diabetic

  • EFFECTS OF ETHANOL, METHANOL AND N-HEXANE LEAF AND FRUIT EXTRACTS OF Kigelia africana ON SOME OXIDATIVE AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
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    EFFECTS OF ETHANOL, METHANOL AND N-HEXANE LEAF AND FRUIT EXTRACTS OF Kigelia africana ON SOME OXIDATIVE AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    ABSTRACT

    This research is on Effects of ethanol, methanol and n-hexane leaf and fruit extracts of kigelia africana on some oxidative and biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Globally, the estimated incidence of diabetes and projection for the year 2030 as given by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) is 350 million. Kigelia africana is highly used for ethnomedicinal purposes although there is paucity of scientific information on its use. This work was therefore, aimed at evaluating the anti-diabetic and antioxidative potential of the plant. Ethanol, methanol and n- hexane extracts of the leaves of Kigelia africana were used for the study. Alloxan diabetes was induced in a total of 60 adult male albino rats weighing between 90 and 160 g. The alloxan was dissolved in cold normal saline. After 72 hr, diabetes was confirmed and the rats were divided into twelve (12) groups of five (5) rats each. Group 1 served as the normal control, group 2 was the diabetic untreated, group 3 received 2.5 mg /kg b.wt of glibenclamide, groups 4, 6 and 8 received ethanol, methanol and n-hexane leaves extract while group 5, 7 and 9 received ethanol, methanol and n-hexane fruit extract respectively of 500 mg/kg b.wt of the extracts. Groups 10-12 were administered equal combination of the leaves and fruits extracts. The rats were fed orally for 21 days after which some biochemical and oxidative parameters were statistically analysed. Phytochemical screening for different bioactive compounds was done using standard methods and indicated the presence of flavoniods, alkaloids, saponins, soluble carbohydrates, tannin, steroids, glycosides and reducing sugars. Proximate analysis revealed the presence of proteins (13.9%), carbohydrates (63.5%), fats and oil (11.4%) and crude fibre (2.2%). LD50 showed that the extracts were safe. The glucose level decreased while body weight increased in all the treated groups compared with the diabetic rats untreated. Oral administration of 500mg/kg b.w of K. africana extract significantly reduced (p<0.05), the sorbitol, glycohaemoglobin (HbA1c), total protein, and vitamin C concentrations in diabetic rats (groups 4-12) in comparison with the positive control. There were significant differences in glycohaemogolin, sobitol, total protein and vitamin C concentration in diabetic rats fed with a combination of the two parts of the plant extracts (groups 10-12) as against groups 4-9 administered single extracts. Malondiadehyde (MDA) concentration significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in all the test groups compared with the diabetic untreated rats. Low density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and triacylgycerol levels decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the treated groups in comparison with the positive control animals (group 3). However, administration of 500 mg/kg b.w of K. africana increased significantly (p<0.05) the high density lipoprotein (HDL) across the test groups as against the diabetic untreated group. Significant decreased (p<0.05) in the lipid profiles (except HDL) was recorded in groups 10, 11 and 12 treated with a combination of two parts (leaf and fruit) of K. africana in comparison with groups 4-9 orally fed with a single plant extract. Furthermore, the data recorded significantly increased (p < 0.05) antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT GPX) activities in diabetic treated groups (both combination and single) with reference to the positive control group. Similarly, significant increase (p > 0.05) of SOD and CAT activities and SOD percentage inhibition was observed in group 3 treated with 2.5 mg/kg b.wt of glibenclamide (standard) compared with all the test groups. Significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the activities of ALT, ALT and total bilirubin concentration were observed in the test groups treated with the extracts compared with the diabetic untreated rats. ALT activity and total bilirubin level decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in groups 10, 11 and 12 administered a combination of leaf and fruit extracts as against groups 4-9 treated with either leaf or fruits only. The results suggest that management and prevention of diabetic complications can be achieved by the use of K. africana.

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  • EVALUATION OF THE ANTIDIABETIC EFFECTS OF WATER AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA) SEED ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
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    EVALUATION OF THE ANTIDIABETIC EFFECTS OF WATER AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA) SEED ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    This research is on Evaluation of the antidiabetic effects of water and methanolic extracts of avocado (persea americana) seed on alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    The high prevalence, complications and cost of conventional drugs in the management diabetes necessitated the search for alternative treatment. As a result, this study seeks to evaluate the composition, anti-diabetic potential toxicity and tissue-protective effects of both the water and methanolic extracts of Persea americana (avocado pear) seed on alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats were investigated. This study was conceived and designed based on information on the local use of the seed in diabetes treatment. Proximate and anti-nutritional constituents of the seed were determined and 100g of the sample was extracted with 1000ml of both water and methanol using the maceration method. The extracts were evaporated to dryness using a rotary evaporator and stored at 4oC until use. The effects of different doses (200mg/kg.b.wt., 300/kg.b.wt.) of both water and methanolic extracts of P. americana seed on alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats were compared with those of a reference drug, insulin. The glucose level and weight of the rats were measured weekly for 21 days. The liver function tests and the histopathologies of the liver, and kidneys, were investigated. Results of the proximate investigation shows that the seed is rich in carbohydrate (49.03¤ 0.02 g/100g), lipid (17.90¤

    0.14 g/100g), protein (15.55¤ 0.36 g/100g) moisture (15.10¤ 0.14 g/100g) and ash (2.26¤0.23 g/100g). Anti nutritional components such as total oxalate (14.98¤0.03 mg/100g), tannin (6.98¤0.04 mg/100g) and phytic acid (3.18¤0.16 mg/1 00g). Results also showed that both the water and methanolic extracts exhibited significant anti-diabetic effects on the experimental rats. However, the methanolic extracts showed a better anti diabetic effect than the water extracts. The extracts showed no significant effects on the liver function parameters (bilirubin, conjugate bilirubin, AST, ALP and ALT) compared with the normal control but rather reversed the histopathological damage that occurred in alloxan-induced albino diabetic rats. In conclusion, the present study provides a pharmacological basis for the traditional use of P. americana seeds extracts in the management of Diabetes mellitus. It seems P. americana seed contains substantial amount of nutrients that could warrant its utilization in animal feed or food. However, further studies are required to indentify the active ingredient responsible for the anti-diabetic properties of the seed extract.

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  • EFFECTS OF QUAIL (COTURNIX JAPONICA)EGGDIET ON BLOOD SUGAR AND LIPID PROFILELEVELS OF ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO RATS
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    EFFECTS OF QUAIL (COTURNIX JAPONICA)EGGDIET ON BLOOD SUGAR AND LIPID PROFILELEVELS OF ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO RATS

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    This research is on Effects of quail (coturnix japonica) egg diet on blood sugar and lipid profile levels of alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. Egg consumption is a popular choice for good nutrients, but by far the egg most often consumed by human is the chicken egg, typically unfertilized. Quail eggs help treat tuberculosis, asthma, and diabetes and it can also help prevent kidney, liver, or gallbladder stones. Thus, this study is aimed at determining quail egg?s dietary effect on the blood sugar and lipid profile of alloxan induced diabetic rats. The quail egg sample was analyzed for its various nutritional compositions using the Association of Official Analytic Chemists (AOAC) methods. Sixty (60) processed quail eggs and shells, using the cooked-dry method, were administered to thirty six (36) alloxan induced diabetic rats which were grouped into nine (9) different groups of four (4) rats each, at varied doses per group for a duration of seven (7), fourteen (14) and twenty one (21) days. Their lipid profiles were determined using standard methods while histological analyses were carried out using the standard paraffin process method (tissue processing method). Results showed that quail eggs are good sources of protein, lipids and moisture (15.10¤0.16%, 31.39¤0.26%and 50.18¤0.25% respectively). However, the ash and carbohydrate contents are minimal (1.13¤0.09% and 0.65¤0.05% respectively). Elemental analysis indica tes that the shell is a rich source of Calcium, 3000.00mg/100g; Zinc, 38.15mg/100g; Iron, 175.40mg/100g; Phosphorous, 120.00mg/100g and Magnesium, 78.00mg/100g. Rats treated with two (2) Raw Quail eggs (2RE) showed the best performance in terms of lowering the blood glucose level and weight gain when compared with the insulin treated rats. Statistical analysis of the blood glucose at intervals (day 7, day 14 and day 21), indicates that for a mid-term and long-term treatment of diabetes, quail eggs can be of effective use. Quail egg treatment does not also affect the serum lipid profile of diabetic rats but can however lower or reduce the level of any risk of diabetic dyslipidemia. It is concluded that intake of diets rich in magnesium and leucine, such as a quail egg diet provides, either alone or as part of a therapeutic regimen, can have beneficial effect in the prevention and management of type 1 diabetes.

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