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    For a proper analysis and understanding of the cultural and historical basis of Igbo Traditional Rulers, one has to accept to the fact that every society has its cultural heritage and value. Even in the developed world, modernization has not completely erased the cultural of the people in Nigeria, one of the cultural heritages in Igbo Traditional Rulers. It is obvious that, there has been an evolution through the years on places of Igbo Traditional Rulers and the roles they are expected to play in our national development. The above notwithstanding, Igbo Traditional Rulers in different peoples in the Nigeria colonial and post colonial Nigeria, the traditional ruler ships institution seems to be the most enduring pre-colonial institution that survived through forms of administration in modern Nigeria.

    Traditional rulers or chieftaincy institutions in Nigeria have had a very chequered history. Before the advents of British colonial era, Igbo Traditional Rulers exercised political authority in their respective communities in varying degree as provided by their tradition and custom during the colonial era. The role of Igbo Traditional Rulers changed radically they became prime face rulers of their institution or communities under district commissioner, in the present Nigeria, the relevance and importance of Igbo Traditional Rulers have been fluctuating. It is against this backdrop that this work tends to analysis the salient roles performed by Igbo Traditional Rulers in national development and also to bring to limelight the relevance or otherwise of Igbo Traditional Rulers to nation building in the present day Nigeria with particular reference to Amandugba Autonomous Community in Isu Local Government Area of Imo state.


    In any developing nation like Nigeria, the task of putting in places sustainable political, economic and social, cultural status. For development is not always the work of one and or a particular group of people. It involves the entire stakeholder governance of which Igbo Traditional Rulers are inclusive.

    Igbo Traditional Rulers has prior to British institution in Nigeria been agents of development in their respective domains. They performed all functions needed for the nation building, following the institution into our political and economic system by the powers and relevance of these Igbo Traditional Rulersdimished substantially. They were related to the background in the scheme of things and some were used in the exploitation and manipulation of the indigenous people. This is one reason why some scholars had argued for the scrapping of the traditional ruler ship in the east brought about cultural debasement of our culture. It was believed that fellowing the independence of Nigeria, the Igbo Traditional Rulers would regain its prominence and contribute effectively in building of a new Nigeria, but this has not been as envisaged, as the fortune of these Igbo Traditional Rulers keeps on fluctuating from one regime to another.

    There is also a continued debuted between and among scholars on the importance and relevance or otherwise of Igbo Traditional Rulers in Nigeria development. As a nation in the pipeline, the task of building a formidable Nigeria should not be the duty of modern institution of governance alone, there are roles which Igbo Traditional Rulers could play in nation building.



    The purpose of this study is to bring to limelight of the efforts made by Igbo Traditional Rulers in ensuring strong and united Nigeria through some salient roles they performed in society the research will also identify and highlight some obstacles militating against the contribution of Igbo Traditional Rulers of traditional rulership, is still relevant to Nigeria development.


    1. What are the role traditional rulers played in nation building?
    2. Do traditional rulers create any impact in nation building?
    3. Is there any other way the traditional rulers can contribute toward the nation building.
    4. Did the masses feel the impact made by traditional ruler in nation building?



    The purpose of this study is to bring to limelight of the efforts made by Igbo Traditional Rulers in ensuring strong and united Nigeria through some salient roles they performed in the society.

    The research will also identify and highlight some obstacles militating against the contribution of Igbo Traditional Rulers of traditional rulership, is still relevant to Nigeria development.

    The above issues among others are basic for the understanding of this research work.


    To show the relevance of Igbo Traditional Rulers to the modern Nigeria society especially in this period of our democracy.

    The study will equally stress how Igbo Traditional Rulers can effectively use their position to bring about social economic development.

    This project will be useful to scholars who engage in African studies since it will provide first hand information about the contributions of Igbo Traditional Rulers in nation building with particular reference to Amandugba Autonomous Community in Isu

    It can also serve as a useful material for undergraduates and post graduates alike.






    The aim of this study is to state the impact made by the Igbo Traditional Rulers in making sure that there is strong and united Nigeria through smart role they play in the society the research also identify some problem encounter by the traditional rulers in nation building. It also states weather the Igbo Traditional Rulers relevant to the development of Nigeria.


    Hi: Igbo Traditional Rulers has played a unifying role in nation building.

    Ho: Igbo Traditional Rulers has not played any unifying roles in nation building.

    Hi: People believe that religion is a cog to the wheel of politics in Nigeria.

    Ho: People do not believe that religion is a cog to the wheel of politics in Nigeria.



    TRADITION: This the total of a people’s belief’s customs, values, ethnics, orientations, in the post which still exist in the present.

    INSTITUTION:  It is a relationship or behavioural pattern of importance of a community or society which has been in existence of a long time.

    ADMINISTRATION: This is the management and directions of the affairs of government. It is the organization and direction of persons and resources to accomplish a desired end.

    IGBO TRADITIONAL RULERS AND NATION BUILDING: It is the application and use of a people beliefs customs, values which the people have come to accept as valid and positive in the running of the affairs of their society in order to ensure stability, growth and the accomplishment of desired goals.

    GOVERNMENT: It is the formal institution and processes through which building decision are made for a society and agency or machinery through which the desired of the state are realized.

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    1.0       INTRODUCTION

    According to Max Weber he defined bureaucracy as an organization with a hierarchy of paid, full-time officials who formed a chain of command and these are concerned with the business of administration with controlling, managing and coordinating a complex series of task. Bureaucracy is a system of control, it is a hierarchical organization in which superiors strictly control and discipline the activities of the subordinates. ORUEBOR, A.A (2007:142) According to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2000) defines corruption as “dishonest or illegal behavior, especially of people in authority; the act or effect or making somebody change from moral to immoral standards of behavior” corruption is a deviation from following the normal accepted standard of behavior by a public official in order to serve social economic or political interest. CHINELO AROH (2010:50).


    The Nigerian police Authority have and will continue to be one of the prime mores of development in different parts of the world and their importance and impact on daily activities of citizens cannot be over emphasized. Before the independence of Nigeria in 1960, public relations practice was not popular because only a few Nigerians know what it was. In Nigeria, public relation was introduced on 1st January, 1944 with the establishment of the first ever public relations office in the country though it was not popular. The lack of adequate knowledge of public relations as a career and the absence of public relation programmes for understanding its practice hindered many Nigerian organizations until recently, when the Federal Republic of Nigeria promulgated Decree No.16 of June,1990,establishing and upholding the practice of public relations in Nigeria.

    The origin of the police is a product of social crisis in the society. The word Police is derived from the Greek word “polis” meaning that part of non ecclesiastical administration having to do with the safety, health and order of the state. Policing and police work did not start as a paid profession. It started as a noble, incorruptible and distinction. It was the justices of the peace system, which corrupted the parish constable system. The 1960 constitution established the Nigerian police force as a federal force charged with the responsibility for maintenance of law and order throughout Nigeria. However, the constitution did not prevent the regions from establishing their own local police force. The command of the Nigerian police force was under the inspector general of police (IGP) while those of the regions were under the command of commissioners of police. Recently, the Nigerian police force (NPF) dropped the force in its name and now answers the Nigerian police. Do not be surprised to read the Nigerian police in place of the Nigerian police force.

    The Nigerian police is grouped into departments A-F;  “A” department takes care of administration personnel promotion, dismissal, transfer and posting, medical budgeting, pay and accounts, public relations and printing etc. “B” department and “F” have their own respective duties, our major concern is “A” department where public relations belongs or categorized.


    Here, the unfortunate aspect of corruption in Nigeria is that there are enabling laws to fight it but the leadership find it difficult to enforce these laws. The menace of corruption leads to slow movement of files in the offices, police extortion e.g. “In collecting twenty naira from bus drivers causing traffic congestion and even road accidents if any of the drivers refuses to give them money, they will start shooting guns to deflate their tires. The funds allocated for their welfare disappear into this air. Thus, it is believed by many in the society that corruption is endemic in all government. Corruption is found in democratic and dictation politics, feudal, capitalist and socialist economies.

    The leaders as well as their followers are corrupt. If there is lack of control of corruption in every sphere in the nation, it is then like the old saying “When water chokes you, what do you take to wash it down?”(The philosophy of Aristotle, 451-ME2783, p.355). Corruption is as a result of man made factors such as greedy people, especially our leaders, who are not contented with what they have so that they will use public funds for selfish gains. Also, many people in Nigeria, especially the youths want to get-rich-quick, so that they indulge in all types of crimes to make money, kidnapping, electoral fund (thuggery), armed robbery, yahoo yahoo, 419, the list is endless, yet the elders who are to correct them end in praising them. Nigerian police force was known in the eighties and nineties for early dispatch of services, result oriented performance and high productivity.

    1.3       OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

    The aim and objective of this project are as follows:

    1. To solve the problem of corruption in the Nigerian public service for better governance.
    2. To know how bureaucracy structure and control encourage the police force to achieve its objectives.
    3. To find out how bureaucracy improve decision making.
    4. To ascertain how bureaucracy improve productivity.


    1. `Why is corruption a viable enterprise in the 3rd world, nay, Nigeria?
    2. To what extent does the poor living condition and welfare of the police affect their performance?
    3. To what extent does police brutality and extortion damage its image to the public?
    4. How cordial is the relationship between the police and the press?
    5. To what extent do the Nigerian police effectively handle crowd and crisis management?

    The purpose of this research is to answer the uplisted research questions that bother both the police and civilians in the state.


    1. The findings in this study shall be of immense help to administrators and managers in correcting animates coherent in a bureaucracy set up.
    2. It will aid the government and television authority to avoid bureaucracy bottle neck, red tapism and i do not care attitude portrayed by workers.
    3. It will help the police force also in boasting productivity.
    4. Corporate bodies and entrepreneurs that wish to share their own business police force would find this study invaluable in their endeavours.
    5. Academically, it will help other researchers in further research analysis.

    1.6       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

    Since in large police force corruption in eminent and inevitable for the success of such television authority, the study shall focus on Nigerian police authority and due to its structural largeness the study shall be narrowed down to the administrative sections.


    In the study, the researcher encountered certain constraints that impede the academic work. These are:

    1. Time Constraints: This posed as a limitation to the study, as the time frame work constructed by the department for the kick off of the study was incompatible with out academic work load.
    2. Unwillingness of staff to give out information: The researcher myself could not gather as much information and facts due to non compliance and non-cha/llant attitude of respondents of workers against the study.
    3. Funding: Due to economic problem, the researcher myself is faced with lack of adequate finance was not available for mobilisation of the work.


    1. An organization: This is a group of people who forms a business together to achieve a goal.
    2. Bureaucracy: This is the official rules and ways of doing things that a government or the police force has with positions of an authority will defined hierarchically so as to facilitate the attainment of police force goals.
    3. Administration: This is seen from a government perspective where it is being used as a machinery for implementing government policy.
    4. Objectives: Something that one tries to achieve, it is also the aim or goals the police force or government seek to achieve.
    5. Hierarchy: This is a system with grades of authority or status from the lowest to the highest. At each level of the hierarchy, officials enjoy the right of issuing directives to subordinates who have the duty to obey them.
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    1:1 Background to the Study

    Subnationalism in Nigeria is as old as the country and stems from the character of the Nigerian state which cannot be dissociated from the role the colonialists played in the creation of the country. Before the intrusion of the British into what is now known as Nigeria, the various ethnic and cultural groups that make up the country existed as autonomous political entities. These entities had their own political systems, social and religious values distinct from one another (Okafor 1997). The aim of the colonialists in bringing these entities together was purely for exploitation of capital.  To facilitate this, they employed divide and rule tactics so as to consolidate and preserve British foothold with little interest in the social, economic or political development of the country or its people (Asia 2001).

    Consequently, British colonial policies, were not tailored to foster unity among the disparate groups that constitute Nigeria, rather it was intended to exploit the varied differences, create distrusts, suspicions and cleavages among them (Uzoigwe 1996). The entrenchment of these differences and competition among the ethnic groups to control the soul of the Nigerian state led to several violent confrontations between them prior to the country’s independence (Okafor 1997). The post-colonial regimes that succeeded the colonialists, instead of carrying out comprehensive reforms of the Nigerian state so as to reduce subnationalism, had largely continued the pattern of the receded colonialists (Adejumobi 2002). These successive post independence regimes failed to initiate far-reaching policy measures to coalesce ethnic differences into positive ventures that could create a pan Nigerian identity. Instead, most of the policies undertaken were rather aimed at suppressing ethnic consciousness and minimize the challenge it poses to the legitimacy of the state or the authority of the incumbent regime. The result of this is the heightened hegemonic contest for power at the centre by the ethnic groups that make up Nigeria.

    This competition for ethnic domination has over the years, assumed varying forms in the politics of Nigeria. At one time or the other, the ethnic groups that are disadvantaged in this game have either attempted secession or had threatened to secede from the country. For instance, the attempt of the Igbo dominated former Eastern Region to transform into the Republic of Biafra between 1967 to 1970 was crushed by the Federal government, thus consigning that ambition to history. But since the end of that war, the Igbo who used to be part of the tripod on which the Nigerian state was established has been crying of marginalization and exclusion from full integration into the Nigerian society (Nnoli 2008). In the Niger Delta region, the minority ethnic groups perceive themselves as second class citizens of Nigeria, and have been crying out for recognition (Osaghae 1995, Ikelegbe 2001). This cry for recognition preceded the country’s independence, but the Ogoni uprising of the 1990s gave impetus and fillip to the agitations in that region and from which other groups have taken cue from. The same applies to the Yoruba where perception of injustice against the group, stems from the annulment of the presidential election held in June 1993, which was widely believed to have been won by a Yoruba man in the person of Chief Moshood Abiola.  The natural effect of all these developments is the emergence of groups as offshoots of these perceptions of marginalization portraying their activities as attempts to redress the marginalization of their particular ethnic group.

    But the Nigerian state has been a violent institution right from inception because it has sought to maintain control and hegemony in society through violent means as exemplified by the pattern of administration of the colonial and military regimes that dominated governance for the most part of the country’s history (Uzoigwe 1996, Obi 2004). Subnationalism tendencies were therefore suppressed because peaceful agitation and popular movements were visited with official violence and repression (Uzoigwe 1996).

    Presently, the use of arms is not restricted to the state and as it is beginning to manifest in Nigeria because there is a tendency within the political society to use violence as an instrument of achieving political ends. Examples abound on how the political parties of the first and second republics recruited armed thugs, as a strategy to win elections. As such, the prevalence of violent ethnic movements which now seem to be flourishing is not new after all, as portrayed in some literature and commentaries. According to Madunagu (2000), the widespread resort to violence by primordial groups in Nigeria as a means to achieve their ends, stem from the nature of politics which compels every political organization at a certain stage of its development to acquire an armed wing. Some ethnic groups take advantage of their entrenched position in the government, to deploy the national army, the police and other security operatives as armed wings to further exclusive group interests. So whether it is called youth wing of a political party or cultural association, thugs, intelligence officers or bodyguards, these militarized forms have been used directly to push for power and political objectives. And so the background and precursor to the militarization of some civil society organizations sometimes referred to as ethnic militia groups, was the militarization of the state and politics in Nigeria (Udogu 1994, Adejumobi 2002). These varied organizations that are referred to as ethnic militias have different histories, goals and present action, their objectives range from the motive of drawing attention to the perceived marginalization of their ethnic group, serving as social pressure to influence the structure of power to redress perceptions of marginalization of their group or the extreme goal of outright dismemberment from the Nigerian political family. The implication of the statement above is that new forms of ethnic assertiveness have emerged. This new dimension of sub-nationalism is epitomised by ethnic movements that believe in violence as means to furthering parochial interests (Jason 2006). The point being made here is that ethnic consciousness has escalated from simple agitation of loose ethnic associations to the level where organised violence oriented groups with the audacity to carry arms are asking questions and demanding answers, thus directly challenging the legitimacy of the state.

    This development has been observed across the country. For instance, the Movement for the Actualization of Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) founded in 1999 is an Igbo dominated ethnic movement, the Oodua People’s Congress (OPC) is predominant in the Yoruba area and predates the return to democracy in 1999, but became more visible thereafter in their quest for a repositioned Yoruba nation in the politics of Nigeria. In the Niger Delta, the Movement for the Survival of Ogoni Peoples (MOSOP) founded in the 1990s, sparked the formation of loose armed groups that are based in that region such as the Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force (NDPVF) and the Movement for the Emancipation of Niger Delta (MEND). These organizations are not only struggling to call attention to the despoliation of the environment of the delta due to oil exploration, but are also demanding that a good proportion of the resources exploited from their region be retained there so as to right the wrongs of years of deprivation.

    In the North, the story remains the same, violent ethnic movements and militant Islamic bodies dot the area and these developments stem from the perception of marginalization and non-accommodation of pure Islamic way of life by the Nigerian political system. Prominent among these organizations in the North are the Arewa People’s Congress (APC) which emerged to counter the OPC, the ‘hambada’ and ‘hisbah’ which enforce sharia compliance in northern states.

    Repression has formed the hallmark of the Nigerian government response to these manifestations of subnationalism. Instead of specifically looking at each of the cases, they have often been bunched into a basket and same treatment applied. This approach of the government to managing subnationalism does not permit the expression of grievances on discussion table but had rather tended to escalate the situation resulting in the frequent clashes between these groups and security operatives that often culminate into loss of lives. Government strategy has also centered on clampdown on the leadership of these organizations. Such reactions have not succeeded in abating the activities of these organizations but have rather intensified the spate of ethnic nationalism in Nigeria.

    Therefore, the study aims at a comparative examination of ethnic militias as a form of subnationalism expression in Nigeria. Specific cases that were examined are the MASSOB and OPC which draw their membership from two of the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria. The study attempted to find out if these organizations emerged from spontaneous development in the political system or isolated cases emanating from different circumstances.

    The study also probed the factors that led to the emergence of these groups, the motivation, participation and membership of the organizations. It examined the profile of the rank and file members and the strategies of recruitment into the organizations. The study also examined the tactics employed by these organizations to realize their professed objectives and attempted to ascertain the level of support of the two organizations from their publics whose interests they purport to project. Though Nigeria is the main focus of the study, similar developments in other parts of the world were highlighted. The aim is to draw lessons useful for nation building and better management of ethnicity for the country.

    1:2 Statement of the Problem

    The concept of ethnic militia in the context of Nigerian political development as a form of subnationalism expression is new; it wasn’t a surprise therefore that apart from popular media characterization, the body of literature that focuses on the subject is very scanty. It is this fact that makes it difficult to establish an acceptable criterion to determine which of the groups that parade the Nigerian landscape falls under the categorization of militia. But that apart, some of the ethnically based organizations in Nigeria have exhibited certain attributes of militia organizations, especially the tendency for violent behaviour and hierachical organization. Though these organizations spread across the country are diverse in nature and do not pursue the same agenda, the common thread that runs through all of them is the manifestation of subnationalism. For instance, Adejumobi (2002:2) sees these organizations as ‘youth based formations that emerged with the intention of promoting and protecting the parochial interests of their ethnic groups and whose activities sometimes involve the use of violence’. But sub nationalism in Nigeria is not a new phenomenon and not restricted to particular sub-national groups in Nigeria, but rather applies to all sub-national groupings in the world. The locus for this has been pointed at the contradictions that attended the formation of the country. The coercive integration of disparate groups with diverse ways of life and orientations makes the expression ‘sub-nationalism’ natural.

    The proliferation of violent ethnic formations and groups in Nigeria raises the question of factors responsible for this development. The reasons advanced by the various ethnic militia groups making varying demands on the Nigerian state as justification for their activities relate to perception of injustice and marginalization of their ethnic groups within the context of the Nigerian political system. The realization of this has compelled the government to come out with measures aimed at addressing what is popularly referred to as the ‘national question’, which has been the reason for the persistence of sub-nationalism in the country. The containment approach of military administrations aggravated subnationalism and created the condition for its transformation into forms championed by emboldened ethnic organizations using violence as a means to accomplish their objectives. Included in these are MASSOB and OPC which purport to promote the interests of Nigeria’s two major ethnic groups of Igbo and Yoruba respectively. Establishing the degree of variability of these manifestations is imperative so as to identify, analyse and explain similarities and differences.

    1:3 Objectives of the Study

    The broad objective of this study is to:-

    • Carry out a comparative study of MASSOB and OPC as consequences of subnationalism in Nigeria

    Other objectives are to:

    • Examine the nature, character and modus operandi of MASSOB and OPC as militia organizations.
    • To determine the extent to which MASSOB and OPC represent the aspirations of their publics.
    • Examine the relationship between socio-economic conditions and the motivation of membership of MASSOB and OPC.

    1:4 Research Questions

    • What are the factors responsible for the emergence and persistence of ethnic militia groups in Nigeria?
    • What are the nature, character and modus operandi of MASSOB and OPC?
    • To what degree are MASSOB and OPC representative of the aspirations of their ethnic groups?
    • What socio-economic conditions created avenues for these groups to persevere and how similar are the motives that drive joiners?

    1:5 Research Propositions

    • The non resolution of the Nigerian national question is significantly responsible for the transformation of subnationalism into forms expressed by MASSOB and OPC.
    • By their nature, character and modus operandi, the degree of variations between MASSOB and OPC are not significant.
    • The motivation of joiners of MASSOB and OPC varies significantly from each other.
    • The response of OPC’s public to their activities varies significantly from MASSOB’s public.

    1:6 Significance of the Study

    The study contributes to the literature on ethnic militia. It will open new vistas of knowledge on the subject, thus providing concerned stakeholders opportunity of understanding the causal factors of subnationalism as it relates to the Nigerian context.

    The study also brings out the role or contribution of subnationalism to nation building in Nigeria. This is significant in the sense that it shall establish factors that pull towards ethnic conflict and sub-nationalism within the peculiar Nigerian milieu which in turn will guide the management of ethno-national tendencies for a multi-national society.

    1:7 Research Methodology

    This study adopted the comparative study method and so applied comparative analysis. This implies that the focus of the study centred on the discovery of uniqueness and similarities that relates to the manifestations of ethnic militia and subnationalism. The reason behind the adoption of comparative method which incorporated aspects of qualitative and quantitative data gathering techniques for this study were to interrogate phenomenon of ‘ethnic militias’ as a consequence of subnationalism in Nigeria. Therefore, data collection for the study was through a combination of primary sources such as survey and key informant interviews and secondary sources from books and other documentary materials’, especially periodicals.

    1:7:1 Research Population

    The population of this study comprises ethnic militia groups in Nigeria. The criterion for membership is restricted to ethnicity and other primordial considerations. They are violence-oriented and profess narrow agenda that promotes interests of sub-unit groups at the expense of the general interests of the state and those of other groups in the state. Their activities and methods of operations fall outside the confines of state laws. From the Literature and popular media, such organizations include the Oodua Peoples Congress, the Niger Delta Volunteer Force, the Egbesu Boys of Africa and the Arewa People Congress. Others includes, Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, the Yandaba,the Bakassi Boys, Hisbah and the Movement for the Emancipation of Niger Delta. The rationale is to find out the relationship between the phenomenon of ethnic militia movements and subnationalism in Nigeria.

    1:7:2 Sample Size

    The study is based on the sample size of two organizations drawn from different regions and cultural settings in Nigeria. The two organizations are the Oodua Peoples Congress (OPC) and the Movement for the Actualization of Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB).

    The choice of the OPC is based on the fact that it was the first violence-oriented ethnic militia organization in Nigeria. The OPC which has arrogated certain functions to itself, has collided with security operatives several times since 1998. The organization draws its members from the Yoruba ethnic group which is one of the largest ethnic groups in the country. It is therefore justifiable that in a study of this nature, the OPC must fall naturally into the sample.

    The other sample organization is MASSOB, whose selection is premised on the fact that the group is dominantly constituted by Igbo people of the Southeast of Nigeria. Igbo people were at the receiving end of the civil war of 1967-70 after the former Eastern region dominated by the Igbo ethnic group was transformed into an independent state of Biafra.  This choice is justified also because just like the Yoruba, the Igbo from where MASSOB draws most of its members are one of the major ethnic groups in southern Nigeria. The justification for choosing these organizations stems from the fact that their activities challenge the authority of the state which has remained fragile since the creation of the country.

    1:7:3 Sampling Techniques

    Given the nature of the subject which does not make probalistic sampling possible as there would be no way of distinguishing who is a militia or not, non-probalistic sampling technique becomes necessary, because of its advantage to reach a target sample quickly. As such, purposive sampling was adopted for the survey.

    The goal of the survey was to reach the rank and file membership of the two organizations under study and administer sets of questionnaire to them about their profiles, life histories, motives and activities. This exercise which targeted a sample population of two hundred (200) was conducted in Lagos and Ibadan for the OPC and Onitsha and Okwe for MASSOB. The cities chosen are appropriate because Lagos is the place where OPC was formed, where most of their activities are more profound and where the headquarters of the organization is located whereas Ibadan is the biggest Yoruba city, once the regional capital, and it is similar to Lagos as a cosmopolitan city where the Yoruba of different dialects are found. On the other hand, Onitsha has become notorious for MASSOB activities and where most of the violent clashes with security operatives occurred, whereas Okwe near Owerri is the location of MASSOB’s headquarters. Okwe is important because it is the host of monthly national meetings of the MASSOB which is rotated in terms of attendance for all administrative regions of MASSOB.

    1:7:4 Sampling Frame

    In this study, 200 copies of the research questionnaire were administered to rank and file members of the two organizations, hundred (100) copies each for the OPC and MASSOB. For the OPC 50 copies each were administered in Lagos and Ibadan. Here attempts were made to ensure that the rank and file membership belonging to the two main factions of Gani Adams and Fredrick Faseun were captured as equally as possible even though the rift in the organization has been settled at the time the questionnaire was administered. The cities where 50 copies of questionnaire were administered to MASSOB members are Onitsha and Okwe, the headquarters of the group which is visited monthly alternatively by the various branches for their meetings. The number is adequate to guarantee the confidence level that the study requires. It is a non-probability arbitrary choice because the population size of both organizations is not known and their claim to membership strength cannot be verified and moreover it is not easy to distinguish members of the group from sympathisers. But the parameter used in this type of study to reach a large number of members was through their meetings. Participation in meetings suggests commitment and so the individuals who were reached through this way are reliable members of the group and approximate active members of the organizations. The questionnaire addressed issues such as the socio-demographic profiles and biographies of the members of the organizations, their motive for enlisting into the organizations, the organization’s process of recruitment as well as their activities.

    In addition, there were series of key informant interviews with four prominent actors within the two organizations. The target interviewees were the leaders at the top echelon of the two organizations. They include, Dr Fredrick Faseun, the founder and National Chairman of OPC, Otunba Gani Adams, National Coordinator of the OPC and factional leader, Chief Ralph Uwazurioke, founder and the National Leader of MASSOB and Mr Benjamin Onuegbu, Western Zonal Coordinator of MASSOB. The aim was not only to gather information about their ideology and vision but also to find out from them the structure of the organization, finance and mode of operation. Attempt was made to record their experiences, thoughts and feelings about their struggle vis-a-vis their professed goals and objectives. Other opinion leaders in Owerri and Okwe were also interviewed as a measure to gauge perception that led to the establishment of these organizations. The interview form used was the one–off type which was unstructured in order to be more in-depth and also to allow the interviewee room to fully express themselves. The unstructured interview lets the interviewee tell their story and so determines to some extent, the flow of the dialogue. However, the interview, in spite of this fact revolved around the key theme as expressed in the research questions.

    The study also relied on secondary sources such as books, reports of dailies and periodicals describing the activities of the two organizations and their leaders which were reviewed and critically analysed updated. Government publications, conference papers, seminar reports, etc were also reviewed. Data from these sources were used mainly to support the views and provide insights into the data derived from the primary sources. We also used materials from secondary sources to address some of the questions that have to do with conceptual issues as well as provide the solid bases for qualitative analysis of empirical outcome.

    1:7:5 Validity and Reliability of Survey Instrument

    The concern of any researcher is to ensure that the instruments designed for the collection of data are dependable. This process is important in any research endeavour so as to measure accurately and obtain the right responses intended. In this regard, the questionnaire was given to experts at the Department of Political Science and International Relations overseeing the project for their inputs and criticisms. Furthermore, to ensure reliability and validity of the survey instrument, the study pre-tested the instruments in Okota-Lagos for the OPC and Ijeshatedo-Lagos for MASSOB where ten sets of questionnaire each were administered.

    This was determined through the correlation of the score for each item with the total score for each individual, and comparing that to the variability present for all individual item score. In other to accomplish this, the study employed the Test-re-test reliability for the questionaire administered to the selected 10 respondents of each of the organizations with the help of leaders of the organizations at Okota and Ijeshatedo in Lagos state. This exercise was carried out twice within two weeks interval of each other with the result showing a higher correlation between the two exercises. This showed clearly that the instrument we employed in our study was reliable and valid.

    1:7:6 Data Presentation and Analysis

    The study employed the descriptive statistical technique to analyze the data sourced from the administration of questionnaire, key informant interviews and documentary sources. The data were presented in simple percentages using tables and charts as illustration comparing the two organizations. Categorization of social events and content analysis of the recorded responses and diary of events as they occur within the study period were also undertaken. The results of the study were therefore presented in descriptive, narrative form which implied descriptive account of selected trends and developments derived from the data. Information was synthesized on key themes and issues as our units of analysis which were derived from the objectives of the study. This was imperative because comparison can lead to fresh, exciting insights and a deeper understanding of issues.

    1:7:7 Units of Analysis

    To realize the objectives of this study, our unit of analysis was anchored on the following variables;

    • Objectives and goal of the organizations, where we looked at how those ideological orientations that informed the formation of MASSOB and OPC conform to sub-nationalism tendencies.
    • Traits of militia organization; enabled us address one of the objectives of the study that attempted to look at the nature, character and modus operandi of MASSOB and OPC. This was accomplished by analysing information that examines the features of militia organizations so as to establish the degree by which either of the groups comforms with the characterization.
    • Predictors of enlistment; this is another important variable considered as our unit of analysis for this study. The purpose was to make an outlay on what drives individuals to joining the two groups under consideration. Was it ideology that is propelling folks to join or was it the prevailing economic condition that those individuals were facing that is responsible?
    • Mobilization strategy of membership; this variable was also employed to compare the two organizations from the perspective of grievance, xenophobia or greed as the elements that attract and sustain membership mobilization. This was derived from the objective that seeks to examine the modus operandi of the two organizations.
    • The profile of recruits; this variable probes the characteristics of members who were recruited into the two organizations. This centred on their age, educational attainment, and occupational status. The aim was to establish whether there were differences in our study between the two organizations in terms of the kind of people who constitute them and derived from the objectives that seek to examine the relationship between socio-economic conditions and motivation of membership.
    • Derivatives of membership; here our attention was focused on the perception of individual members of the two groups as it relates to gains and benefits derivable from membership, whether it is economic, psychological or otherwise.
    • Determinants of cooperation; this variable was used to compare the two organizations in terms of the factor that binds the members or factors that ensures cohesion in the organizations. We considered whether it relates to coercion, or is it interest, values, personal bonds or even social capital that is of vital importance in either of the organizations. This was derived from the objective that seeks to examine the nature and character of the two organizations.
    • Micro-Group Response; this is another vital variable that was employed as a unit of analysis in the study to determine the relationship of MASSOB and OPC with their publics (the Igbo and Yoruba respectively). To further this, our concern was focused on the marital status of individual members of the groups, family ties, and their place of abode among other factors that revealed the level of attachment the group has established with the micro-group and the support base the organizations command with their publics in terms of acceptance of their activities and the corresponding response from their publics.

    1:8 Scope of Study and Delimitation

    The study covered socio-political developments in Nigeria dating back to the formative period to the point sub-nationalism manifestation became appropriated by militant ethnic organization. The focus of the comparative study was that of the Movement for the Actualization of Sovereign State of Biafra and The Oodua People’s Congress. Access to information was naturally difficult, given the nature of the subject of study. For instance, the process of spotting a militia or members of the groups or penetrating the two groups was not easy and so obtaining accurate and confidential information was indeed very difficult.

    1:9 Operational Definitions of Terms

    1:9:1 Sub-nationalism; is the movement of people to exit or pursue independent statehood or regional autonomy within a multi-ethnic, multi-religious state. We also refer to sub-nationalism as a movement or revolt of peoples against the unitary nature of state, reinforced by indigenous rights and contention of power. Sub-nationalism leans to mobilization and ethnocentrism for political and economic advantage of one ethnic group against another.

    1:9:2 Ethnic Militia; are organised violence-oriented groups populated by diverse elements, cutting across different age strata, but drawing membership exclusively from an ethnic group and established to promote and protect the interests of an ethnic group. Ethnic militias is an extreme form of ethnic agitation for self-determination and occurs when the ethnic group assumes militant posture. They serve as a social pressure group designed to influence the structure of power to the advantage of and call attention to the deteriorating material condition or political deprivation and perceived marginalization of their group or social environment.

    1:9:3 National Question; refers to the tensions and contradictions of the Nigerian federalism and inter-group relations pivoting around issues of marginalization, domination, inequality and injustice in the distribution of resources, citizenship rights, representation and access to power and political offices.

  • design-and-implementation-of-a-social-media-based-web-application-for-prospective-university-students-a-case-study-of-covenant-university
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    This research is on design and implementation of a social media-based web application for prospective university students (a case study of covenant university).

    Communication is a basic human need and for that reason, man has always found a means of meeting this need. The media, which is an umbrella term for various means of communication, has become an integral part of human life around the world. The earliest forms of personal media, speech and gestures, had the benefit of being easy to use and did not necessarily need complex technology (Idakwo, 2011).

    Through the social media, the internet community has drastically increased over the years. The social media has become a significant part of today’s modern civilization. It is a defining trait of how integrated social interactions have become. The impact of the social media have been seen in basically five different contexts; news, interactions, political landscapes, learning and marketing (Guha, 2013).

    With over 80 percent of teen Internet users frequenting social media sites, it’s no wonder the real world social lives are seeing some changes. Social media is definitely changing the way people communicate, but in many ways it’s for the better as we expand our social circles and explore new horizons through our online connections (Chopra, 2013).

    Every age it has passed through has been based on beliefs and new technologies, responding to the needs of individuals anxious to adjust to new forms of socialization. A time of great change is a period in which society looks for meaning. Information is already a tool, the principal tool, which people use to perceive and understand their environment (Idakwo, 2011).

    The emergence of online forums has become hugely popular in recent times with interactions based on similar discussions, posts and threads (Xiaolin, et al., 2009) (Sumit & Prasenjit, 2010). Online forums have become powerful tools for sharing information (Bedmar, 2010). Online discussion forums have also become one of the most popular places to ask and answer questions (Falls, 2012).

    Online Forums, compared to the other social media sites, have various unique features like threads; where discussions and posts are made, RSS feeds, polls, etc. Online Forums, provide a unique type of social environment that enables people to share and access information freely. Users can either start new topics or leave comments in the threads of existing topics (Xiaolin, et al., 2009).


    Prospective students of an institution (the University) have had issues in the past when it comes to selecting careers, choosing their course of study and indecisions about the right school to apply for (Ogu, 2008) (Orndorff & Herr, 1996). However, to solve these problems, a platform needs to be created where these students can relate with others who can answer these questions. Consequently, relevant requirements have to be taken into consideration in the development of a web application to solve these problems stated above.


    To develop a web/online platform where students can share different questions or views on various topics and majorly make information about any institution accessible. This will be achieved through the following objectives:

    1. Gathering the right requirements for this application.
    2. Modeling the requirements gathered using a Unified Modeling Language (UML).
    3. Implementing the system by creating a user-friendly platform that will be easier for these students to interact with each other and ask questions using threads and topics.


    The research work will be conducted by using different sources of relevant data for research like online surveys, journals, books and reviews of relevant literature. The requirements needed for the development of this application will be gotten by a review of existing systems. A platform where users who will reply to the questions from other users or provide any form of information will be created by some ‘question and answer’ techniques to solve the problems stated above successfully. The online forum will also be designed showing all the different functions that will be performed by using UML diagrams like use cases, class diagrams, etc. The implementation of the web application can now be done by making use of the design diagrams and programming will be done with PHP and the database management will be done by MySQL database taking a clue from existing forum software’s. The system will later on be evaluated by making use of feedbacks and reports from relevant users.


    This study has its relevance in solving real life problems affecting students today like indecisions about student’s course of study, career choices and misinformation about that institution. The application will also be flexible to provide different categories where users can have specific choices to select from. Lastly, this application will be focused on one institution i.e. Covenant University rather than addressing a greater audience, in other student forums.

    Information is the bane of decision-making for students and present time web applications cannot live up to providing real time information that can be accessed from anywhere by the end user. It is important to put interest into the development and usage of online forums in solving these problems.


    The basic limitation of this project is that the right set of university students with the right information and answers to any question may not be available to make this project a success.

    But, this will also be taking into consideration during the implementation of the project.


    In Chapter Two, relevant literatures will be reviewed so as to elicit requirements for the proposed system. In Chapter Three, the requirements for the proposed system using the unified modeling languages will be designed. Chapter Four will be discussing and showing the system development, deployment and evaluation. Chapter Five will summarize the work and give recommendation for future work.

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  • design-and-construction-of-an-audio-amplifier
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    This project involved design and construction of an audio amplifier .The term audio refers to sound or human hearing as the range of human hearing extends from about 20 hertz to 20,000 hertz (i.e. 20k hertz) but varies considerably with age and individuals. That is we can hear air pressure change or vibration that vary in pitch from about 20 times per second to about 20,000 times per second.

    The term pitch describes the subjective sensation of hearing an air pressure vibration or sound meaning pitch of a double bass is low, that is flute or soprano is high. The more the air pressure vibrates pre second, the higher the pitch.

    Transistor which has the ability to amplify cannot amplify the air pressure (acoustic) directly; therefore it is necessary to first convert the air pressure vibration into equivalent electrical vibration by means of a sound transducer, a microphone or similar acoustic electrical transducer. Meaning that if one sings into a microphone, a pure tone that has a pitch say 1000 vibration per second will be gotten. The microphone output will be an electrical AC signal that has lets say about frequency of 15,000 hertz after passing through the amplifier circuit.

    Amplifier circuit is the interconnection of diodes, capacitors resistors, transformers, integrated circuits, transistors, heat Zink each of which has a required function. The circuit is capable of amplifying a very weak signal to a larger signal.

    For amplifier circuit to be able to drive more load (speakers), a good number of pair of transistors has to be used. Hence, the number of pair of transistor should not be too much to avoid humming.

    Aim and Objectives

    The main aim and objective of this project work is to design an audio amplifier system which can be used to amplify a very weak signal to produce a higher output so that it drives a number of loud speakers.

    Scope of Study and Limitation

    This project work is the design and construction of audio amplifier that could be able to drive a higher number of loads i.e. speakers with good impedance matching, with good volume.

    The limitation is that, it is just an audio amplifier without any application like

    • Audio amplifier with mixer
    • Equalizers using operational amplifier
    • Photo voltaic light sensors using operational amplifier
    • Medical electronic monitoring system using operational amplifier
    • Phase detector using operational amplifier
    • Electronic thermometer using operational amplifier and so on.


    This project work is relevant to the needs of the department, school, churches, mosques, and the society at large. It is useful in a congregation where it is used to raise the voice of the speaker so that he/she could be heard louder and clearer by the congregation. It can also be used to raise the volume of music and sound, during programme like NASTES, which as a result reduce stress and cost. This project is worthwhile, and stands to benefit many.

  • examination-of-delegation-of-duties-as-it-concerns-decision-making
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    This research is on Examination of delegation of duties as it concerns decision making. Delegation of authority is one of modern trends practiced by managers. It is function stands out contributing and increasing the level of motivation of employees and achieving positive returns for (an organization with a manager) and (an employee with a customer) both. On the level of an organization, it achieves competitive advantage, knowledge inventory, increases the level of productivity and speed in finalizing tasks effectively. On the level of manager, it alleviates functional burdens, gains employees’ satisfaction and builds cooperation and trust between manger and employees giving a chance for manger to have full-time for realization of more important work. So, it reduces physical and intellectual efforts exerted by manager and other employees. On the level of an employee, it works on achieving functional empowerment, constructing alternative and administrative leadership, making employees feel self-confidence and motivation for Excellency in performance. On the level of customer, it meets the needs of customers rapidly, delivering or providing the service will not be delayed due to delegation authority. Giving the customer a higher level of care and attention, building customer’s perceived and creating loyalty and mutual respect for an organization and production in which the organization produced.

    It can be said that method of delegation authority becomes inevitable issue for every organization whether in public or private sector. It is not optional due to many reasons has connected and brought developments and changes to the organizations including that (increasing its size and diversity of its products, multiplicity of its products and spread of its branches in different geographical zones and different local, regional and international levels. Managers have been imposed for the necessity to have a way for helping them in facilitating business affairs and alleviating the burdens in which they aren’t tolerated, implemented and controlled by a manger. From other hand, different social and environmental transformations at organization have been changed since of classical school that was differentiated by centralism and subjecting to orders of mangers without reluctance. Implementing processes and procedures become more flexible, and free due to employees. The results of applying this principle has helped employees to be enhanced, imposed different functional rights for them, and necessity to transform from dictatorship to democracy associates with modern trends of management and employees’ desires and wishes. In addition, managers will be able to maintain their job position and preserve the process of facilitating business affairs, employees’ loyalty, enabling to be remained and achieving performance efficiency.




    The concept of delegation of authority as it happens in industries, service and business organizations has attracted many psychologists and educations. These great people have carried out series of research on it with each of them coming up with a theory as it affects decision-making in organizations. Yet no one theory of delegation can alone satisfactorily explain the concepts. This is because of the complexity in human behaviour.

    Delegation means entrusting to or deputation or representing. To delegate authority, a manger entrusts his authority to others to perform. It is an important tool of management. Management is defined as social process entailing responsibility for an effective planning and regulations of operation of an organization in fulfillment of a given purpose or task. It can also be defined as the act and science of achieving the objectives of a business as organization in the most efficient way.

    However, all organization, be it small or large have to take decision. The purpose of decision-making, as earlier said, is to direct human behaviour towards a future goal. Decision-making is the selection from among alternation courses of action, and if there were no alteration, there should be need for a decision. In making any plan, there must be a  decision to take: therefore, it can be said that planning leads to decision guided by organization policy and objectives.


    There are many problems associated with delegating of authority with regards to making good decision for the organization, especially as there are many individual differences. Employers know the importance of employee’s participation and satisfaction and their effects in the achievement of organization objectives.

    To be able to achieve better result in shorter time with minimum supervision and attention, the manager should ensure that he delegates his authorities to capable hands, and at the same time, authority should be delegated with equal responsibility.

    The problem areas to be given attention now are:

    • Ability or inability to identify subordinate that is capable
    • Most at times, authority can be delegated without equal responsibility.
    • There is also the possibility that authority is not delegated close to the scene of action.
    • Ability of the manager to identify his limitations and the need to supplement it with personal influence.



    The present study aims at identifying the impact of the delegation of authority on employees’ performance at Nigeria Breweries Makurdi. It has constructed on measuring the impact of delegation on efficiency, effectiveness and empowerment.


    It lies on the importance of the topic related to delegation authority from high management to lower managerial levels of employees. Studying such phenomenon discovers the level of centralism and decentralism applied in management of municipality affairs in which a lot of work and different services are implemented for local community and citizens due to increasing the level of service, performance and speed. This matter is going to achieve a higher level of satisfaction and loyalty to customers. Delegation authority reflects positive returns achieving efficiency, effectiveness and empowerment. In addition creating alternative leadership, trust, cooperation between functional high and medium levels or between employer and employees


    To address this research problem, it is necessary to build a conceptual foundation that will enable us to understand the importance of delegation of authority and its relationship with decision-making. For the purpose of this study the following research questions are formulated:

    • Is there any significant relationship between delegation of authority and commitment to work?
    • Can management decision-making be effective without delegation of authority?
    • Is it possible for a manger to delegate his authorities to his subordinate especially when the issue to be handled is a sensitive one?


    Three hypothesizes were included:

    1. There is no statically significant for the method of delegation authority on functional efficiency of employees.
    2. There is no statically significant for the method of delegation authority on functional effectiveness performance of employees.
    3. There is no statically significant for the method of delegation authority on functional empowerment of employees



    1.8.    SCOPE OF THE STUDY:

    This research work is basically concerned with the examination of independent variable effecting delegation of authority as it concerns decision-making. It covers the aspect of responsibility to carryout activities, planning and ways through which workers could gain more power and improve their position relative to management only.


    It is expected that at the end of this research work, the researcher will have succeeded in throwing enough light towards the advantages of delegating duties to capable hands in an organization. It is also expected that the company that the researcher sited in the project work as the case study will also key into the research work and possibly make adjustments in the areas of their company that is lagging behind due to negligence of delegation of duty.


    This study is however, subjected to some limitations which could make it not to be exhaustive. Such limitation includes the researcher’s inability to interview some principal staff of the organization whose contributions could have been of great help. It is also limited to time and material resources.


    The non-behavioral variable such as change in technology, political and climatic conditions are not considered in the study.


    Delegation: This is the organization processes that permit the transfer of authority from superior to a subordinate.

    Subordinate: A lower staff that is answerable to a boss or superior.

    Manager: This is regulating the operation of a business organization one who undertakes the task of planning and at any level.

    Task: This implies to piece of work assigned to someone to do.

    Responsibility:  Is the obligation to carry out certain activities with accountability for performance.

    Authority: The degree of discretion in organization positions conferring the persons occupying these positions, the right to use their discretion and judgment on decision making.

    Initiative: Right to think out, and execution of plan.

    Duty: What someone is obligated in the terms of contract agreement.

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  • development-of-an-online-examination-system-case-study-yabatech
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    Development of an online examination system. Case study: YABATECH

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    This research is on Development of an online examination system. Case study: YABATECH. Online examination systems are being used by an ever-increasing number of institutions to help reduce time deficiency, cost, exam malpractices such as impersonation and other unethical exam-related exercises that take place in most independent and national examinations. In this study, an explanation of how online examination systems are related to some traditional or manual based analysis, and techniques are presented and how online examination systems help institutions increase the efficiency of result generation. The project describes various limitations of current system methods and discusses possible solutions that can improve online examination system and makes it applicable to an even broader range of institutions. This project was carried out using tools like PHP to develop the front end and MYSQL for the back end of the software-online examination system. Evaluation of the project strictly shows that the software system can reduce 50% of the present examination malpractices problem in the current manual system.

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  • public-relations-role-to-the-growth-of-premier-breweries
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    Public relations role to the growth of premier breweries

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    1.1   background of the study

    This project is on Public relations role to the growth of premier breweries. Many authorities have contributed immensely to the success of defining public relations. Some scholars believed and wrote on it as act (deed) representing a group or organization.

    Public relations is deliberate planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its publics. British institute of public relations (IBPR).

    According to Roger Hayward as quoted by Adegoke (2001:1) says that public relations is the propagation of the personality of the organization. This states the importance of communication between the organization and its public. Roger Hayward’s definition has something to do with the British institute of public Relation’s (IRPR) definition because both state the duty of public relations officers in promoting, projecting and representing the organization and at the same time relating with the publics of the organization both the internal and external publics. Public relations project the management personality of which the public relations department represents, through their activities with the use of their perspective tools (i.e. print and electronic media).

    The aim is to create favorable atmosphere between an organization and its publics.

    Sam Lack (1962:62) asserts that public relations involve anything that is focused, improving and enhancing the flow of communication between institution and its publics.

    1.2   statement of the problem

    This research has observed that in so many organizations, management neither recognize nor appreciate public relations efforts in Nigeria. The management does not realize the public relations activities in building and enhancing a good image for the standard of the organization.

    It has been observed that the management attitude is lukewarm and non-challant towards public relations department and their activities. Besides, they don’t want to spend money on its activities such as organizing seminars workshops, symposium etc. this is because of the errornous and selfish belief to the organization.

    Therefore, this study will look at the impact of public relations programmes on the image of business organization, a study of Premier Brewery Onitsha.

    1.3   research questions

    1. Hw can public relations programme be used in bridging communication gap between organization and its public?
    2. What role is public relation programme playing in creating good image for premier Brewery Onitsha?
    3. How effective has public relations programmes been to influence the behaviour of their publics?
    4. Has public relations programmes been able to create and enhance cordial relationship between the management and workers of Premier Brewery?
    5. Does public relations programmes help Premier Brewery during crisis?

    1.4   purpose of the study

    1. To know how public relations programmes can be used in bringing communication gap between organization and its publics.
    2. To study the role of public relations in creating good image for Premier Brewery Onitsha.
    3. To examine how effective public relations programmes are in influencing the behaviour of the publics.
    4. To study how public relations has been able to create and enhance cordial relationship between the management and workers of Premier Brewery Onitsha
    5. To analyze how helpful is public relations programmes to Premier Brewery.

    1.5   significance of the study

    At the and of this study, the following will benefit from the findings of the study.

    Organization: Different organizations will know the benefits of public relations through the result of the findings and how they can use PR for their gain.

    Researcher: future researchers who will be researching in the are related to this will find this work relevant.

    Students: public relations students and Mass communication students will as well understand the importance of their course of study to the industrial development.

    1.6   scope of the study

    This study is limited only to the role of public relations programmes on the image of organization. It is also limited to the staff and management of Premier Brewery. Though there are other organizations but because of time and financial constraint this study is limited to this organization.

    1.7   limitation of the study

    Time: the available time to carry out this study is relatively short, this pose a lot of limitations to the work.

    Finance: inadequate finance to travel and browsing for relevant materials is another limitation to the study.

    Material: at present there are only few literature materials available on this topic, this is challenging to this work.

    1.8 Definition of terms

    1. Publics: a group of person with similar aspiration and ideas, interest and characteristics that is of importance to an organization.
    2. Public relation: is the deliberate planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its publics.
    3. Relations: the way in which two people or group behaves towards each other or deal with one another.
    4. Organization: A group of people who form a business together in order to achieve a particular aim or a group with a particular purpose.
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  • modern-office-equipments-and-their-contributions-to-the-success-of-a-business-organization-a-case-study-of-nnpc-enugu-depot
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    This research is on Modern office equipment’s and their contributions to the success of a business organization (a case study of NNPC Enugu depot). The use of modern office equipment is inevitable to offices in this modern era- until the 15th century before the advent of typewriters, publication of business documents was a difficult job and bored mostly to secretaries because everything has to be handwritten.

    With time and technological growth, business organizations witnessed information overload due to over increasing commercial transactions. Business therefore, needs technology to turn out words effectively, efficiently and continuously.

    These days, the world of work is changing fast, as we approach  the new millennium modern equipment are fast replacing manual machines in  the workplace, computer automated machines have gradually taken the work of men. With the level of sophistication and cut throat competition in our society, nobody is resting on their oars in the new technological age.

    Before now, most employers of labour needed all kinds of categories of workers. Some were trained on the job, while others came as experts. In the factories, people were employed in their thousands to do all kinds of jobs. Production machines, acquired long age, took time to warm up for use while workers took their turn in churning out the large number of workforce.

    Most management, employers of labour are of the view that the introduction of high technology to the workplace has made the work easier, faster, saves time and cost, especially on overhead, better than employing a multitude with no result.

    Again, with the introduction of new technologies, business men have been saved from carrying huge sums of money all over the place, the advent of electronic fund transfer is a pointer to this topic.

    The use of internet, E-mail, pagers, digitized telephone services, mobile phones, answering machines have made the job of executive, top managers less cumbersome and communication gap has been bridged with the popularization of these gadgets. Business and transactions can be discussed through these services.

    Even in terms of society for the workplace it is common feature in some big organization to mount circuit television, to monitor movement of people. Big time executive also use close circuit television to wade off intruders and those they don’t want to see, with this, productivity is thus enhanced.



    NNPC (Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation) depot Enugu is located at Emene in Enugu East local government of Enugu state. Commissioned on 25th August, 1979 by the military Administration of the then Anambra state Col. D.S Abubakar.

    It has a total capacity of 12 million liters of petroleum products. It has only three by products in stock which include Premium Motor Sprit (PMS) otherwise called petrol, Dual Purpose Kerosene (DPK) and Automobile Gas Oil (AGO) ago or diesel for onward distribution to her customers the oil marketing companies.

    Enugu depot has a total number of six departments namely: Administrative, sales, security, accounts operation and safely departments with a total workforce of 250 workers. Each department is managed by the head of such department who equally reports to the depot manager who is the overall boss.



    In a developing country like Nigeria, the use of modern office equipment in the office is still minimal because they lack the technical know how to put the one their disposal to good use. Lack of stilled manpower to update and maintain already acquired machines. Besides, constant power failure from the public electricity supply has not helped matters in any way.

    More over, some office worker especially secretaries sees the technological improvement as a challenge and also as threat to their job. These problems and anxiety in the minds of office workers, is likely to lead to a drastic reduction in production in most office.

    Finally, this situation calls for serious policies by management dealing with the problem, which psychologically destroys the mental and emotional state of workers.



    For every act, there must be a reason and in light of this, the purposes of this study are:

    1. To discover what office equipment is all about.
    2. To identify the contributions of modern office equipment on the success of business organization.
    3. To examine the training needed for the operation of these office equipments.
    4. To identify how to maintain them in the office.
    5. To discover the problems associated with the use of these equipments.



    1. What is office equipment all about?
    2. Do these modern office equipments actually have any contribution on the success of business organization?
    3. Do the operation of these modern equipments need any training program?
    4. Do these modern office equipments require proper maintence?
    5. Is there any problem associated with the use of these modern equipments?



    The significance of this study “modern office equipments and their contributions to the success of a business organization, a case study of NNPC Enugu depot” is that it will create awareness as well provide information on the roles these modern office equipment plays in seeing that NNPC Enugu depot achieve their goals and also meet up the standard. It is also recommended to the society in general and whosoever wishes to achieve efficiency on prudent.



    The researcher is concerned with the contributions of modern office equipments to the success of business organization with particular reference to Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) Enugu depot in Enugu east local government area in Enugu state.




    • Office: it is a place /room /building where clerical duties are carried out.
    • Modern: involving up-to-date techniques or equipment. it is also refers as most recent or current
    • Equipment: the tools / items needed for a particular purpose. In order words, it also means things that are needed to carry out work / job in the office; it could be electrical or manual.
    • Researcher: person that carry out the piece of work.
    • Accuracy: error free presentation.
    • Machine: a device with an electrical power attached to it used in office production.
    • Crude/Manual: equipment that require physical exertion of energy to operate.
    • Efficiency: prompt delivering of jobs.
    • Business: knowledge of commercial procedures i.e. buying and selling.
    • Operation: the manner in which business is carried out.
    • Production: output, increase in manpower.
    • NNPC: Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation
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