energy

  • comparative-study-of-biogas-production-from-cow-dung-chicken-droppings-and-cymbopogon-citratus-as-alternative-energy-sources-in-nigeria
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    COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM COW DUNG, CHICKEN DROPPINGS AND CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS AS ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES IN NIGERIA

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    ABSTRACT

    This study was carried out to produce biogas from Cow dung, Chicken droppings and Cymbopogon citratus as well as the respective co-digestion of Cow dung and Chicken droppings with Cymbopogon citratus. 25 litre digesters and gas collection systems were designed and fabricated using locally available materials. The digesters were used to digest cow dung, chicken droppings and Cymbopogon citratus respectively as single substrates as well as to co-digest cow dung and chicken droppings respectively with Cymbopogon citratus. The respective feed materials were collected locally. They were pre-fermented, digested and analysed in accordance with standard methods. For the single substrates, the total volume of gas produced were 0.191m3 (0.032 m3/kg), 0.211m3 (0.035m3/kg) and 0.125 m3 (0.021 m3/kg) (before scrubbing) and 0.125m3 (0.021m3/kg), 0.130m3 (0.022 m3/kg), 0.090 m3 (0.015 m3/kg) (after scrubbing) for cow dung, chicken droppings and lemon grass respectively. For the co-digested substrates, Cow dung + Lemon grass produced 0.146m3 (0.024 m3/kg) before scrubbing and 0.100m3 (0.017m3/kg) after scrubbing while Chicken droppings + Lemon grass produced 0.193m3 (0.032 m3/kg) before scrubbing and 0.127m3 (0.0.021m3/kg) after scrubbing. The average ambient temperatures during the study were within the mesophilic range (20-40oC). The pH values were stable and always in the optimal range between 6.5-8.0. The reductions in total solid were 75.3 %, 60.1%, 98.2%, 61.9% and 35% for cow dung, chicken droppings, lemon grass, cow dung + lemon grass and chicken droppings + lemon grass respectively. The total coliform contents of the residue were 2.00 x107 CFU/100ml, 6.00 x 107 CFU/100ml, 1.00 x 107 CFU/100ml and 1.00 x 107 CFU/100ml for cow dung, chicken droppings, cow dung + Lemon grass,  and chicken droppings + Lemon grass respectively with 95%, 70%, 95% and 99% reduction in each case. Pathogens such as Salmonella spp and Klebsiella sp. were still present in the residue although E.Coli and Shigella sp. were removed. The estimated methane contents of the gas from cow dung, chicken droppings, Lemon grass, Cow dung + Lemon grass and Chicken droppings + Lemon grass were 65.59%, 61.71%, 71.95%, 68.53% and 66% respectively. The cooking rates for water were 0.079L/min, 0.070L/min, 0.067L/min, 0.064L/min and 0.060L/min for unscrubbed lemon grass, cow dung + lemon grass, chicken droppings + lemon grass, cow dung and chicken droppings respectively while those for scrubbed lemon grass, cow dung + lemongrass, chicken droppings + lemon grass, cow dung and chicken droppings were 0.12L/min, 0.10L/min, 0.091L/min, 0.085L/min and 0.079L/min respectively. The rice cooking rates were 0.0038kg/min, 0.0034kg/min, 0.0033kg/min, 0.0031kg/min, and 0.0030kg/min for unscrubbed lemon grass, cow dung+ lemongrass, chicken droppings + lemon grass, cow dung and chicken droppings respectively while those for scrubbed lemon grass, cow dung+ lemongrass, chicken droppings + lemon grass, cow dung and chicken droppings were 0.0055kg/min, 0.0048kg/min,      0.0045kg/min,      0.0041kg/min      and      0.0039kg/min       respectively.

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  • energy-demand-side-management
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    Energy demand side management

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    Abstract

    This research work is on Energy demand side management. Since electrical energy is the form of energy that cannot be effectively stored in bulk, it must be generated, distributed and consumed immediately. But the load on the power plant is variable in nature. The power plants are designed to meet the maximum demand. However, there is a large difference between peak demand and average demand which results in high generation cost per unit. Since peak demand is increasing sharply that demand large installed capacity. It is not possible for developing countries to meet the targeted capacity by installing new power plants. Since electricity is an essential input in all the sectors of any country, hence we need to focus on alternating means by which electricity can be saved and effectively utilized. The effective solution to above said problem is DSM strategies that lower the peak demand and bring immediate benefit to utilities and customers. This paper deals with the basic concept of Demand Side Management (DSM), objective, problems, types of DSM measures and theoretical and practical approach by which electricity demand could be reduced at consumer end through effectively control and manage loads from utility side, and to use unsustainable energy practices into more efficient. Index Terms— Demand Side Management, Energy Conservation, Energy Efficient, Load Curve, Load Scheduling. 
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    EVALUATION OF SOME CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF SELECTED ENERGY DRINKS

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    Abstract

    This research is on Evaluation of some chemical constituents of selected energy drinks. This research work examined and compares the physicochemical properties and some chemical constituents of selected energy drinks. Fourteen (14) brands of energy drinks samples consisting eleven (11) liquid and three (3) powdered forms were randomly purchased. All samples were analyzed for their physicochemical properties (pH, turbidity, conductivity and total dissolved solids), trace and heavy metals, aspartame, sugar and caffeine contents. Results showed that the physicochemical properties (i.e. pH, turbidity, conductivity and total dissolved solids) ranged from 4.47 ñ 0.012 – 5.96 ñ 0.012, 8 ñ 0.577

    ? 592 ñ 1.155 NTU, 2.21 ñ 0.006 ? 1975 ñ 1.732 æs/cm, and 243 ñ 0.577 ? 1064 ñ 0.577 mg/L respectively. Energy drinks analyzed all fell within the FDA recommended range for the physicochemical properties analyzed. Iron, calcium, zinc and potassium were found in all the energy drinks and their concentration ranged from 1.961 ñ 0.0003 – 0.294 ñ 0.0005 mg/L, 2.763 ñ 0.0009 – 19.310 ñ 0.0015 mg/L, 0.045 ñ 0.0001 – 13.887 ñ 0.0037 mg/L, and 2.0 to 2500 mg/L respectively. The copper, lead and manganese concentration of energy drinks ranged from 0.002 ñ 0.0002 – 0.102 ñ 0.0003 mg/L, 0.028 ñ 0.0006 – 0.209

    ñ 0.0009 mg/L and 0.003 ñ 0.0001 – 0.024 ñ 0.0002 mg/L respectively. The concentration of copper and manganese were below the MCL of 1.0 mg/L and 0.05 mg/L respectively while lead had a concentration above the MCL of 0.01 mg/L. Cadmium was not detected in all energy drinks except for sample EJ which had a concentration of 0.102 ñ 0.0003 mg/L and exceeded the MCL of 0.005 mg/L. The caffeine, aspartame and sugar concentrations ranged from 1.11 mg/L ? 2487.13 mg/L, 6.51 mg/L ? 1491.19 mg/L, and 16.98 ? 1686.73 mg/L respectively. Caffeine and aspartame concentrations in all the energy drink samples were below the FDA set standard of 400 mg/L and 3000 mg/L respectively except for sample AL which had a concentration above the set standard for

    caffeine. Though the analyzed parameters were mostly below the set standards, especially caffeine, aspartame and sugar, it is important that the pattern of consumption of these drinks must be monitored to minimize ingestion of excess doses of harmful substances to prevent the reported adverse effects.

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