of ensuring an economically, politically, and socio-cultural strong united and invisible Nigeria. This task would not be left for the elected state leaders alone hence the need for the traditional rulers to play significant roles for accomplishment of this task. Interviews were conducted from the data collected and secondary documents consulted, it was revealed that Igbo Traditional Rulers have played an important part in Nigeria development. The population of the study was the entire Igbo Traditional Rulers in Nigeria with particular reference to Igbo Traditional Rulers were now that we need them most.
THE ASSESSMENT OF IGBO TRADITIONAL RULERS. (A CASE STUDY OF AMANDUGBA AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY IN ISU L.G.A. IMO STATE).
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
For a proper analysis and understanding of the cultural and historical basis of Igbo Traditional Rulers, one has to accept to the fact that every society has its cultural heritage and value. Even in the developed world, modernization has not completely erased the cultural of the people in Nigeria, one of the cultural heritages in Igbo Traditional Rulers. It is obvious that, there has been an evolution through the years on places of Igbo Traditional Rulers and the roles they are expected to play in our national development. The above notwithstanding, Igbo Traditional Rulers in different peoples in the Nigeria colonial and post colonial Nigeria, the traditional ruler ships institution seems to be the most enduring pre-colonial institution that survived through forms of administration in modern Nigeria.
Traditional rulers or chieftaincy institutions in Nigeria have had a very chequered history. Before the advents of British colonial era, Igbo Traditional Rulers exercised political authority in their respective communities in varying degree as provided by their tradition and custom during the colonial era. The role of Igbo Traditional Rulers changed radically they became prime face rulers of their institution or communities under district commissioner, in the present Nigeria, the relevance and importance of Igbo Traditional Rulers have been fluctuating. It is against this backdrop that this work tends to analysis the salient roles performed by Igbo Traditional Rulers in national development and also to bring to limelight the relevance or otherwise of Igbo Traditional Rulers to nation building in the present day Nigeria with particular reference to Amandugba Autonomous Community in Isu Local Government Area of Imo state.
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In any developing nation like Nigeria, the task of putting in places sustainable political, economic and social, cultural status. For development is not always the work of one and or a particular group of people. It involves the entire stakeholder governance of which Igbo Traditional Rulers are inclusive.
Igbo Traditional Rulers has prior to British institution in Nigeria been agents of development in their respective domains. They performed all functions needed for the nation building, following the institution into our political and economic system by the powers and relevance of these Igbo Traditional Rulersdimished substantially. They were related to the background in the scheme of things and some were used in the exploitation and manipulation of the indigenous people. This is one reason why some scholars had argued for the scrapping of the traditional ruler ship in the east brought about cultural debasement of our culture. It was believed that fellowing the independence of Nigeria, the Igbo Traditional Rulers would regain its prominence and contribute effectively in building of a new Nigeria, but this has not been as envisaged, as the fortune of these Igbo Traditional Rulers keeps on fluctuating from one regime to another.
There is also a continued debuted between and among scholars on the importance and relevance or otherwise of Igbo Traditional Rulers in Nigeria development. As a nation in the pipeline, the task of building a formidable Nigeria should not be the duty of modern institution of governance alone, there are roles which Igbo Traditional Rulers could play in nation building.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to bring to limelight of the efforts made by Igbo Traditional Rulers in ensuring strong and united Nigeria through some salient roles they performed in society the research will also identify and highlight some obstacles militating against the contribution of Igbo Traditional Rulers of traditional rulership, is still relevant to Nigeria development.
- RESEARCH QUESTION
- What are the role traditional rulers played in nation building?
- Do traditional rulers create any impact in nation building?
- Is there any other way the traditional rulers can contribute toward the nation building.
- Did the masses feel the impact made by traditional ruler in nation building?
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to bring to limelight of the efforts made by Igbo Traditional Rulers in ensuring strong and united Nigeria through some salient roles they performed in the society.
The research will also identify and highlight some obstacles militating against the contribution of Igbo Traditional Rulers of traditional rulership, is still relevant to Nigeria development.
The above issues among others are basic for the understanding of this research work.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
To show the relevance of Igbo Traditional Rulers to the modern Nigeria society especially in this period of our democracy.
The study will equally stress how Igbo Traditional Rulers can effectively use their position to bring about social economic development.
This project will be useful to scholars who engage in African studies since it will provide first hand information about the contributions of Igbo Traditional Rulers in nation building with particular reference to Amandugba Autonomous Community in Isu
It can also serve as a useful material for undergraduates and post graduates alike.
- LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to state the impact made by the Igbo Traditional Rulers in making sure that there is strong and united Nigeria through smart role they play in the society the research also identify some problem encounter by the traditional rulers in nation building. It also states weather the Igbo Traditional Rulers relevant to the development of Nigeria.
- STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
Hi: Igbo Traditional Rulers has played a unifying role in nation building.
Ho: Igbo Traditional Rulers has not played any unifying roles in nation building.
Hi: People believe that religion is a cog to the wheel of politics in Nigeria.
Ho: People do not believe that religion is a cog to the wheel of politics in Nigeria.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
TRADITION: This the total of a people’s belief’s customs, values, ethnics, orientations, in the post which still exist in the present.
INSTITUTION: It is a relationship or behavioural pattern of importance of a community or society which has been in existence of a long time.
ADMINISTRATION: This is the management and directions of the affairs of government. It is the organization and direction of persons and resources to accomplish a desired end.
IGBO TRADITIONAL RULERS AND NATION BUILDING: It is the application and use of a people beliefs customs, values which the people have come to accept as valid and positive in the running of the affairs of their society in order to ensure stability, growth and the accomplishment of desired goals.
GOVERNMENT: It is the formal institution and processes through which building decision are made for a society and agency or machinery through which the desired of the state are realized.₦2,500.00 Add to cartWhatsapp