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CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF INSECURITY IN NIGERIA: THE CHALLENGES AND RELEVANCE OF THE NIGERIAN POLICEFORCE AS A PANACEA
This research work seeks to reveal the Causes and effects of insecurity in Nigeria and the challenges and relevance of the Nigerian police force as a panacea. It is on this premise that the study bases its emphasis on the Nigerian police force to appraise and ascertain efforts and limitation encountered in providing adequate security to Nigerians. The subject matter is both timely and pivotal in this era when NigeriaÕs image and freedom internationally and locally is deteriorating due to the pervasive insecurity being experienced today. This has bedeviled the Nations march towards socio-economic growth and development. The study however, focuses on the causes and effect of insecurity in Nigeria, factors that have inhibited the Nigerian police force in performing its statutory functions and steps to be made to enhance greater security in Nigeria and to make the Nigeria police force more responsive to her duties. This work also gave a chronological historical antecedent of insecurity in Nigeria. It also delves into the purview of the history, structure, mission and vision of the Nigerian police force. Moreover, the study revealed that the relevance of the Nigerian police force in relation to the security of the country is incapacitated by the inability of the government to address root causes of insecurity and proffer solution to these root causes. This is manifested in the inequality and high rate of poverty currently experienced in the country even in the midst of plenty. The chapters in the study address various aspect of the problem. The revelation and recommendation made in this work will be invaluable and important to the Nigerian police, government, private and corporate organization, as well as, researchers in proffering solution that will boost security in Nigeria.
This research is on Insecurity in northern Nigeria: causes, consequences and resolutions. Since Nigeria got her independence from Britain in 1960, the countryÕs political structural arrangement has been under one central government called Federal Government (via a Federal Republic) and was blessed with unquantifiable natural, human and material resources. In spite of that, the average NigerianÕs income per capita does not give the real picture due to the high income inequalities in the country. As majority of Nigerians are living in abject poverty, particularly in the Northeastern area. However, under the Federal system arrangement, instead of having a smooth level of interaction among individual ethnic groups, cultures, traditions and religions, there thrives a persistent lack of trust among Nigerians due to fear of domination, marginalization, control and intolerance. This ugly development led to the acquisition of fire arms among ethnic, political, religious and social militia groups. Similarly, with the return of the country to democratic rule, the situation has worsened with the politicians prosecuting their political ambitions. Furthermore, the situation also became more terrible when these groups started fighting government and its agencies. As a result, many people were killed while millions of people were displaced and properties worth millions of naira were also destroyed more especially in the North-east and north central areas. The insecurity situation in the country was alleged to have been attributed to some factors. Among this include poor government policies, corruption, poverty, unemployment, poor leadership, weak judiciary system etc. Consequently, this affected the region economically, socially, politically etc. Finally, recommendations were made and that Government should improve standard of living of the people through the creation of more entrepreneurship centers across the country more especially in the North and North-east in particular. Also, government should intensify more effort in fighting against corruption and this can be done through good legislation and stiff penalties for those found wanting.
CHAPTER ONE :
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
This project is on Insecurity and kidnapping in Nigeria: a study of public perception in Enugu east senatorial district. In the early traditional Nigeria society, human sacrifice perpetuated kidnapping. Ugwuoke (2010: 197) rightly asserts that individuals were kidnapped for ritual or social reasons. The African traditional worshipers solely believed in sacrificing to appease the gods. The sacrifice may transcend animal sacrifice, and the priest could be inspired by the gods to order for human beings; to accomplish this kind of sacrifice, the required person could be kidnapped and killed in a sacrificial procedure. Ugwuoke explained that insecurity and kidnapping was mainly for the purpose of sacrifice either to appease the gods or for the burial of a prominent chief or warrior. Precisely, to carry out a successful burial of important citizen like chiefs and prominent warriors required human head. Hence, warriors engaged themselves in search of victims to be kidnapped. Besides Nwadiorah and Nkwocha (2011: 3) observed that the act of insecurity and kidnapping increased in Nigeria after the Nigerian civil was in 1970 which exposed many youths with military experience to some criminality. The above account reveals that insecurity and kidnapping is very old in the history of man as it is also recorded in section 364 of the Nigeria Criminal Code.
Though insecurity and kidnapping is not new, and has been in Nigeria criminal statues, ransom insecurity and kidnapping is a new trend and was not known in Nigeria until recently. Moreover it was obvious in 2006 when it was announced that foreign oil workers were kidnapped (Inyang, 2009). However, those expatriates were released after paying huge ransom in millions of naira. Since then, insecurity and kidnapping for ransom has spread to most parts of Nigerian states and Imo state Senatorial District is also affected by it. Many people have been kidnapped and only released after the payment of ransom while in some cases dead bodies were recovered. Igwe Uche Nwaechime, the proprietor of Mac Royale Hotels ltd, from Nkanu West Local Government , Enugu State was kidnapped and slaughtered by the kidnappers. His body was found by a search party at a refuse dump site on the Enugu Port Harcourt express way (Ugwulebo, 2011). Dr. Paul Edemobi, the proprietor Paul and Grace Foundation and brother to Prof. Dora Akuyili, was kidnapped in Enugu on Monday 1st December 2008 from his 10B Savage Cresent GRA Enugu (Ojukwu, 2011). The wife of Sam Ngene, the then Chairman of Enugu South Local Government Area was kidnapped on March 2009. Also, Nkem Owoh, the popular Nollywood actor was kidnapped along Enugu-Port Harcourt express way (Ugwulebo, 2011). Payment of ransom, tragic recovery of dead bodies and other facts and events as a result of insecurity and kidnapping shapes peoples perception of the crime. Furthermore, Anosike (2009) stated that the incidence of insecurity and kidnapping is a common occurrence in the eastern states. Anosike also noted that states ranging from Abia to Anambra and Enugu were greatly alarmed by the wave of kidnapping.
However, in 2009, rebranding project was frantically directed towards redeeming the image of Nigeria due to the fact that most countries of the world and Nigerians themselves perceive Nigerians negatively (Dieye and Iwele, 2011: 78). Incidentally, in that same 2009 there was rise in insecurity and kidnapping as available statistics shows that there was 512 incidence of insecurity and kidnapping in 2009 against 353 in 2008 (Ojukwu, 2011: 380). Ojukwu also noted that the ambassador of the rebranding Nigeria project, Pete Edochie was kidnapped in Onitsha on his way to his home town- Nteje. Since then, insecurity and kidnapping has drastically affected the countrys image and major businesses in the country.
Furthermore, insecurity and kidnapping for ransom posses serious threat to the well ordering and functioning of the society and many factors were perceived as its causes. In Nigeria, such factors include corruption among the Nigeria Police Force (Adibe, 2009), unemployment, poverty and leadership failure (Diara, 2010), failure of the government to provide basic amenities and the use of cult gangs and militants by politicians in electoral processes (Okengwu, 2011: 1), access to large quantities of small arms and light weapons (International
Crisis Group, 2006 as cited in Iduh, 2011: 126). This study will lay emphasis on the perception of people in Imo state Senatorial District concerning insecurity and kidnapping in Nigeria. There is no doubt that insecurity and kidnapping in Nigeria is in part, a syndrome from many parts of the world- Iraq, the Philippines, Afghanistan, India, Russia, Palestinian Territory, Mexico, Nepal and American (Abati, 2009). Episodes of ransom insecurity and kidnapping in the annals of American history include the case of four year old Charlie Ross in 1874 (Cyntrax, Wilson and Wilson as cited in Ugwuoke, 2010 :197) and Lindbergh case in 1932 ( Allison, 2000: 110). In the Lindberghs case, Lindberghs child was the center of a plot, the suffering of the childs parents, and the difficulties of the police enquiry, were exacerbated by widespread speculation, misinformation and serial random notes (Alexander and Klein 2009: 16). Alexander and Klein further noted that in the 17th century, children were stolen from their families and exported to North American colonies as servants and laborers, hence, kid meaning child and nap or nab meaning to snatch. Insecurity and kidnapping was therefore connected to the staling of children but the word has come to be used interchangeably with both children and adults. Nevertheless, past account of insecurity and kidnapping revealed that death penalty was ordered as a punishment for insecurity and kidnapping in ancient Rome when the Emperor Constantine (AD 315) became so alarmed by the incidence of the crime (Akpan, 2010: 33).
However, the early African societies were marked with the incidence of slave trade. In this vein, Ugwu (2010 : 2)., asserted that the weak and the poor were captured and sold into slavery. Ugwulebo (2011: 26) noted that during the colonial era, the colonialists came to some parts of the world, such as Africa, took their able bodied men and women and sold them to far away nations who needed human labor for their plantation and other services. (Onimode as cited in Ugwulebo, 2011: 26-27) had noted that gun powder, gin, mm and other materials were offered by the Europeans to the Africans in exchange for slaves shipped
annually from ports in Nigeria. Therefore, slavery and insecurity and kidnapping were like two sides of a coin.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Meanwhile in order to ameliorate the problem of kidnapping, the Nigerian government granted amnesty and an unconditional pardon to militants in the Niger Delta (Ogege, 2009: 148). Despite governments efforts, insecurity and kidnapping for ransom increased in its spread to most Nigerian states. In response to massive challenges to security, Anosike (2009) noted that the executive councils of most Nigerian states convened at the state government houses countless number of times to devise means of solving the problem. However, at one of the meetings, governors of Abia, Anambra and Akwa Ibom, insisted that modern security equipment should be deployed in high crime areas, in order to combat insecurity and kidnapping(Guardian, July 25, 2010 p 16). At a meeting of the South East governors in Enugu, they resolved to tackle the trend by seizing the property of people that allow it to be used as operation base by kidnappers (Guardian, July 27, 2010 p 51). The House of Representatives
Insecurity and kidnapping in Nigeria is a very serious contemporary social problem which was noted by Iduh (2011: 125) as the outcome of decades of peaceful protests in the Niger – Delta region. Insecurity and kidnapping first attracted national attention on 20th February 2006 when Niger – Delta militants kidnapped foreign oil workers to press their demand (Nwadiorah and Nkwocha, 2011). Since then, many Nigerians have been kidnapped and only released on huge ransom whose re-payment they may not be able to make for the rest of their lives (Oshio, 2009: 13). The statistics of insecurity and kidnapping by the Distress Call Base (DBC, Anti-Insecurity and kidnapping Squad Enugu, 2012) show that from January to December 2009, there were nine reported cases of kidnapping, eight victims of kidnapping, five victims of insecurity and kidnapping rescued, one victim killed and twenty two arrested kidnappers. Furthermore in 2010, there were twenty six reported cases against nine cases in 2009, twelve kidnapped victims against eight in 2009, eleven rescued victims against five in 2009 and thirty eight arrested kidnappers against twenty-two in 2009. Also in 2011 the data reveal rise in insecurity and kidnapping as there were forty six reported cases of kidnapping, fifty eight kidnap victims, fifty five rescued victims, one victim killed and one hundred and thirty six kidnappers arrested. In three months from January to March 2012, there were five reported cases of kidnapping, six kidnap victims, five rescued victims and six kidnappers arrested.
in addition, proposed death penalty for kidnappers (Guardian, September 22, 2010 p 3). In spite of all these efforts, the crime of insecurity and kidnapping has remained unabated.
However, seeking to know shy insecurity and kidnapping became a serious problem in Nigeria at the time authorities were talking about rebranding the county positively is essential. Contries like Singapore, Malaysia and Ghana have rebranded without even altering a word; but rebranding of Nigeria with all the seminars and Symposia held in London, New York and other western capitals failed (Guardian, July 17, 2010 p46). Nwora (2006:17) argued that Nigeria should focus on socio economic reforms and putting her house in order, after which she could then open her door to the rest of the world. It is also noted by Dieye and Iwele (2011 : 78) that the relative decay and fast degradation of the standard of values and moral character formation that has defamed the Nigerian image demands an urgent attention. It had also been noted that perceptional management would have been a useful tool in rebranding project if it was effectively managed (Guardian, July 17, 2010 p46). Therefore the problem of insecurity and kidnapping has not been solved because there is the need for perceptional management (i.e., finding peoples attitude viewpoint and approach towards the causes, reasons and methods of tackling a problem with the aim of using it to control the rise of such of problem) in Nigeria. Meanwhile in order to realize public perception by getting the negative as well as positive answers from the public with questions directed towards such answers and manage it effectively a study of public perception on insecurity and kidnapping is important. The above necessitates the interest in this study. This study will therefore examine peoples perception on issues of insecurity and kidnapping in Imo state Senatorial District.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions will guide this study;
1. What is the relationship between gender and perception on insecurity and kidnapping among the people in Imo state Senatorial District?
2. Does place of residence influence the perception on insecurity and kidnapping among the people in Imo state Senatorial District?
3. Does age influence the perception on insecurity and kidnapping among the people in Imo state Senatorial District?
4. What is the relationship between occupation and perception on insecurity and kidnappingamong the people in Imo state Senatorial District?
5. Does the level of education of people in Imo state Senatorial District influence their perception about kidnapping?
6. What are the probable strategies that can help to reduce the incidence of insecurity and kidnappingin Imo state Senatorial District?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the perceptions of the people in Imo state Senatorial District on insecurity and kidnapping in Nigeria, from which the following specific objectives were drawn.
1. Senatorial District concerning kidnapping.
2. To find out the relationship between occupation and perception on insecurity and kidnapping in Imo state Senatorial District.
3. To ascertain if the perception of the people in Imo state Senatorial District concerning insecurity and kidnapping is influenced by their level of education.
4. To suggest probable strategies that can help to reduce the incidence of insecurity and kidnapping Imo state Senatorial District.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study has also practical significance especially with reference to policy making. It will multivalve policy makers to make policies that will discourage insecurity and kidnappingand improve the well being of citizens. It will also enlighten the general public about the causes and trend of insecurity and kidnappingin Imo state Senatorial District in particular and Nigeria at large. This study is also expected to be beneficial to law makers, law enforcement agents and government officials. It will also necessitate decision making for improvement of the standard of living of the citizens. The findings of this study will be useful to other agencies and organizations interested in the issue of insecurity and kidnapping in Nigeria.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Adulthood – This is the number of years for single and married male and female, based on young and old age, which is from eighteen to sixty years. In this study, it is divided into younger and older adults.
Educated – This is high standard of educational qualification in terms of degree and above. Those who are educated are seen as graduates with or without other qualifications. Insecurity and kidnapping- This is a violent crime that is often perpetuated by taking the victim away by force and for the purpose of gaining ransom.
Little education – This is educational qualification in terms of junior secondary
school which is JSS3, primary school and no formal education.
Older adults – These are people that are aged, who may as well be classified as more
mature in reasoning, aged 40 years and above.
Place of residence – In this study place of residence is seen as housing areas in the
rural and urban region.
Public perception – In this study, public perception is seen as the views of people
concerning the incidence of kidnapping. That is the interpretation given to the incidence of insecurity and kidnapping by different individuals.
Urbanization – Urbanization in this study is a process whereby young adults migrate
from the rural to the urban areas in search of greener pasture.
Younger adults – These are the people whose ages fall within the range of
eighteen years to thirty nine years. They are as well within the youthful ages.