This research work is on Design and building of a small shell and tube heat exchanger using algorithm. A heat exchanger is a device which is used to transfer thermal energy between two or more fluid. This project is mainly focusing on designing one type of a heat exchanger which is shell and tube heat exchanger. In this project a fixed tube plate type shell and tube heat exchangers was chosen, exchanger of 150000 lb per hour of kerosene that will be heated from 75 to 120°F by cooling a gasoline stream from 160 to 120°F at a calculated heat load of 3240000. The specification of the Heat exchanger as well as the detailed mechanical design was calculated. It is established that the heat exchanger with gasoline at the shell side and kerosene at the tube side is adequate for the operation. The available area obtained from the calculation is 2105ft2 and also the overall heat transfer coefficient obtained is Btu h -1 ft -2 °F-1 with a LMTD of 42.75°F. It is also seen that the heat exchanger is satisfactory and consist of 6 tube passes with tube outside diameter of 14 (BWG) and length of 24mm,the shell outside diameter of 803.4mm and thickness of 3.72mm. The material for construction for the shell side is carbon steel.
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The research project studies the analysis of pear and its oil. The mesocarp from edible African pear DacryodesEdulis were evaluated for their oil yield. The pulp from this pear were oven dried at 100oC105oC to a moisture content level of 29.The mesocarp was subjected to proximate analysis to determine the percentage of the moisture, ash, fat, crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate content which resulted to the values of 29, 2, 19.6, 25.5, 11.9, and 12 respectively. Then the dried sample was pulverized by using hammer mill and the oil was extracted by solvent extraction using nhexane. The oil extracted were analyzed for the chemical properties i.e. Acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine value etc. the values obtained are respectively 8.41gm/KOH/gm, 185.1gm/KOH/gm, 2.8gm/KOH/gm 3.96gm/iodine/gm and Physical properties i.e. Refractive index, Ph value, specific gravity which the values obtained are 1.469brix, 5.7 and 0.92. and the The percentage oil yield content is 51.57. This physiochemical characteristic and fatty acid composition of this oil show that they have industrial potentials.
In the major world, one major source of protein and vegetable oil is from oil seeds /fruits Williams M. A. 1996. Oil constitutes a well defined class of naturally occurring substance. It is greasy, being soluble in organic solvents but insoluble in polar solvents such as water. Oil is a liquid at room temperature. Commercially, oil as well as fats is sourced from certain plant groups mostly seeds and nuts and some parts of animal within which they occur in relatively large quantity in an easily available form McGrawHill, 1997. The existence of oil in certain plants has been known for century of years Ogbu 2005.Oil can be grouped into edible and nonedible oil depending on the amount of unsaponified matters and impurities contained therein. Edible oil extracted from African pear, bread fruits, cashew nut, peanut etc. are examples of vegetable oil which are naturally occurring esters of higher fatty acids and glycerol, and are predominantly triglycerides with traces of mono and diglycerides, sterples, antioxidants, vitamins, saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids and other minor constituents. They are widely distributed in nature and were first consumed as food. Later, oils were discovered to be used as renewable raw materials for variety of nonfood production. For instance; soaps, creams, disinfectants, paints, enamels, inks etc.
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The generic name Dacryodes was derived from the Greek word Dakruon meaning tear referring to resin droplets on the bank surface of its member while Edulis means edible emphasizing the importance of nutrients fruits in the plants cultivation .The plant belongs to the family Burseraceae whose members are characterized by an ovary of 2to 5 cells, prominent as inducts in the bark, wood, and intrasteminal disk Chunduff, 1984. The genus Dacryodes consist of about 10 species Verheji, 2002. However Rehn, 1984 indicated 80 species to encompass sub species of varieties, form and cultivars. Two varieties are recognized; Varparvicarpa and Varedulis whose conical fruit is smaller with the pulp. Varedulis exhibit verticulate or subverticulate branching while the branching is slender and opposite or bifurcate in varparvicarpa Okafor et.al 1983.
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
This project is aimed at the analysis of bush pear and its oil.The main objective of this study is to carry out proximate analysis and physiochemical properties of African pear oil extracted by solvent methods. This physiochemical properties determined are specific gravity, refractive index, ph value, boiling point, acid value, iodine value, peroxide value, and saponification value. To achieve the objectives of this project, it is important to:
a Select the best suited solvent for optimum yield.
b Characterize the extracted oil for compositions and properties.
c Test the suitability of the oil.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This research work involves the analysis of African pear and its oil though the food crop African pear potential is rated one of the highest oil producing fruit crop yet it begs the question of its potential.
Furthermore, this project will answer the following questions;
i Solvent extraction by solvent method
ii What is the optimum yield of the particle size using n hexane
iii Is there significant difference in the characterization of the extracted oil as compared to theoretical value in terms of;
1 Chemical properties Acid value, iodine value, saponification value and peroxide value.
2 Physical properties specific gravity, density, viscosity, refractive index.
3 Chemical composition protein crude, fibre, carbohydrate and moisture.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE/ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
Characterizing the potentials of African pear/African pear oil for many purposes has several implications. Communities in the West African countries are significantly dependent on financial gain from agrarian enterprise.
It is hope that from the project, optimum extraction parameters which are quality of the oil would be established, the result would add to the data bank that could help potential industrialist who intends to go into vegetable table oil production from African pear. A crop that experiences a post harvest loss in excess of 40 in areas where malnutrition is prevalent is a problem for potentials to reclaim the lost percentage of either food or other purposes is advantageous for producers and consumers alike.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In this project work, we intend to analyze and extract completely African pear and its oil. Many research work has been done in giving a detailed composition found in African pear. But this research account on the optimum route to:
i Extraction of vegetable oil from bush pear.
ii Separation of pure oil from the solvent.
iii Characterization of the African pear.
This study was carried out to generate a design data, design and fabricate a maize cornoncob tray dryer used by maize farmers. Ripped maize corns with husks were bought from the market and preserved to retained its moisture content, dehusked and thereafter, dried to a given percentage moisture content of 15. This was done by laboratory dryer. The drying rate data was generated and the high rate of 2.0g/hr was used afterwards to design and fabricate the cornoncob dryer. From the results, drying of a sample of maize cornoncob by the laboratory dryer took a period of three days and six hours to reach the 15 moisture content wet basis needed. A test run was carried out on the fabricated dryer and seventeen hours was used to dry a sample of maize cornoncob to the same 15 moisture content. This implies that design data is satisfactory as its application in the fabrication of the dryer resulted in an increased flow rate of air in the dryer thereby increasing the rate of drying at the same drying temperature of 40oC.
1.1. BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Cereal grains have been and will continue to be a major source of food for humans and animals throughout the world. Amongst all cereals, the most important is the maize grain. Leonard et al, 1963. Maize corn and products can be used for various purposes; human food, alternative medicine, chemicals, bio fuels, ornamentals, fodder, to mention but a few Leonard, Warren H., and John H. Martin. Maize crop is intensively and extensively cultivated in all the geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Early maize is planted between late March and late May while the late maize is planted between August and September. The harvest time for the early maize is usually between late July and September. During this period, corns are harvested fresh and cannot be preserved by drying owing to the unavailability of sunshine during the rainy season. It is usually roasted or cooked fresh. This practice does not encourage maize farmers as they would sell the maize corn at a giveaway prices and this does not guarantee returns on their investment. In addition to this, dried maize grains will guarantee food sufficiency during the scarce period. Notably, corn of high moisture content does not stored very well and is usually vulnerable to damage due to deterioration, molds, and insects during the period of storage.
However, open airsun drying as practiced in most rural areas often yields poor quality dried corn, since the product is not protected against dust, moisture, wind, rodents as well as other domestic animals while carrying out the drying. As a result, they are often contaminated with pathogens. Another common practice in maize cornoncob drying is drying over a fire place. This has its own problems as the maize grains are contaminated with smoke. Moreover, the temperature of drying is not properly controlled such that grains become dead after drying. There are various research works that have been carried out on grain drying Zare et al, 2006; Mellmann, et al 2011; Adzimah and Seckley, 2009. These works were silent on drying and dryer design for maize cornoncobs.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Maize corns are usually stored when dried to certain percentage moisture content. In Nigeria, maize corn drying is done in dry season because of low humidity of atmospheric air and adequate sunshine. However, it is a common place to see peasant maize farmers dry their maize cornoncobs over fire place, but this practice contaminates the dried maize corn with smoke and usually small quantity of maize cornoncob are dried. The reverse is the case during the rainy season. Unfortunately, bulk of the maize corn is harvested in the rainy season and farmers can not dry the fresh maize corn rather they sell them at very cheap prices to corn roasters and for other delicacies. To give value to farmers and also to guarantee maize corn sufficiency during scarce period, it becomes necessary that a simple but robust cornoncob dryer should be designed and fabricated to assist farmers have good returns on their investment especially during postharvest handling of maize corn during rainy season.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
The aims of this research include:
i. To develop a drying rate curve for maize cornoncob at constant drying condition.
ii. To generate design data for tray dryer to be used to dry maize cornon cob.
iii. To develop and draw working diagrams for the tray dryer.
iv. To fabricate a tray dryer.
v. To test run the tray dryer.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH
Some of the benefits derivable from this research project include:
i. It will encourage maize farmers by giving them good returns on their labour and enhance maize corn production.
ii. It will provide Nigerian populace with a cleaner dried maize grains.
iii. It will attract foreign exchange for Nigeria as cleaner dried maize can be export.
iv. It will ensure maize grain sufficiency during the scarce period.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH
This research will be restricted to the following areas;
i. Generation of design data for cornoncobs.
ii. Designing the cornoncob dryer.
iii. Fabrication of the dryer.
iv. Test run.
This research project studied on the kinetics of hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose. The steps employed to achieve this project involved extraction of cellulose from sawdust and subsequently, hydrolysis of starch to simple sugar. This was followed by glucose analysis. Different experiments were conducted during acid hydrolysis to study the various acids on the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose. The sawdust was extracted from the wood by grinding using saw. The process used in the hydrolysis was acid hydrolysis in which two major inorganic acids Hydrochloric and Sulfuric were used at constant temperature of 80oC. During this experiment, it was observed that Hydrochloric acid hydrolyzed most, followed by Sulphuric acid. Finally, sugar analysis was carried out to determine the acid with the highest yield of glucose and the best acid for the hydrolysis. It was noticed that the yield of glucose was relatively high from HCl at 1.280 concentration, followed by H2SO4 at 0.940. It was also seen from the graph that the absorbance yield increases as the glucose concentrations increases in terms of HCl. Therefore, the best acid for acid for acid hydrolysis is HCl.
Cellulose is a naturally occurring polymeric material containing thousands of glucoselike rings each of which contain three alcoholic OH groups. Its general formula is represented as C6H10O5 n. The OHgroups present in cellulose can be esterified or etherified, the most important cellulose derivatives are the esters. Cellulose is the name given to a long chain of atoms consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen arranged in a particular manner. Cellulose is found in nature in almost all forms of plant life, and especially in cotton and wood. A cellulose molecule is made up of large number of glucose units linked together by oxygen atom. Each glucose unit contains three3 Hydroxyl groups, the hydroxyl groups present at carbon6 is primary, while two other hydroxyl are secondary. Cellulose is the most abundant organic chemical on Earth more than 50 of the carbon in plants occurs in the cellulose of stems and leaves. Wood is largely cellulose, and cotton is more than 90 cellulose. It is a major constituent of plant cell walls that provides strength and rigidity and presents the swelling of the cell and rupture of the plasma membrane that might result when osmotic conditions favor water entry into the cell. Cellulose is a fibrous, tough, waterinsoluble substances, it can be seen in cell walls of plants, particularly in stalks, stems, trunks and all woody portions of the plant.
1.2 SOURCES OF CELLULOSE
Cellulose for industrial conversion comes from wood and scores of minor sources such as kenaf paper and rayon are now made mostly from wood pulp. cotton rings were historically important for paper making, and cotton linters short fibres are used to spin yams are now used in high quality writing and currency papers.
Cellulose forms very tightly packed crystallites, these crystals are sometimes so tight that neither water nor enzymes can penetrate them; cellulose consists of two cellulose molecules;
Hydrolysis of cellulose is the process of breaking the glucosidic bonds that holds the glucose basic units together to form a large cellulose molecule, it is a term used to describe the overall process where cellulose is converted into various sweeteners. Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction during which one or more water molecules are split into hydrogen and hydroxide ions, which may go to participate in further reactions.
Sugars also called saccharides are compounds containing an aldehyde or ketone group and two or more hydroxyl groups. Sugar can also a sweet crystalline substance obtained from sugarcane and sugar beet. It includes sucrose, glucose and fructose.
1.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The clamour for the diversification of Nigerian economy through low quality products has motivated researchers to explore the numerous domestic, industrial and economic importance of one Nigerias major product cellulose which forms the bedrock of this project.
Sugar is a commodity of high demand for both domestic and industrial applications on daily basis in homes, small and medium scale industries e.t.c. this is why Nigeria government spends huge sums of money on importation of sugar and sugar products to meet the demand of citizens. Among the many processes of sugar production, is acid hydrolysis of cellulose has proved to be a process which encourages the production of high quality with minimum skill and materials. This work is therefore an effort to encourage industrialists, researchers, and students to carry out more intensive studies on production of sugar from cellulose for production of sugar and enhanced economic resources for the nation.
1.6 RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY
Nigeria is the largest producer of cellulose for which paper wood is made. A large percentage of produced cellulose is consumed as paper, textiles, newspaper and containers in form of writing, reading e.t.c.
The method of acid hydrolysis of cellulose:
It creates job opportunities, hence, reducing unemployment in the country.
It helps to know the best acid for the hydrolysis of cellulose.
It establishes the industries for government to contribute immersely towards the country economy.
With the methods of glucose and cellulose production, the cost of glucose and cellulose will reduce.
It produces research workdone on the digestion of cellulose into glucose which I will engage on it after my graduation.
The research project covers the processes, operations and pathways involved in the Acid hydrolysis of cellulose to produce glucose sugar. The research study aims at:
Quantifying and calculating the yield of glucose from the hydrolysis of cellulose using two different acids.
The hydrolysis of cellulose into sugar using different concentration of hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid.
1. 1 INTRODUCTION
This research is on extraction and formulation of perfume from lemon grass leaves.
The word perfume derives from the latin per fumum meaning through smoke, is fragrant liquid that is sprayed or rubbed on the skin or clothes to give a pleasant smell. Extraction of perfume from various plants resources is of ancient origin. Infact the natives from different tropical regions of the globe have long been extracting oil from numerous oil bearing plants. Human since the ancient time have known how to extract oil from their natural resources. Vegetable oils are naturally occurring esters of higher fatty acids and glycerol. They are widely distributed in nature and were first consumed as food. Later oils were discovered to be used as renewable raw materials for variety of non food production, for instance perfumes, disinfectants, inks to mention but a few.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Several thousands of plants distributed throught out the world contain a group of odiferous, fragrance, oily products that are highly volatile organic substances collectively known as essential oils. Essential does not mean most necessary but rather the concentrated characteristics or quintessence of a natural flavor or fragrance raw material Coulson et al, 2003. Therefore, perfume may be from essential oils of vegetables or plant origin. It is a complex mixture of aldehydes, ketones, hydrocarbons, alcoholic acid and short chain esters. The existence of perfume on certain plants has been known for thousands of years. They can be found in leaves, flowers, stems, barks, and roots. Ancient Egytians extracted essential oils from plants tissues by steam distillation Ogbu,2005. Other methods of isolating essential oils includes solvent extraction, expression, cold plate or enfleurage. Some of these methods have been adopted by essential oil extracting industries. Information on perfume when the essential oils have been extracted from plants are of different type of oils and these will ultimately influence the smell of perfume over time namely:
1. The base oil Base notes this will produce the scent that stays longest on the skin and for this reason it is usually added to the mixture e.g vanilla, ginnamon, sandalwood, mosses etc.
2. The middle oil middle notes this also influences the smell of the perfume for quite sometime but not as long as the base note does e.g lemon grass, Yalang Ylang etc.
3. Top oil top notes this is added to the mixture after the middle notes and may then be followed by some other substances which will help to bridge the scents together e.g orchard, rose, bergamount, lemon,orchid etc.
A formulation or recipe that rightly blend with the oil or fragrance is used and the reason perfume differs is due to the formulation or recipe that will give pleasant odour. It is necessary to choose a good recipe of formulation. Alcohol is added to the fragrance or essential oils as a primary solvent to reduce the strays of the oils. Fixatives are also used with the other ingredients like water, essential oils and alcohol to lower the rate of evaporation of the fragrance of essential oils. The reason why a perfume losses its fragrance faster than normal is because only a little amount of fixative was used when preparing the perfume.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is a high demand of essential oils for various purposes such as medicinal, perfumery, soap making, insecticides to mention but a few have opened up wide opportunities for global warming.
Imported essential oils are very expensive to meet the demand of our local consumer industries, therefore it becomes necessary to source and extract these oils from local source. In particular perfumes that are usually imported can be produced locally from a vast variety of oil bearing plants yet to be explored. It has also been observed that high concentration of perfumes in the epidermal tissues can cause skin irritation or peeling due to poor formulation. This problem will be explored on this project. Solvent extraction is the safest method for extracting high quality oil because some herbs and spices cannot be extracted from enfleurage method but it has the disadvantage of having residual solvents in the essential oils. T
he research is conducted in order to use hydrodistillation as one of the applicable methods to extract essential oils. Hydrodistillation has the advantage of no solvent residues as an alternative to conventional extraction techniques. This research will reveal the difference in yields by the methods.
1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
It is hoped that from this research work, optimum extraction parameters like solvent type, solvent ratio, contact time and particle size and the quality of perfume would be established. The result obtained would add to the data bank that could help potential industrialist who intends to go into perfume production from plants. Consequently, more processing industries would lead to a higher production both for domestic consumption and export. Major consumers of essential oils are the perfumery, cosmetics, food and beverages and pharmaceutical industries.
Most of these industries in Nigeria depend on imported essential oils for their production and this makes their products very expensive. Interestling, some of these source of essential oils are common in Nigeria such as lemon grass, ginger, flowers, eucalyptus to mention but a few. There is a high potential in this area and it becomes necessary to seek means to explore and exploit area with the aim of providing our local industries with these essential oils. There are great biodiversity in the ecosystem when it is tapped into the economy of Nigeria will be improved upon. It can also create numerous job opportunities for the youth as both industries and farmers will be employers of labour.
1.5 OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH
The main objective of this research is to extract essential oil from lemon grass cymbopogon citrasus using solvent extraction, enfleurage, and hydrodistillation and formulating the perfume.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH.
Investigate the effect of solvent nature on extraction in terms of yield and formulation of the extracted essential oil.
Three methods will be used; solvent extraction, enfleurage and hydrodistillation. Attempt will be made to formulate the essential oil into perfume.
i To Formulate perfume using appropriate materials
ii The composition of perfume and its concentration.
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PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON EFFECTS OF BURANTASHI EXTRACT ON LIVER ENZYMES OF AIBINO MALE AND FEMALE WHISTAR RATS
This work was carried out to investigate the effects of Burantashi extract on liver enzymes of albino male and female whistar rats. Burantashi is a popular seasoning agent to barbecued meat suya in Nigeria,mostly found in the northern part of the Nigeria. Liver Enzymes are those enzymes that plays important role in the liver both in function and regulation. Erectile dysfunction ED is defined as the consistent or recurrent inability of a man to attain or maintain penile erection, sufficient for sexual activity 2nd International consultation on sexual Dysfunction Paris, June 28th July 1st, 2003. Following the discovery and introduction of Burantashi research on the mechanism underlying penile erection, has had an enormous boost and many preclinical and clinical papers have been published in the last five years on the peripheral regulation of, and the mediators involved in human penile erection. The most widely accepted risk factors for ED are discussed. The research is focused on human data and the safety and effectiveness of Burantasni Stem as a phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors PDE5 used to treat Erectile Dysfunctions.
PHYSIOLOGY OF ERECTION
Penile Erection involves an integration of complex physiological processes involving the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, hormonal and vascular systems. Any abnormality involving these systems whether from medications or disease has a significant impact on the ability to develop and sustain erection; ejaculate and experience orgasm. Laumann et al., 1999.
The physiological process of erection begins in the brain and involves the nervous and vascular system. The chemicals that initiate erection are neurotransmitters present in the brain. Any kind of stimulation physical or psychological, causes nerves to send message to the vascular system which result in significant blood flow to the penis. Two arteries in the penis supply blood to erectile tissues and the corpora cavernous which become engorged and expand as a result of increased blood flow and pressures. Because blood must stay in the penis to maintain rigidity. An erectile tissue is enclosed by tunicae, which is fibrous elastic sheathes cinch which prevents blood leaving he penis during electron. When muscle in the penis contract to stop the inflow of blood and open out flow channels and an electron is reserved.
HORMONAL INVOLVEMENT IN ERECTION
Oestrogen/Progesterone: These are female hormones that cause clitoral
erection. If the body has two much oestrogen and or too little testost erone, she ca n get very wet but can not erect her clitoral and Gspot. Haimen et al., 2002. Estrogen tends to increase the size of the bread, labia minors inner lips and clitoral hood, but shrinks the glans clitoris into the clitoral hood making it invisible. It also increases the thickness of the vaginal lining making the Gspot inaccessible. The mechanism of the clitoral and Gspot erection is the same as that of the penis. It is driven by the parasympathetic sexual nerve The neurotransmitter acetylcholine through the neurotransmitter. Nitric oxide and the erection dilator cGMP, which is continuously powered by the burning of testosterone without a testosterone burst and burning. She cannot pop the glans Clitoris and Gspot out. If she is on birth control pills there is a chance that her body is over flooded by estrogens and low progesterone. Over loaded liver cannot produce sufficient essential enzymes to synthesize sufficient NO, cGMP and testosterone to support the clitoral and Gspot erection infact excessive estrogen or progesterone in the body will shrink the penis, clitoral and Gspot, but likely increase the breast size under the excessive estrogen action.
MECHANISM OF ACTION OF PDE5 INHIBITION IN ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
A spinal reflex and the Larginine nitric oxide guanglyl cyclasecyclic guanosine monophonsphate cGMP pathway mediate smooth muscle relaxation that results in penile erection. Nerves and endothelial cells directly release nitric oxide in the penis, where it stimulates guanylyl cyclase to produce cGMP and lowers intracellular calcium level. This triggers relaxation of arterial and trabecular smooth muscle, leading to arterial dilation, venous constriction, and erection. Phosphodiesterases PDEs is the predominant phosphodiesterase in the corpus cavernosum. The catalytic site of PDE5 normally degrades cGMP and PDE5 inhibitors such as sildenafil potentiate endogenous increase in cGMP by inhibiting its breakdown at the catalytic site. Phosphorylation of PDE5 increases its enzymatic activity as well as the affinity of its allosteric noncatalytic/GAF domains sites for cGMP. Binding of cGMP to the allosteric site further stimulates enzymatic activity. Thus phosphorlation of PDE5 and binding of cGMP to the non catalytic site mediate negative feed back regulation of the cGMP pathway.
NITRIC OXIDE REGULATION OF PENILE ERECTION
Biology And Therapeutic ImplicationsFor approximately a decade now, substantial evidence has accrued supporting nitric oxide NO as the central component of major signal transduction system that ats in the penis to mediate the erectile response. This molecules subserve a
Unique biochemical cascade invading production of the potent second messenger molecule, 35 cyclic guanosine monophosphate cGMP and its activation of protein kinase G PKG which induces physiologic penile erection by regulating the state of penile smooth muscle contractility Burnett, 1997. In fact, current data support the notion that this NO based biochemical cascade represent a convergence of cellular biochemical and molecular inputs, which on the signal transduction regulatory level, is indispensable for the mechanism of penile erection Hedland et al., 2000. Consistent with the importance of NO radiation of penile erection, its biology in the penis is quite complex, involving multiple regulatory interactions, the molecule itself may target several biochemical mechanisms that achieve erectile tissue relaxation but is also the target of a host of modulatory influences that determines its release and mode of action in erectile tissue. At the same time, premier signal transduction mechanism has been exploited for therapeutic purposes, specifically in the clinical management of erectile dysfunction. Discoveries pertaining to the field of NO biology in the penis have, in recent years been rapidly translated into the clinical management of the first orally effective pharmacotherapy for erectile dysfunction, sildenafil citrate Viagra Goldstein et al., 1998.
NO BIOLOGY IN THE PENIS
Traditional understanding of the action of NO in the penis invokes the constitutive formation of this molecule under normal physiologic conditions with the expression and activities of the enzyme, sources localized to neural and endothelial components of the corporal tissue. The verification that NO derives from the autonomic innervations supplying the penis has directly supported the description of this molecule as a peripheral neurotransmitter of non adrenergic, no cholinergic1992 mediated penile erection Kim et al.,1991 the confirmation that the molecule also is produced within vascular and trabecular endothelium comprising the penile vascular supply, has offered additional support for the role of NO serving as an endothelial relaxation factor of penile erection kimoto et al., 1990, knispel et al., 1991, azadzoic et al., 1992, Hedlund et al., 2000.
ATIEOLOGY OF ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION
Erectile dysfunction ED is a sexual dysfunction that affects the reproductive systems of both men and women.
According to the definition by national Institute of Health consensus Development NIHCD panel on importance 1993 in males. It is sexual dysfunction characterized with the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. It is also known as male impotence or Baby D syndrome. While in women according to American psychiatric Association APA 1994, it is characterized with the persistant or recurrent inability to attain, or maintain until completion of the sexual activity,an adequate lubrication. Swelling response that otherwise is present during fem ale sexual arousal and sexual activity is thus prevented. Hence it is called woman impotence or female erectile dysfunction. NIH, 2005.
PREVALENCE OF ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION IN MEN.
Erectile dysfunction ED, varies in severity; some men have a total inability to achieve an erection others have inconsistent ability to achieve an erection, and still others can sustain only brief erection. The variation in severity of erectile dysfunction makes estimating its frequency difficult. Many men also are reluctant to discuss erectile dysfunction with their doctors, and thus, the condition is under diagnosed nevertheless experts have estimated that ED affects 30 million men in united sates, Again, according to the statistical research carried out by Adegunloye and Eze in 2002 and 1994 respectively in Nigeria, results show that about 2326.5 of men suffer from this condition while according to carey in 1990, discovered that about 4.9 of men suffer from the condition in the united states.
PREVALENCE OF ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION IN WOMEN.
Erection dysfunction which is known as female erectile dysfunction in woman occurs about 43 of American women NIH consensus conference, 1993. And this medical condition is a persistent or recurrent inability to attain or maintain clitoral erection until completion of the sexual activity, an adequate lubrication. Swelling response that is normally present during female sexual arousal and sexual activity is therefore absent. The individual having the condition is said to experience frigidity American Psychiatric Association, 1994. Again according to Otuba et al in 1989, about 8.7 of women suffer from this very condition in the United States while between 35.340, according t o Adegunloye in 2002 and Eze in 1994 of women in Nigeria suffer from this condition. Spector and carey in 1994 reported 510 in the united states.
AIM OF STUDY
The aim of this research is to find out the effects of Barantashi. pausinystalia yohimbe. Extract on the liver enzymes of albino male and female whistar rats.
This project work studied the refining of crude soya bean oil extracted from soya bean seed using alkali /caustic refining method. The work was carried out using phosphoric acid for the degumming /pretreatment process and sodium hydroxide for the neutralization /refining of the oil. Certain tests were carried out on both the crude and refined oil such as saponification value, acidic value, iodine value, specific gravity and viscosity, the results obtained after the tests include 42.075, 164.28, 589.05, 0.8944 and 0.038 respectively for refined oil and 44.88, 109.52, 448.8, 0.8148 and 0.035 respectively for the crude oil.
Refining of vegetable oils is essential to ensure removal of germs, phosphatides and free fatty acids F.F.A from the oil, to impact uniform colour by removal of colouring pigments and to get rid of unpleasant smell from the oil by removal of odiferous matter.
Refining is carried out either on batch operation or as continuous operation. With certain oils even physical refining can be carried out instead of chemical.
For processing less than thirty tones of oil per 24 hours, and when oil has F.F.A content of 1 percent or less normally batch process is recommended. Batch process involves low capital investments, simplicity of operation and low maintenance, making refining economically a viable proposition even at capacity as low as 10 tonnes per 24 hours. According to Dietary fats and oils in Human Nutrition. Rome 1977.
Crude soyabean oil of good quality has a lighter amber colour which upon alkali refining is reduced to the light yellow colour of most vegetable seed oils. Soyabean oil produced from green or immature beans may contain sufficient chlorophyll to have a greenish cast but this is not usually very evident until after the yellow red pigment of the oil have been bleached in hydrogenation G.S Breck and S.C Bhatia, 2008.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Crude fats and oils are processed by general scheme shown below with modifications or exceptions for specific species.
The soap stock can be dried if refining is done adjacent to an extraction plant or acidified again to remove fatty acids and sold to the olechemical industry. The oil is then water washed and centrifuge one or two times to remove residual soaps.
According to GS Breck and S.C Bhatia, a total degumming process for removing essentially all the phosphatide from soyabean oil using first an acid and then an alkali and two centrifuges has shown higher yields than conventional refining. This process however, does not remove prooxidant metals efficiently and for this reason has not found commercial acceptance in the united state.
G.S Breck and S.C Bhatia have stated that Dijkstra has described a novel process where the washing water is recycled to the oil feed and use to dilute concentrated alkali. This process does not generate an aqueous effluent and can be used for both acid and alkali refining, thus allowing refiners to change gradually from alkali refining to physical refining. Neutralization of soyabean oil with alkali solution assures elimination of free fatty acids without notable change in the phosphatide content.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In the market today, most vegetable oils solidify at a low temperature of less than 250c. This work is to process and refine edible and quality soyabean oil that will not undergo solidification at a low temperature.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of refining and processing fats and oils include:
Removal of free fatty acids, phospholipids gums colour and offflavour/odour compounds and toxic substances to produce light coloured and bland products with long shelf lives.
Obtaining a mixture of the triacylglycerols with the desired solid content profiles over the range of product use.
Preparation and storage of semisolid products with desired textures.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The crude oil extracted from soyabean needs further treatment to convert it to a bland, stable, nutrition products that is used to manufacture margarine, shortening, salad and cooking oil, mayoniaise, food products, Olechemicals.
This study entails the process of producing good quality oil through caustic/alkali refining process which is going to becompared with other good quality products in the market like grand product etc.
HEAD LOSES IN HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL ORIFICE METER A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION AND ANALYSES WITH APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL METHOD OF DATA RELIABILITY
A comparative investigation was undertaken to determine the head loss coefficients for horizontally mounted and vertically mounted orifices using a Fluid mechanics and Heat transfer trainer developed in Nigeria. Experiments were carried out observing the procedure and the discharge of the flow of water was collected to obtain the volumetric flow rate and also read off the right and left limb of the horizontal and vertical manometers at different set points. The experimental measurements were subjected to further study to determine the head loss using the applied Bernoullis equation with addition of pump to the system. A graph of head loss against the kinetic head of water was plotted and the gradient of the graph yield the head loss coefficient k. It was observed that there was no significant difference between the head loss coefficient for horizontal and vertical orifices. Hypothesis test was done to test the accuracy, precision and the statistical reliability of the head loss coefficient for the horizontal and vertical orifices, however better result was recorded in the horizontal orifice by statistical analysis. This report provides conclusion and recommendation to the challenges experienced.
1.1. Background of the study
Fluid mechanics deals with the study of all fluids under static and dynamic situations. Fluid mechanics is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a relationship between forces, motions, and statical conditions in a continuous material. This study area deals with many and diversified problems such as surface tension, fluid statics, flow in enclose bodies, or flow round bodies solid or otherwise, flow stability, etc. In fact, almost any action a person is doing involves some kind of a fluid mechanics problem. Researchers distinguish between orderly flow and chaotic flow as the laminar flow and the turbulent flow. The fluid mechanics can also be distinguished between a single phase flow and multiphase flow flow made more than one phase or single distinguishable material.
Fluid flow in circular and noncircular pipes is commonly encountered in practice. The hot and cold water that we use in our homes is pumped through pipes. Water in a city is distributed by extensive piping networks. Oil and natural gas are transported hundreds of miles by large pipelines. Blood is carried throughout our bodies by veins. The cooling water in an engine is transported by hoses to the pipes in the radiator where it is cooled as it flows. Thermal energy in a hydraulic space heating system is transferred to the circulating water in the boiler, and then it is transported to the desired locations in pipes. Fluid flow is classified as external and internal, depending on whether the fluid is forced to flow over a surface or in a conduit. Internal and external flows exhibit very different characteristics. In this chapter we consider internal flow where the conduit is completely filled with the fluid, and flow is driven primarily by a pressure difference. This should not be confused with openchannel flow where the conduit is partially filled by the fluid and thus the flow is partially bounded by solid surfaces, as in an irrigation ditch, and flow is driven by gravity alone. We then discuss the characteristics of flow inside pipes and introduce the pressure drop correlations associated with it for both laminar and turbulent flows. Finally, we present the minor losses and determine the pressure drop and pumping power requirements for piping systems.
1.2. Historical Developments
The continuous scientific development of fluid mechanics started with Leonardo da Vinci 14521519. Through his ingenious work, methods were devised that were suitable for fluid mechanics investigations of all kinds. Earlier efforts of Archimedes 287212 B.C. to understand fluid motions led to the understanding of the hydro mechanical buoyancy and the stability of floating bodies. His discoveries remained, however, without further impact on the development of fluid mechanics in the following centuries.
1.3. Significance of the study
Flows occur in all fields of our natural and technical environment and anyone perceiving their surroundings with open eyes and assessing their significance for themselves and their fellow beings can convince themselves of the far reaching effects of fluid flows.
We somewhat arbitrarily classify these in two main categories: i physical and natural science, and ii technology. Clearly, the second thesis often of more interest to an engineering student, but in the modern era of emphasis on interdisciplinary studies, the more scientific and mathematical aspects of fluid phenomena are becoming increasingly important.
Fluids in technology It is easily recognized that a complete listing of fluid applications would be nearly impossible simply because the presence of fluids in technological devices is ubiquitous. The following provide some particularly interesting and important examples from an engineering standpoint.
1. Internal combustion enginesall types of transportation systems
2. Turbojet, scramjet, rocket enginesaerospace propulsion systems
3. Waste disposal
a Chemical treatment
c Sewage transport and treatment
4. Pollution dispersalin the atmosphere smog; in rivers and oceans
5. Steam, gas and wind turbines, and hydroelectric facilities for electric power generation
a Crude oil and natural gas transferral
b Irrigation facilities
c Office building and household plumbing
7. Fluid/structure interaction
a Design of tall buildings
b Continental shelf oildrilling rigs
c Dams, bridges, etc.
d Aircraft and launch vehicle airframes and control systems
8. Heating, ventilating and airconditioning HVAC systems
9. Cooling systems for highdensity electronic devicesdigital computers from PCs to supercomputers
10. Solar heat and geothermal heat utilization
1.4. Problem statement
Fluid mechanics is a science that makes use of the basic laws of mechanics and thermodynamics to describe the motion of fluids. Here fluids are understood to be all the media that cannot be assigned clearly to solids, no matter whether their properties can be described by simple or complicated material laws. Gases, liquids and many plastic materials are fluids whose movements are covered by fluid mechanics. Fluids in a state of rest are dealt with as a
special cases of flowing media, i.e. the laws for motionless fluids are deduced in such a way that the velocity in the basic equations of fluid mechanics is set equal to zero.
In fluid mechanics, however, one is not content with the formulation of the laws by which fluid movements are described, but makes an effort beyond that to find solutions for flow problems, i.e. for given initial and boundary conditions. To this end, there are three major flow problems encountered in fluid mechanics:
a Analytical fluid mechanics problems:
Analytical methods of applied mathematics are used in this field to solve the basic flow equations, taking into account the boundary conditions describing the actual flow problem.
b Numerical fluid mechanics problems:
Numerical methods of applied mathematics are employed for fluid flow simulations on computers to yield solutions of the basic equations of fluid mechanics.
c Experimental fluid mechanics problems:
This subdomain of fluid mechanics uses similarity laws for the transferability of fluid mechanics knowledge from model flow investigations. The knowledge gained in model flows by measurements is transferred by means of the constancy of known characteristic quantities of a flow field to the flow field of actual interest.
1.5. Objective of the study
The general objective of this study is to examine the head losses in flow through horizontal and vertically mounted orifices with statistical methods of data reliability. The goal of these experimental remains to test the reliability of the result from the heat transfer and fluid mechanics trainer. The results however, can only attain this objective through these:
1. To convert volume flow rate in m/s1 to m3s1 and also h1 and h2 in mm to m. also convert D1 and D2 in mm to m.
2. To compute P1, P2, V1, V2, A1, A2, and HL for the set points of 900, 750, 600, 450, 300, and 150 using the analytical equations.
3. Plot HL versus V2/2g and discuss the plot.
4. To test the statistical hypotheses of the result
5. To provide suggestion for further improvement
1.6. Scope of the study
The study will make a great emphasis on the performance of head losses in pipe flow using fluid mechanics and heat transfer trainer. It tends to explain the statistical reliability of the experimental results and the usefulness of such results.
This project was done to extract and characterize bean oil according to their particle sizes. The experiment was carried out using scent bean i.e. Ozaki, Ijilizior Azamu as sample. The oils were extracted by solvent extraction /leaching extraction using nhexane. Proximate analysis was carried out to obtain percentage moisture content, ash content, total oil content, protein content and carbohydrate content of the extracted oils. From observation, it was noticed that as the diameter of the sieve decreased, the quantity of oil obtained increased.
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
There has been an increase in the world production of oilseeds over the last thirty years Murphy, 1994; this would appear to be related to the increasing demand for oilseed products and byproducts as oilseeds are primarily grown for their oil and meal.
Oils from most edible oilseeds are used in the food industry, though there is growing emphasis on industrial utilization as feedstock for several industries with about 80 of the world production of vegetable oils for human consumption. The remaining 20 utilization is between animal and chemical industries Murphy, 1994.
According to Rajagopal et al. 2005, biooils from oilseeds are used as Straight Vegetable Oil SVO or as biodiesel trans esterified oil depending on type of engine and level of blend of the oil; scent bean oil i.e. Ozaki, Ijiliji, or Azamu is found mainly in the SouthEast of Nigeria and is not an exception. This phenomenon has created a school of thought that it is better to use oilseeds as biofuel, which will lessen the competition for fossil fuels, which are not renewable. Fossil fuels are not only costly in terms of price but are also costly to the environment as they degrade land, pollute water and cause a general destabilization of the ecosystem with global warming as an end result. Furthermore, crude oil wields sociopolitical power that often dictates the pace of economic growth in specific locations, especially nonoil producing nations.
1.2. Problem Statement
Many plants have been identified as sources of oil, with some of the plant species and their oil extracted and used as medicines and food. However, very few of these species have their oil characteristics determined.
Because of the high demand of oils for various purposes including medicinal, perfumery, soap making, insecticides et al. Imported oils are very expensive to meet the demands of our local consumer industries; therefore, it becomes necessary to source and synthesize these oils locally. Since these oils can be produced locally, it gives no reason for their importation or at least should reduce the rate at which these oils are imported and give attention to local production.
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to
a. Find the percentage composition of oil in the bean seed
b. To determine the effect of particle size on the yield of the oil.
1.4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Exploitation of fruits and seeds as a source of oil can help to reduce oil costs by diversifying the sources for this commodity. Data generated from this study will benefit industries for production of oils for various purposes.
In addition the content and composition of fatty acids of plant seed oils can serve as plants taxonomic markers.
1.5. JUSTIFICATION OF THE RESEARCH
Some factors and benefits of bean Ozaki, Ijiliji or Azamu oil make the research worthwhile;
1 The bean is readily available.
2 Oil from this particular bean is medicinal and applicable in pharmaceutical industries.
3 Small scale industries coming up as a result of oil extraction can reduce unemployment.
4 It can attract foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria.
This study is a comparative analysis of the use of coal, fuel oil and natural gas for cement production noting their physical and chemical properties, cost and availability, impact on the environment and human health. Out of the seven cement manufacturing industries in Nigeria, three industries use these fuels were selected for the study. The industries are NigerCem Ebonyi state, Dangote cement Benue state and UniCem Cross river state. Questionnaires were used to gather information on the three fuels. The likert 3 scale model was adopted, using 2.0 as the cut off mark. Based on the analysis of the study, it was observed out that amongst these three 3 fuels, fuel oil is presently expensive though available, while coal and natural gas are cheap but coal is not available due to the closure of Nigerias coal mine. In terms of environment and health, coal and fuel oil emit much harmful gases to the environment and cause more health problems to cement worker but natural gas emits less of these harmful gases to the environment and cause less health problems to workers. The study therefore shows that natural gas is the best fuel because it is cheap, readily available and creates fewer problems to the environment.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Energy is commonly defined as the ability to do work or to produce heat.
Normally heat could be derived by burning a fuel i.e. a substance that contains internal energy which upon burning generates heat. IEA, 2004.
The energy system today is highly dependent on fossil fuel with coal, fuel oil and natural gas accounting for about 80 of world primary energy demand. Kul, 2001.
Fuels are the major source of energy for industries and cement industry is not an exception. However, the energy source to be adopted will have to meet the varying needs of different countries and at the same time enhance the security of each against the energy crisis that have taken place in the past. The selection/ choice of fuel type depend on various factors such as environmental pollution, ease in processing, storage and handling, availability and cost of the fuel.
Coal, fuel oil and natural gas are the most commonly used energy carrier in cement industries. The energy use for cement production is distributed as follows:
92.7 for pyroprocessing
5.4 for finishing grinding and
1.9 for raw grinding Choate, 2003.
The choice of fuel use entails the level at which green house gases GHG are emitted, the cost of cement and the quality of the cement produced.
This research work will help in selecting the best fuel and techniques to be use in order to attain a high quality product at a lower cost with lesser green house gas emission to the environment.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The choice of fuel is attained by comparative analysis of coal, fuel oil and natural gas in cement production. In comparing these fuels, the following problem arises:
Knowledge of the physio chemical properties of coal, fuel oil and natural gas.
Knowledge of the green houses gases GHG emitted by each of these fuel, their level of emission and their effects on the environment and humans health esp. cement workers.
Knowledge of the cost and availability of coal, fuel oil and natural gas.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The aims of this research work is to;
Study the physical and chemical properties of coal, fuel oil and natural gas.
Gain knowledge on the green house gases GHG emitted, their effect on the environment and humans health and the level of emission from each fuel.
Study coal, fuel oil and natural gas in relation to cost and availability.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
With the growth in industrialization today, this study will offer numerous values both to the cement industry and staff, the environment and society at large.
It will choose an economical and less hazardous fuel and techniques for cement production.
Also, it will help in the selection of techniques /fuel that will reduce the emission of green house gases GHG from cement industries to the environment. This gases emitted causes acid rain, smog etc. which can cause cancer to human and destroys plant lives.
In terms of infrastructural development, an economical fuel for production will lead to a reduction in the cost of cement, thereby encouraging the development of buildings and Government in development of roads, bridges, and other construction oriented projects.
This study will also give students of chemical engineering and other related courses an insight of these fuels with their different environmental implications, properties and choice of fuel when combustion of fuel is required.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
This study would have covered all the Nigerian cement industries but due to time and cost of analysis, it is limited to three3 cement industries namely: Dangote Cement in Gboko Benue State, United Cement Company in Calabar Cross River State UniCem, and Nigerian Cement Company in Nkalagu Ebonyi State NigerCem of which each uses Fuel oil, natural gas and coal respectively as energy source.
The intention of the study is to cover the effects of coal, fuel oil and natural gas in the production of cement with reference to cost, storage and handling, availability, product quality and environmental impact.