ANTI-HYPERLIPIDEMIC POTENTIAL OF VITEX DONIANAETHANOL EXTRACTS ON POLOXAMER 407 INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC AND NORMAL RATS
This research is on Anti-hyperlipidemic potential of vitex donianaethanol extracts on poloxamer 407 induced hyperlipidemic and normal rats. Anti-hyperlipidemic potential of extracts (aqueous, 70% methanol, 70% ethanol and 70%, acetone) of Vitexdoniana leaves, stem bark and root bark on poloxamer 407 induced hyperlipidemic and normal rats was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids and tannins in the leaves, stem bark and root bark. The average total polyphenol contents of the leaves ethanol (36.11±3.13mg/g gallic acid) and methanol (35.75±1.72mg/g gallic acid) extracts were significantly (p<0.05) higher when compared with that of acetone and aqueous extracts. The IC50of the leaves ethanol extract (0.227mg/ml) was lowerthan that ofstem bark ethanol extract (0.236mg/ml) and root ethanol extract (0.561mg/ml). Screening the extracts for the most potent anti-hyperlipidemicactivityreveals that ethanolic extracts of root bark and leaveshas the highest percentage reduction of total cholesterol (51.98%) and triacylglycerol (50.75%) respectively. The most abundant phytochemical in the most potent extract is flavonoid (4.605±0.077%) in the leaves and the least is tanins (0.035±0.008%) in the root bark extract. The LD50 of both leaves and stem bark was greater than 5000mg/kg body weight and that of root bark was 948.68 mg/kg body weight. Hyperlipidemic control rats significantly (p<0.05) increased total Cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TAG), Low density lipoprotein (LDL-c) andsignificantly (p<0.05) decreased High density lipoprotein (HDL-c) compared to other groups.Atherogenic risk factor of all induced treated rats shows a significant (p<0.05) lower levels of LDL-c/HDL-c, Log (TAG/HDL-c) and significant (p<0.05) higher level of HDL-c /TC ratio. There was no significant (p>0.05) change between normal control rats and normal treated rats in lipid profile parameters and atherogenic indices. The level
of liver marker enzymes (ALT, ALP, AST) and liver function parameter (TB, IB) were significantly (p<0.05)higher, and lower (TB, DB) in hyperlipidemic control groups compared to all other groups. The invivo antioxidant activity shows a significantly (p<0.05) higher level of TBARS and a significant (p<0.05) lower level of SOD and CAT in hyperlipidemic groups when compared to all treated groups. In both liver and kidney, the leaves and stem bark extract significantly (p<0.05) lowers levels of TBARS of normal control rats compared to normal treated and all induced treated groups. All the extractsactivity in the liver and leaves extract in the kidney of normal rats show a significant higher level of CAT compared with other treated groups. The study shows that vitexdonianapossesses anti-hyperlipidemic potential.
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