metals

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    DETERMINATION OF THE LEVELS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) AND HEAVY METALS IN SOILS AND PLANT FOOD CULTIVARS FROM SOME OIL EXPLORATION COMMUNITIES OF BAYELSA STATE

    ABSTRACT

    This research is on DETERMINATION OF THE LEVELS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (pahs) AND HEAVY METALS IN SOILS AND PLANT FOOD CULTIVARS FROM SOME OIL EXPLORATION COMMUNITIES OF BAYELSA STATE.. Soils and vegetation in three selected communities in Bayelsa state were investigated for presence of recalcitrant Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs and heavy metals in the soils and edible plant food cultivars Two of the communities, Angiama and Oporoma are crude oil impacted areas having had oil spillage accidents in 2010 and 2008 respectively while Yenagoa a non crude oil impacted area is used as control Physicochemical properties of soils from these study areas were investigated using standard methods, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PAHs in the soil and food cultivars were determined using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometer while heavy metals were analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer The result of the investigation reveal that oil spillage degrades the soil as revealed by the significant reduction in pH , moisture content and bulk density of soils from Angiama and Oporoma communities compared with Yenagoa Soil from Angiama had the highest percentage organic carbon 440053 and total hydrocarbon 846401011mg/kg followed by Oporoma 213012 and 52000500mg/kg respectively and Yenagoa 130108 and 6220026mg/kg respectively The anion levels of soil nitrate NO3 2 and phosphate PO4 3 were significantly highest in soil residues from Yenagoa than in Angiama and Oporoma while the levels of exchangeable cations Ca2, Mg2, K,and Na were highest in Angiama than in Oporoma and Yenagoa soils The values were significantly different at plt;005This suggest that exchangeable cations accompany oil spill High molecular weight recalcitrant PAHs Benzoa pyrene, benzoa anthracene, BenzoK fluoranthene, Benzobfluoranthene were present in both Angiama and Oporoma soil but were not detected in Yenagoa Except for phenanthrene, low molecular weight PAHs were not detected in soil samples from Yenagoa, occurred sparingly in Oporoma but were predominant in Angiama Food cultivars from both Angiama and Oporoma were equally proportionately contaminated with these high molecular weight PAHs The leafy vegetables pumpkin and scent leaf were far more contaminated than the tubers yam and cassava Heavy metal contaminants of soils and food cultivars mirror exactly the same trend associated with recalcitrant PAHs These results reveal that oil spillage activity is responsible for the preponderance of PAHs and heavy metals in the soils of the Niger Delta It also demonstrates that by the process of natural weathering polluted soils are remedied over time Given the appreciable accumulation of these crude fraction toxicants in food cultivars, it is suggested that the foods remain a major endogenous source of PAHs and heavy metals among the people of the area

     

     

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    EVALUATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATIONS IN CHOCOLATE, CANDIES AND TOMATO PUREE IMPORTED FROM CHINA

    ABSTRACT

    This project looks at evaluation of some heavy metals concentrations in chocolate candies and tomato puree imported from china. This study was initiated as a follow-up information on some impounded products tomato puree (Samples A and B) chocolates and candies (Samples C, D, E and F) imported from China, and sold in Nigerian markets. This result as their failure to meet National Agency for food drug administration and control (NAFDAC) regulatory standard. Samples A, B, C, D, E and F were collected in five markets from each six states of the six geographical zones: North-West (Kano), North-East (Bauchi), North-Central (Kogi), South-West (Lagos), South-East (Abia), and South-South (Rivers) of the country. In order to evaluate the quality of the products, the levels of some heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ti and Cr) were evaluated in the samples using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Concentrations of metals in both tomato puree ranged 4.0 ? 4.5 mg/g for Cu, 18.0 ? 42.5mg/g for Mn, 26.0 ? 62.5mg/g for Fe, 4.0 ? 56.0mg/g for Ni, 27.0 ? 35.2mg/g for Zn, ND ? 25.0mg/g for Ti, and ND ? 20.0mg/g for Cr while concentrations of metals in both chocolates and candies ranged 3.0 ? 4.2 mg/g for Cu, 40.0 ? 55.7mg/g for Mn, ND ? 102.5mg/g for Fe, ND ? 305.0mg/g for Ni, ND ? 42.5mg/g for Zn, ND ? 23.8mg/g for Ti, and ND ? 10.8mg/g for Cr. The concentrations of all the metals studied were generally higher in samples A and B compared to recommended levels of these metals in vegetable crops. Also, the data showed that these metals are at higher levels in samples C, D, E and F compared to other studies in candies and chocolates in Nigeria. Correlation analysis among metals revealed positive correlations, which indicates similar sources of these metals. Also, evaluation of dietary intake of these products daily revealed that sample A (except for Cu and Fe), B, C (except for Cu), D and E are above the daily dietary recommended limit for all the metals studied in food. Thus, frequent intake of these contaminated products is likely to induce health effects arising largely from Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn.

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    EVALUATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATIONS IN CHOCOLATE, CANDIES AND TOMATO PUREE IMPORTED FROM CHINA

    ABSTRACT

    This study was initiated as a follow-up information on some impounded products tomato puree (Samples A and B) chocolates and candies (Samples C, D, E and F) imported from China, and sold in Nigerian markets. This result as their failure to meet National Agency for food drug administration and control (NAFDAC) regulatory standard. Samples A, B, C, D, E and F were collected in five markets from each six states of the six geographical zones: North-West (Kano), North-East (Bauchi), North-Central (Kogi), South-West (Lagos), South-East (Abia), and South-South (Rivers) of the country. In order to evaluate the quality of the products, the levels of some heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ti and Cr) were evaluated in the samples using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Concentrations of metals in both tomato puree ranged 4.0 – 4.5 mg/g for Cu, 18.0 – 42.5mg/g for Mn, 26.0 – 62.5mg/g for Fe, 4.0 – 56.0mg/g for Ni, 27.0 – 35.2mg/g for Zn, ND – 25.0mg/g for Ti, and ND – 20.0mg/g for Cr while concentrations of metals in both chocolates and candies ranged 3.0 – 4.2 mg/g for Cu, 40.0 – 55.7mg/g for Mn, ND – 102.5mg/g for Fe, ND – 305.0mg/g for Ni, ND – 42.5mg/g for Zn, ND – 23.8mg/g for Ti, and ND – 10.8mg/g for Cr. The concentrations of all the metals studied were generally higher in samples A and B compared to recommended levels of these metals in vegetable crops. Also, the data showed that these metals are at higher levels in samples C, D, E and F compared to other studies in candies and chocolates in Nigeria. Correlation analysis among metals revealed positive correlations, which indicates similar sources of these metals. Also, evaluation of dietary intake of these products daily revealed that sample A (except for Cu and Fe), B, C (except for Cu), D and E are above the daily dietary recommended limit for all the metals studied in food. Thus, frequent intake of these contaminated products is likely to induce health effects arising largely from Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn.

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