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NUTRITIONAL POTENTIAL OF SYNSEPALUM DULCIFICUM PULP AND THE EFFECTOF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ALBINO RATS
This research is on Nutritional potential of synsepalum dulcificum pulp and the effectof the methanolic extract on some biochemical parameters in albino rats. The nutritive and antinutritive compositions of S. dulcificum pulp were analysed to augment the available information on the anti-diabetic effect of the plant. Biochemical parameters like liver function enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP) and bilirubin concentrations,serum total protein, serum albumin and globulin, kidney function parameters (creatinine and urea concentrations), blood glucose, serum lipid profile and lipid peroxidation were determined in rats that were administered different concentrations of the methanolic extract to ascertain their effects. The internal organs (liver and kidney) were also removed and used for histopathological studies. From the result of the study, the proximate composition shows that S. dulcificum contains 7.75% protein, 59.55% moisture content, 4.36% ash, 6.24% crude fibre, 3.26% fat and 18.84% carbohydrate.The result of the mineral analysis shows that S.dulcificum pulp contains 100 mg/g calcium, 24.20 mg/g iron, 9.49 mg/g zinc, 6.22 mg/g copper, 0.01 mg/g chromium and 0.01 mg/g cobalt. Vitamin analyses shows that the S. dulcificum pulp contains 0.04% vitamin A, 22.69% vitamin C, 0.01% vitamin D and 0.02% vitamin K. Antinutrient analyses of the pulp show 5.67% oxalate, 0.03% phytates and 0.02% hemagglutanin. Amino acid profile shows that S.dulcificum pulp contains 8.055% tryptophan, 1.35% phenylalanine, 0.7% isoleucine, 0.5% tyrosine, 1.05% methionine, 0.4% proline, 0.69% valine, 1.1% threonine, 0.4% histidine, 0.5% alanine, 1.02% glutamine, 1.6% glutamic acid, 0.7% glycine, 0.3% serine, 1% arginine, 0.1% aspartic acid, 1.23% asparagine, 0.6% lysine and 0.6% leucine. Quantitative phytochemical analysis shows that the pulp contains 3.45% saponins, 57.01%`flavonoids, 7.12% tannins, 0.0001% alkaloids, 0.0001% glycosides, 0.0003% resins, 0.0002% terpenoids, 0.0001% steroids and 0.0003% cyanogenic glycosides.The results of the acute toxicity show that the methanol extract is not toxic to the mice at concentrations up to 5000mg/kg body weight. From the results obtained, the animals receiving 100mg/kg b.w of the methanolic extract showed significantly reduced (p<0.05) serum levels of glucose, bilirubin, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and ALT after the 14 day study compared to the 28 day study. However, no significant difference (p>0.05) was also observed across the groups in their serum ALP, AST, creatinine, urea, cholesterol, TAG, albumin and globulin levels on the 14th day compared with the 28th day. A significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in the malondaldehyde and serum protein concentrations in the 500mg/kg b.w test group while glucose concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the 100mg/kg b.w and 500mg/kg b.w test group after the 14 day study compared with the 28 day study. High density lipoprotein cholesterol level significantly increased (p<0.05) in the 200mg/kg b.w test group. Histopathological examination shows normal liver architecture across the groups at 100mg/kg b.w, 200mg/kg b.w and 500mg/kg b.w. Kidney sections of rats showing normal glomerulus (G) and renal tubules (arrow) at same concentrations.
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ASSESSMENT OF DIETARY PATTERN AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS ATTENDING SOME VOLUNTARY AND COUNSELLING TEST (VCT) UNITS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS
This project is on assessment of dietary pattern and nutritional status of people living with hiv/aids attending some voluntary and counselling test (vct) units in kaduna metropolis. This study assessed the dietary pattern and nutritional status of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) attending some voluntary and counseling test units in Kaduna metropolis.The studied subjects consisted of 74 adult patients infected with HIV between the ages of 18 and 60 years and 74 age-and-sexed-matched apparently healthy volunteers who were HIV negative as control group.A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the subjects. Dietary diversity of the subjectsand control were assessed using food frequency questionnaire. Blood serum total protein, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol were determined spectrophotometrically while serum zinc and iron were measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result obtained shows that majority of patients (39.19%) were between 26 and 33years. A sizeable percentages of patients (33.78%) and control (52.7%) were overweight (BMI ≥ 25.00kg/m2), while some patients (25.68%) and control (37.93%) were under weight (BMI < 18.49kg/m2). A significantly (P<0.05) higher total protein was observed in patients compared to the control while significantly (P<0.05) lower levels of LDL-cholesterol and CD4 counts were recorded in HIV patients compared to the control. There was also significantly (P<0.05) lower levels of zinc and iron in HIV patients compared to the control. Good dietary diversity was observed in the HIV patients as their dietary pattern showed regular intake of energy and other food groups which may explain why more patients had good BMI contrary to the usually observed incidence of weight loss and wasting among PLWHIV. They also showed normal level of total cholesterol and HDL which implies low risk of atherosclerosis with just little proportion at risk as a result of high LDL levels. Normal zinc levels in the PLWHIV may explain the normal weight observed contrary to what is observed in HIV patients with frequent diarrhea as zinc is effective in the reduction of the incidence, severity and duration of diarrhea. The PLWHIV should be encouraged to maintain dietary diversification with adequate consumption of four or all the food groups. Also, attention should be given to other causes of death in PLWHA such as cardiovascular diseases and overweight.
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