powder

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    STUDIES ON THE IMPACT RESISTANCE OF CASHEW NUTSHELL POWDER AND CALCIUM CARBONATE FILLED POLYPROPYLENE

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    ABSTRACT

    This research is on Studies on the impact resistance of cashew nutshell powder and calcium carbonate filled polypropylene. Mechanical and morphological properties of pure polypropylene (PP) polypropylene/calcium carbonate (PP/CaCO3) and polypropylene/cashew nutshell powder (PP/CNSP)are reported in this work. The composites were prepared by compression moulding technique. The compressed moulded articles that is the PP, (PP/CaCO3) and (PP/CNSP) of different compositions (10/90, 20/80, 30/70, 40/60, 50/50, 60/40, 70/30, 80/20) were characterised for mechanical properties, water absorption capacity, structural characterisation and morphological arrangements. Comparative studies was made on the mechanical properties of the pure polypropylene (PP), polypropylene/calcium carbonate (PP/CaCO3) and polypropylene/cashew nutshell powder (PP/CNSP). Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, Young?s modulus and percentage elongation at break, Hardness behaviour and Impact resistance of both PP/CaCO3 and PP/CNSP composites increased with increment of filler weight content (10-50g). It was noted that the specimen samples of ratio50/40 PP/CaCO3 and PP/CNSP had the highest tensile strength, when compared with other sample. These specimens could bear loads of 1075N and 468N with extensions of 4.44mm and 6.12mm respectively. Decrease in the mechanical properties were noted on continuous addition of both fillers, with drastic reduction of the mechanical properties at (70g and 80g) fillers weight except hardness that slightly increased at all the filler loading (10-80g). The surface sorption characteristics of calcium carbonate and cashew nutshell powder have been investigated and the highest percentage was recorded at 20/80 of PP/CNSP (100%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that, both 60/40 PP/CaCO3, PP/CNSP and 50/50 PP/CaCO3, PP/CNSP are completely compatible at which there are no phases that are grossly separated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that, the incorporation of the two fillers into the neat

    polypropylene decreased the crystallinity of the polypropylene and the crystallinity decreases with

    increasing filler?s loading.

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    PACKED BED REACTOR SYSTEM STUDY ON THE BIOSORPTION OF Cr(VI) FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING CORN COB POWDER

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    ABSTRACT

    This research is on packed bed reactor system study on the biosorption of CR(vi) from aqueous solution using corn cob powder. The current method used in the treatment of Cr(VI) uses biosorbents that are expensive hence the need for cheaper available biosorbent. In this study, potential use of corn cob powder biomass, as a bioremediation agent for the removal of Cr(VI) was investigated in a packed bed column bioreactor. The effects of the operating parameters such as influent Cr(VI) concentration, pH, biomass concentration, flow rate and temperature, on the Cr(VI) removal were investigated in the continuous system using a packed-bed reactor. Percentage removal curves were obtained for different flow rate, pH, temperature, biomass concentration and initial concentration of Cr(VI). It was found that the adsorption of Cr(VI) to the biomass was strongly dependent on these parameters, as expected. In particular, the influent pH and temperature were most significantly affected leading toa high percentage removal of Cr(VI); a decrease in the influent pH of 2, and an increase in the temperature up to 70?C enhanced the Cr(VI) reduction in the column significantly (P<0.05) up to 70 ¤ 11.39 %. A flow rate of 5min/ml was optimum for higher removal percentage. FTIR spectra analysis carried out on the biosorbent showed the presence of some functional group; hydroxyl (OH), carboxylic (COOH), ethyne (CH), and ethane (CH2) groups which are responsible for the biosorption reaction in the column. Both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms fitted reasonably well with

    the data and showed high correlation coefficient (R2) values of 0.993 and 0.985 respectively. These results show that, the adsorbent can be used as a low cost alternative in biosorption of wastewaters containing lowerconcentrations of Cr(VI).Finally, the potential of the column packed with corncobbiomass for Cr(VI) detoxification has been

    found to be a good biosorbent in removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and also in

    the treatment of Cr(VI) containing industrial waste

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