The study investigation focuses on an evaluation of instructional resources in the effective teaching of Geography. A case study of Iwajowa Local government Area of Oyo State.
Research questions were formulated in relation to the aim and objectives set for the study rand sampling techniques was used in selection of 25 respondents in each of the selected school Itile Comprehensive High School Itasa, A.D.S High School IwereIle, Ilupeju Community Grammar School IwereIle, Community Grammar School IdikoAgo, in all 100 respondents were used for the study.
Data were collected through questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage.
The study revealed that medial instructional materials have not been widely spread over the area and those that have been found have not been utilized effectively which results in poor/low performances of the learners in Geography.
Also, the parents/guidance, the teachers the government and the students themselves should take their active part in improvisation of those needed resources and there should be good maintenance of the materials.
The term Geography can be traced back to two Latin words Geo and Graphe Geo means the earth while Graphy means description. Various Geographers and scholars vividly examined the concept of geography in which they all mostly agreed that Geography is the study of earth and its environments Vidal de la Blache, the father of modern geography argued that as quoted from Appales de Geographe 1921.
Geography recognized the unity of terrestrial phenomena he, therefore, pursued a world view and consideration of causes and genetic types of grouping of terrestrial phenomena.
Terrestrial phenomena are localized in varied combinations.
Geography seeks to describe, localize and explained these covariations.
Geography seeks to measure the influence of especially climate and vegetation on man.
Geography, therefore, seeks for scientific methods of defining and classifying terrestrial phenomena, as well as that;
Geography seeks to measure and localize the great part that man plays in modifying the face of the earth.
These objectives were pursued by a leading pupil of his, Albert Demangeon, who listed four major fields of investigation for human geography.
a. The study of resources, natural and human.
b. The evolution and localization of different types of civilization
c. The distribution and movement of population; and
d. The classification, distribution and development of the facts of the humanized landscapefield, house, village, route, town and state.
Generally, befre 1950, the study of geography was approached mainly from the idiographic points of view. In other words geography was viewed as purely descriptive, seeking to provide a more and more useful and accurate picture of the fact of the earth as the home of man. Geographical studies as at 1950s answers the questions of where and why where questions is about location of places, while questions answer or focus in geography to favour description of phenomenon on or near the earths surface.
Geography as descriptive and distributive in nature needs various resources for its effectiveness in teaching learning activities which may be textual like books, audiovisual, visual and humanitarian.
Alabi E.A 2007 states that, these resources are either used individually or collectively in any meaningful geography teaching and learning situation.
The extent to which teachers use instructional materials in order to supplement the basic daily teaching activities varies depending on how a teacher can exercise professional judgment about how they can be found, where they can be found where and when they can be used.
Akinde O.O 1984 pg 7 explains that Amos Cornelius who said to be the first educator to appreciate the value of instructional materials developed his educational theories, he recommended attractive classroom i.e. conducive environment for learning geography, maximum sense appeal, studies facilitators meaning the use of materials suitable for learning and good text books.
In a nut shell, in selecting the materials or learning resources to be used in a geography class some factors must be well observed and critically examined which are.
1. The environment at which the materials is to be used
2. The teaching objectives under listed
3. The age and maturity of the students
4. The reading ability of the learners
5. The level of difficulty of the concept subsumed in the subject matter.
6. The learners background and others.
1.1 Historical Background to the Study
The romance of teaching resources and the teaching of geography in our public secondary schools can not be over emphasis. This is to achieve optimum communication outcome in terms of pedagogy with the students.
To achieve this therefore, the teacher has not only to work relentlessly, but also has to make use of resources or instructional materials in an attempt to facilitate better communication and understanding of the subject matter.
Instructional resource will not only reduce the task of the teacher in the classroom instructions, it will help to facilitate and create pleasant atmosphere for learning.
In addition, the use of instructional materials provides teachers and students the opportunity of developing the ability to imagine to improve and relate to things they observed to reality.
Teachers of public schools should not rely on verbal instruction alone but they should be encouraged to use appropriate instructional materials will not only give colour to their classroom instructions, it will also tie verbal concept and gives the students sense of belonging and perfect understanding of the concepts.
Summarily, teachers can achieve their aims in the class by integrating instructional materials into teaching and learning processes.
1.2 Aim and Objective
This research work tends to provide possible remedies to the existing problems on;
a. What to teach;
b. How to teach;
c. Materials to be used in teaching learning situation;
d. When to use instructional materials;
e. Where to use instructional materials;
f. How to use instructional materials;
Generally the merits of using instructional materials in geographical teaching and its demerits so as to balance the unbalanced equation of learning and teaching geography on the part of tutors and learners for the betterment of the subject matter as related to the field of study Geography.
1.3 Statement of Problems
In view of pronounced necessity to marry on the use of resources instructional materials with dissimilate of survey into resources for the teaching of geography in public secondary schools using some selected public secondary schools in Iwajowa Local Government Area Oyo state with the view to assess the extent to which teachers of geography involve the use of teaching resources to complement their teaching.
Apart from the above, this research will also go further to asses the extent to which learners relate to these materials.
However, Maria Montessori and Plato the propounded of play way method of instruction assess that children experience a permanent change in behaviour when they interact with teaching complementing materials because they easily remember what they touch during instructions.
To draw conclusion on this aspect of my research work it is hoped that this research will effect positive change in the teaching pedagogical and regogical processes of geography in our secondary school in Iwajowa Local government area of Oyo State.
1.4 Purpose Of Study
Having discovered the inseparability of teaching methods, teaching resources Materials amp;Human mastery of the subject matter and achievement of teaching outcome, there is need therefore for teachers to deduce means to facilitate and complement instructions.
It is therefore in view of the above that there is need to integrate instructional materials into teaching process to facilitate learning in the classroom.
The purpose of the research topic therefore is to enable the researcher to assess how often the teachers of geography marry teaching with resources and the appropriateness of the materials being used.
It should be pointed out however, that the nature has provided sufficient materials to aid students to learn, it is therefore left to the teachers to explore into the environment to trap those materials to be integrated into teaching and learning processes of geography.
1.5 Research Questions
In order to carry out enough findings which will be suitable for the topic in question the researcher formulated some questions thus:
1 Is it necessary for the Geography teachers in our secondary schools to inculcate the habit of using instructional materials
2 What are the importance’s of Geographical Gardens in secondary schools
3 Is it good for the students in secondary schools to be using Geography laboratory
4 What are the benefits of using models and map as instructional materials in Geography lesson
5 Which type of instructional aid should be mostly adopted by Geography Teachers
6 What are the consequences of using audiovisual instructional aids in Geographical studies
7 What effects do environmental factors cause on the use of instructional materials
8 Does improvisation of resources necessary in teaching Geography most especially in the remote parts of the country like Iwajowa Local Government Area
9 What can we say about the time allocated on the school time for Geography in relation with the use of instructional objectives
10 What would be the contribution of tutors and learners
11 It is true that taking students to excursion or trainings outside the classroom aids Geographical learning.
1.6. Significance of the Study
Sequel to the need to complement teaching by teachers, it is therefore become inevitable that instructional materials be used alongside teaching to ensure effective teaching and learning outcomes.
It is therefore in view of this that the research topic of this sort, recommendations and suggestions shall be made in the subsequent chapter especially chapter five of this research
However, the outcome of this research will:
i Give insight into how often teachers of Geography marry their teaching with instructional materials.
ii Show relatedness and relevance of some of these materials to instructions being passed in terms of relevance.
iii To what extent do teachers make improvisation in view of the scarcity These and lots more.
1.7. Scope of the Study
Based on some unavoidable factors which possess some problem to the researcher in her attempt to carry out this research work, the work will cover only some areas in the whole of Iwajowa Local Government Area of Oyo State. It is therefore in the light of this that only four schools selected from the sectors in which secondary schools in Iwajowa Local Government area of Oyo State is grouped for easily coordination. However, the sectors include:
i Ilupeju Community Grammar School, IwereIle
ii Community Grammar School IdikoAgo
iii Itile Comprehensive High School, Itasa
iv A.D.S High Schools IwereIle
Having listed the sectors above, it should be noted that four schools are to be used for my findings.
1.8. Geography of the Study Area
In this research work, Iwajowa Local Government is selected as the study area. The region said to be part of Oyo State, Nigeria which bordered the Benin Republic at the western part of the state. Iwajowa Local Government is located in a derived sevances with some natural vegetations. The headquarters of the grassroot Government is IwereIle which falls on Latitude 80N and longitude 30E. The major settlements are Iganna, IwereIle, Itasa, Ijio and others. The region had a population of over hundred thousands peoples as it had denoted on 2006/2007 census report. Administrative map of Nigeria Eighth Edition Revised.
1.9. Definition of Terms
Evaluation: This is an act of putting something or someone into consideration carefully in order to decide how good or bad they are
Interaction: This is involved talking to people and making friends with them.
System: A goup of things or ideals working together in one arrangement.
Instructional Materials: These are the tools used for giving a piece of information that tells one how to do something or materials that give additional information used by instructor when passing the instruction.
Learning: This is an act of studying something or gaining knowledge which tends to change ones behaviour or belief relatively.
Media: These are the materials used in passing knowledge such as television, radio, projector, newspaper and all other reporting resources.
Component: This shows one out of the parts of a particular thing most especially the media part.