oils

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  • OPTIMIZATION OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM YELLOW OLEANDER AND CASTOR OILS AND STUDIES OF THEIR FUEL PROPERTIES

    Abstract

    The optimization of biodiesel production from two non-edible oils and studies of their fuel and biodegradability properties was carried out. The two oil feedstocks (Yellow oleander and Castor oils) were extracted from their seeds using an oil expeller and their physicochemical properties such as iodine value, moisture content, saponification value, acid value, viscosity, specific gravity and refractive index were determined. Most of these properties were within the acceptable limit of American Standard Testing Method (ASTM). The methyl esters were optimized using methanol as solvent and by varying conditions like reaction temperature, reaction time, type and concentration of catalyst, molar ratio of methanol and oil. For maximum bio diesel production, the transesterification reaction showed that the concentration of alkali catalyst was 0.8 % sodium hydroxide, 0.33 %v/v alcohol/oil ratio, 1 hr reaction time, 60 0C temperature and excess alcohol 150 %v/v. Optimized parameters for production of biodiesel through base catalyzed transesterification gave maximum yield of 96 % and 98 % for yellow oleander and castor oil respectively. The Yellow Oleander Methyl Ester (YOME) and Castor Oil Methyl Ester (COME) and their diesel blends were comparatively analysed for fuel properties such as flash point, relative density, kinematic viscosity, calorific value, distillation, sulphur, phosphorous, water content, cetane number and acid number . The methyl ester of yellow oleander was found to have properties closer to ASTM D 6751 fuel specifications than that of castor oil. It is further observed from the results that the biodiesel from yellow oleander and castor oil are environmentally friendly, such that after spillage, it will take about 28 days for them to have biodegradability of 82.4 and 87.3 for YOME and COME respectively. This is an advantage over petro-diesel which was found to have biodegradability of 25.29 in 28 days.

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  • CHARACTERIZATION, INSECTICIDAL AND MOSQUITO REPELLENCY PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS LEAVES

    ABSTRACT

    This project is on Characterization, insecticidal and mosquito repellency properties of essential oils from hyptis suaveolens leaves. Essential oils were extracted from the leaves of Hyptis suaveolensby hydro-distillation, Mosquitocidal effect was done through an experiment devised for the purpose of this research. The effect of the essential oils against mosquito larvae (larvicidal), mosquito repellency effect and physicochemical properties were determined using standard methods. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) were both done on the essential oils. Percentage yield of the essential oils was gotten as 0.05, for the larvicidal activity dose dependent mortality of the larvae was observed; there was low mortality rate at lower dosage and not significantly different from each other e.g. 6.25 and 12.50ppm had same LC50 and LC90 of 25.21 and 302.67 respectively, 25ppm had LC50 and LC90 of 9.58 and 352.46 respectively, while 50-1000ppm had LC50 and LC90 of 0.55 and 0.85 respectively. It was observed that the amount of air that enters and leaves the cage affect the rate at which mosquitoes were repelled. In a group of mosquitoes kept in a cage with all sides open (ASO) 65% of the mosquitoes were repelled within 30 minutes while for one side open (OSO) and all sides closed (ASC), 73% and 85% of the mosquitoes were repelled within the same time frame. In a second experiment, 100% of mosquitoes were repelled from the surface of rats with shaven skin where essential oil was applied. The essential oil also demonstrated dose dependent mosquitocidal activity with LC50 and LC90 values of 6 and 21ppm respectively. The essential oil has the following physicochemical properties; Iodine value 23.59+0.12g/100g, saponification 100.18+0.8mgKOH/g, Peroxide value 40.00+0.02meq/kg, Acid value 3.37+0.01mgKOH/g, Ester value 34.30+1.00mg/g and free fatty acids 0.15+0.57%. GC-MS analysis revealed Terpenes to be the major organic compound present in the essential oil which was confirmed by FTIR with the O=C-O-C stretch functional group indicating the presence of terpenes. Thus, the presences of terpenes in    Essential    oil    of   Hyptis    suaveolens    may    have    contributed   to    its    insecticidal    and mosquitocidal repellency properties.

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