Chemical engineering 2022-2023 FREE project topics report and materials pdf & doc in Nigeria download | ND, HND, MSC, B Eng, diploma final year projects |

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    This research work is on Design and building of a small shell and tube heat exchanger using algorithm. A heat exchanger is a device which is used to transfer thermal energy between two or more fluid. This project is mainly focusing on designing one type of a heat exchanger which is shell and tube heat exchanger. In this project a fixed tube plate type shell and tube heat exchangers was chosen, exchanger of 150000 lb per hour of kerosene that will be heated from 75 to 120°F by cooling a gasoline stream from 160 to 120°F at a calculated heat load of 3240000. The specification of the Heat exchanger as well as the detailed mechanical design was calculated. It is established that the heat exchanger with gasoline at the shell side and kerosene at the tube side is adequate for the operation. The available area obtained from the calculation is 2105ft2 and also the overall heat transfer coefficient obtained is  Btu h -1 ft -2 °F-1  with a LMTD of  42.75°F. It is also seen that the heat exchanger is satisfactory and consist of 6 tube passes with tube outside diameter of 14 (BWG) and length of 24mm,the  shell outside diameter of 803.4mm and thickness of 3.72mm. The material for construction for the shell side is carbon steel.



    Studies were conducted to determine the phytochemicasl present in moringa olrifera and Azadrichta indica leaves. Leaves for this work were washed, room dried ground to powder. The ground leave for both sample were soaked in four different solvent; Ethanol, nHexane, Ethyl acetate and water for 24 hours. After the contact elapsed the solvent were filtered to recover the extract. Qualitative analysis was carried out on the extract; the result showed moringa oliefera to contain saponin, flavonoid, tannin, phenol, steroid and glycoside. Azadrichta indica contains; saponin, flavonoid, tannin, Alkaloid, steroid and glycoside. Quantitative anaylsis were jalso carried on the extract and the result showed moringa oliefera and Azadrichta indica to contain in percentage flavonoid 21.8 : 23.80, Alkaloids 5.00 : 8.20, saponin 0.70 : 1.10 , phenol 0.76 : 1.49 , Tannin 0.08 : 0.57 and Glycoside 0.005 : 0.0062 respectively for moringa oliefera and Azadrichta indica. In the qualitative analysis water was the best solvent for extraction and quantitative analysis; flavonoid, alkaloid, tannin, saponin, phenol and glycoside have higher percentage in Azadrichta indica than moringa oleifera.



    From time immemorial, man depended on plants as medicine. From a historical perspective, it is evident that the fascination for plants is as old as mankind itself. The plant kingdom represent a rich store house of organic compounds, many of which have been used for medicinal purposes and could serve as lead for the development of novel agents having good efficacy in various pathological disorders in the coming years.Plants are the richest source of drugs for traditional medicine, modern medicines, nutraceuticals food supplements, folk medicine, pharmaceutical intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic drugs Hammer et al., 1999. The use of plant product as medicines could be traced as far back as the beginning of human civilization. The earliest mentioned medicinal used plant in Hindu culture is found in Rigveda, which is said to have been written between 45001600 B.C. and is supposed to be the oldest repository human knowledge. The active principle isolated, have provided leads in the development of several life saving drugs, which are in use today Rastogi and Mehrotra, 2002.

    The isolated active compounds of the plants are secondary metabolites chemical compound that occur naturally in plant with no nutritional value to human life. These active compounds are generally called phytochemical. These phytochemicals play protective roles in plants, each chemical labeled phytochemical works in different ways, not all are the same for human, and not all come from the same plants. Some have shown more promise than others in fighting disease and illness in humans. There are some basic types of these active compounds that are found in different fruits and vegetables. We have some of them like antioxidants, they are present in onions and some other fruits and tea, they act as preventive measure for premature cell death and some forms of cancer and aging. Isoflavones or plant estrogen; they are found in soy and soy products; they are helpful in the year just before and after menopause. Capsaicin is found in hot pepper and it has been shown to significantly reduce prostate tumors in size, at least in mice. Taking capsaicin on a regular basis by eating spicy foods with hot peppers may prove an excellent preventative agent to prostate cancer and benign growth of prostate Ahmedabad 382 481. This experiment was carried out on moringaoleifera and Azadirachtaindica leaves.

    1.2 Phytochemicals

    Phytochemicals are nonnutritive plant chemicals which occur naturally in plants that have protective or disease preventive properties. They are nonessential nutrients, meaning that they are not required by the human body for sustaining life. It is wellknown that plant produces these chemicals to protect them but recent research demonstrates that they can also protect humans against diseases. There are more than thousand known phytochemicals. Some of the wellknown phytochemicals are lycopene in tomatoes, isoflavonesin soy and flavanoids in fruits.

    1.2.1 Activity of phytochemicals

    Antioxidant Most phytochemicals have antioxidant activity and protect our cells against oxidative damage and reduce the risk of developing certain types of cancer. Phytochemicals with antioxidant activity includes:allyl sulfides onions, leeks, and garlic, carotenoids fruits, carrots, flavonoids fruits, vegetables, polyphenols tea, grapes.

    Hormonal action Isoflavones, found in soy, imitate human estrogens and help to reduce menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis.Stimulation of enzymes Indoles, which are found in cabbages, stimulate enzymes that make the estrogen less effective and thus couldreduce the risk for breast cancer. Other phytochemicals, which interfere with enzymes, are protease inhibitors soy and beans, terpenes citrus fruits and cherries.

    Interference with DNA replication Saponins found in beans interfere with the replication of DNA cell, thereby preventing themultiplication of cancer cells. Capsaicin, found in hot peppers, protects DNA from carcinogens.


    Moringaoleifera and Azadirachtaindica are plantsleave are claimed to have a lot of economic value such as medicinal, nutritional and pesticidal values. These claims have not been clearly justified.This research and experiment is therefore centered on investigating, analyzing and justifying the claims made on these plants leave. And also to know the chemical composition responsible for the Medicinal value of these plant leave.


    i. Phytochemical anaylsis on the Moringaoleiferaand Azadiractaindica. In the other words, identify, isolate and quantify each phytochemical present in the plant material

    ii. To describe clearly the unit operation Extraction process used on these plant.


    To justify the claims made on these plants for its medicinal and economic values like moringaoleifera is responsible for curing malaria, reducing high blood pressure and reduces blood sugar and Azadirachtaindica is responsible curing fever,malaria, bacteria and fungi disease.


    The phytochemical analysis will be carried out only on the leaves of the plant under study.



    This study was carried out to generate a design data, design and fabricate a maize cornoncob tray dryer used by maize farmers. Ripped maize corns with husks were bought from the market and preserved to retained its moisture content, dehusked and thereafter, dried to a given percentage moisture content of 15. This was done by laboratory dryer. The drying rate data was generated and the high rate of 2.0g/hr was used afterwards to design and fabricate the cornoncob dryer. From the results, drying of a sample of maize cornoncob by the laboratory dryer took a period of three days and six hours to reach the 15 moisture content wet basis needed. A test run was carried out on the fabricated dryer and seventeen hours was used to dry a sample of maize cornoncob to the same 15 moisture content. This implies that design data is satisfactory as its application in the fabrication of the dryer resulted in an increased flow rate of air in the dryer thereby increasing the rate of drying at the same drying temperature of 40oC.




    Cereal grains have been and will continue to be a major source of food for humans and animals throughout the world. Amongst all cereals, the most important is the maize grain. Leonard et al, 1963. Maize corn and products can be used for various purposes; human food, alternative medicine, chemicals, bio fuels, ornamentals, fodder, to mention but a few Leonard, Warren H., and John H. Martin. Maize crop is intensively and extensively cultivated in all the geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Early maize is planted between late March and late May while the late maize is planted between August and September. The harvest time for the early maize is usually between late July and September. During this period, corns are harvested fresh and cannot be preserved by drying owing to the unavailability of sunshine during the rainy season. It is usually roasted or cooked fresh. This practice does not encourage maize farmers as they would sell the maize corn at a giveaway prices and this does not guarantee returns on their investment. In addition to this, dried maize grains will guarantee food sufficiency during the scarce period. Notably, corn of high moisture content does not stored very well and is usually vulnerable to damage due to deterioration, molds, and insects during the period of storage.

    However, open airsun drying as practiced in most rural areas often yields poor quality dried corn, since the product is not protected against dust, moisture, wind, rodents as well as other domestic animals while carrying out the drying. As a result, they are often contaminated with pathogens. Another common practice in maize cornoncob drying is drying over a fire place. This has its own problems as the maize grains are contaminated with smoke. Moreover, the temperature of drying is not properly controlled such that grains become dead after drying. There are various research works that have been carried out on grain drying Zare et al, 2006; Mellmann, et al 2011; Adzimah and Seckley, 2009. These works were silent on drying and dryer design for maize cornoncobs.



    Maize corns are usually stored when dried to certain percentage moisture content. In Nigeria, maize corn drying is done in dry season because of low humidity of atmospheric air and adequate sunshine. However, it is a common place to see peasant maize farmers dry their maize cornoncobs over fire place, but this practice contaminates the dried maize corn with smoke and usually small quantity of maize cornoncob are dried. The reverse is the case during the rainy season. Unfortunately, bulk of the maize corn is harvested in the rainy season and farmers can not dry the fresh maize corn rather they sell them at very cheap prices to corn roasters and for other delicacies. To give value to farmers and also to guarantee maize corn sufficiency during scarce period, it becomes necessary that a simple but robust cornoncob dryer should be designed and fabricated to assist farmers have good returns on their investment especially during postharvest handling of maize corn during rainy season.


    The aims of this research include:

    i. To develop a drying rate curve for maize cornoncob at constant drying condition.

    ii. To generate design data for tray dryer to be used to dry maize cornon cob.

    iii. To develop and draw working diagrams for the tray dryer.

    iv. To fabricate a tray dryer.

    v. To test run the tray dryer.


    Some of the benefits derivable from this research project include:

    i. It will encourage maize farmers by giving them good returns on their labour and enhance maize corn production.

    ii. It will provide Nigerian populace with a cleaner dried maize grains.

    iii. It will attract foreign exchange for Nigeria as cleaner dried maize can be export.

    iv. It will ensure maize grain sufficiency during the scarce period.


    This research will be restricted to the following areas;

    i. Generation of design data for cornoncobs.

    ii. Designing the cornoncob dryer.

    iii. Fabrication of the dryer.

    iv. Test run.



    The research project studies the analysis of pear and its oil. The mesocarp from edible African pear DacryodesEdulis were evaluated for their oil yield. The pulp from this pear were oven dried at 100oC105oC to a moisture content level of 29.The mesocarp was subjected to proximate analysis to determine the percentage of the moisture, ash, fat, crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate content which resulted to the values of 29, 2, 19.6, 25.5, 11.9, and 12 respectively. Then the dried sample was pulverized by using hammer mill and the oil was extracted by solvent extraction using nhexane. The oil extracted were analyzed for the chemical properties i.e. Acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine value etc. the values obtained are respectively 8.41gm/KOH/gm, 185.1gm/KOH/gm, 2.8gm/KOH/gm 3.96gm/iodine/gm and Physical properties i.e. Refractive index, Ph value, specific gravity which the values obtained are 1.469brix, 5.7 and 0.92. and the The percentage oil yield content is 51.57. This physiochemical characteristic and fatty acid composition of this oil show that they have industrial potentials.



    In the major world, one major source of protein and vegetable oil is from oil seeds /fruits Williams M. A. 1996. Oil constitutes a well defined class of naturally occurring substance. It is greasy, being soluble in organic solvents but insoluble in polar solvents such as water. Oil is a liquid at room temperature. Commercially, oil as well as fats is sourced from certain plant groups mostly seeds and nuts and some parts of animal within which they occur in relatively large quantity in an easily available form McGrawHill, 1997. The existence of oil in certain plants has been known for century of years Ogbu 2005.Oil can be grouped into edible and nonedible oil depending on the amount of unsaponified matters and impurities contained therein. Edible oil extracted from African pear, bread fruits, cashew nut, peanut etc. are examples of vegetable oil which are naturally occurring esters of higher fatty acids and glycerol, and are predominantly triglycerides with traces of mono and diglycerides, sterples, antioxidants, vitamins, saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids and other minor constituents. They are widely distributed in nature and were first consumed as food. Later, oils were discovered to be used as renewable raw materials for variety of nonfood production. For instance; soaps, creams, disinfectants, paints, enamels, inks etc.


    The generic name Dacryodes was derived from the Greek word Dakruon meaning tear referring to resin droplets on the bank surface of its member while Edulis means edible emphasizing the importance of nutrients fruits in the plants cultivation .The plant belongs to the family Burseraceae whose members are characterized by an ovary of 2to 5 cells, prominent as inducts in the bark, wood, and intrasteminal disk Chunduff, 1984. The genus Dacryodes consist of about 10 species Verheji, 2002. However Rehn, 1984 indicated 80 species to encompass sub species of varieties, form and cultivars. Two varieties are recognized; Varparvicarpa and Varedulis whose conical fruit is smaller with the pulp. Varedulis exhibit verticulate or subverticulate branching while the branching is slender and opposite or bifurcate in varparvicarpa Okafor 1983.


    This project is aimed at the analysis of bush pear and its oil.The main objective of this study is to carry out proximate analysis and physiochemical properties of African pear oil extracted by solvent methods. This physiochemical properties determined are specific gravity, refractive index, ph value, boiling point, acid value, iodine value, peroxide value, and saponification value. To achieve the objectives of this project, it is important to:

    a Select the best suited solvent for optimum yield.

    b Characterize the extracted oil for compositions and properties.

    c Test the suitability of the oil.


    This research work involves the analysis of African pear and its oil though the food crop African pear potential is rated one of the highest oil producing fruit crop yet it begs the question of its potential.

    Furthermore, this project will answer the following questions;

    i Solvent extraction by solvent method

    ii What is the optimum yield of the particle size using n hexane

    iii Is there significant difference in the characterization of the extracted oil as compared to theoretical value in terms of;

    1 Chemical properties Acid value, iodine value, saponification value and peroxide value.

    2 Physical properties specific gravity, density, viscosity, refractive index.

    3 Chemical composition protein crude, fibre, carbohydrate and moisture.


    Characterizing the potentials of African pear/African pear oil for many purposes has several implications. Communities in the West African countries are significantly dependent on financial gain from agrarian enterprise.

    It is hope that from the project, optimum extraction parameters which are quality of the oil would be established, the result would add to the data bank that could help potential industrialist who intends to go into vegetable table oil production from African pear. A crop that experiences a post harvest loss in excess of 40 in areas where malnutrition is prevalent is a problem for potentials to reclaim the lost percentage of either food or other purposes is advantageous for producers and consumers alike.


    In this project work, we intend to analyze and extract completely African pear and its oil. Many research work has been done in giving a detailed composition found in African pear. But this research account on the optimum route to:

    i Extraction of vegetable oil from bush pear.

    ii Separation of pure oil from the solvent.

    iii Characterization of the African pear.



    The project dealt on the production of yam flour from yam chips. The yams were peeled and washed, 100grams samples coded sample A to G were subjected to two different drying conditions. Some were dried using the sun drying method while the others were dried through oven drying method kept at constant temperature of 500C, sodium bicarbonate was added to some of the samples, all these were done to obtain a flour with the best colour and texture quality. From the results obtained, it was observed that sample B yam boiled with sodium bicarbonate and dried with oven gave the best result and quality when tested with hot water, this was as a result of the drying condition used, the constant temperature maintained and the presence of the sodium bicarbonate used which helped in achieving the result. Generally, the samples dried through the oven drying method at 500C gave better colour and result of the yam flour when tested with hot water more than other samples dried by sun drying and this was due to the stability in temperature in the oven drying method used.




    1.1 Background Of The Study

    Yam dioscorea spp. is a multispecies crop that originated principally from Africa and Asia before spreading to other parts of the world Hahn et al.,1987. It belongs to the family of dioscoreae within the genus dioscorea and serves as a staple crop in west Africa.Asiedu et al., 1992. There are many cultivars of yam, though only six are important as staple foods in the tropics. the economically important species grown are Dioscorea rotundatawhite yam,D.alata yellow yam,D.bulbifera aerial yam, D.esculenta Chinese yam and D.dumenterum trifoliate yam. Yam tubers which is the most important part of the plants can be stored longer than other root and tuber crops. This ensures food security even in times of general scarcity. Yam is the third most important tropical root and tuber crop after cassava and sweet potato fu et al., 2005. West Africa is the leading producer of yam and grows over 90 of the worldwide production 40 tonnes fresh tuber/year followed by the west Indians where Jamaica is the leading producer FAOSTAT,2004. Nigeria is the worlds largest producer of yams followed by Ghana, ivorycoast and togo FAO,2003. Both fresh tubers and yam flour are now exported from Ghana and Nigeria to developed countries such as united kingdom and united states of America. These are mostly patronized by emigrants from growing regions according to the Nigerian export promotion council NEPC Nigeria realized N56 billion in 2007. Sustainable production and utilization of yam are important steps in enhancing food security and alleviatind poverty particularly in west Africa where it is estimated to provide more than 200 dietary calories each day for over 60 million people Nweke et al.,1991., FAO 2002.



    The principal problem in yam production that has been identified is the high cost of seed yam, high labour requirement, diseases, pest as well as high post harvest lossesOrkwor 1998.another constraint to yam production is the limited processing technology. About 30 of harvested yam tubers are lost to waste. The bulkiness of fresh transport and low margins for both farmers and traders are thus a matter of serious concern in the urban market Cooke et al.,1988.

    During the processing of yam through sundrying method,the problem encountered is the loss due to potential contamination of the product variability in drying time, rain damage and so on. Ohweever, D.alata fresh texture is usually not firm as the D.rotundata white yam and less suitable than other species for the preparation of the most popular food product from yam in the west Africa regionWirekomanu et al.,2011.



    1.3.0 MOTIVATION

    The growing need for the variety of food in Nigeria has become a primary concern for the urban and rural households in Nigeria. In recent times, the concern has raised much researchers interest to do related studies. As reported in many different studies around the world, food security is a common problem.

    1.3.1 OBJECTIVES

    The present study aims at carryout an experiment on fresh yams, optimize the drying parameters and investigate the effect of drying conditions on the quality of the yam. To result to this, the present study which will address particular issues food drying could stimulate producers, farmers, agriculturists, educational practitioners on the phenomenon of drying to enhance the quality of yams to solve past harvest losses.



    To carryout drying experiment on fresh yams and optimize the drying parameters.

    To determine the effect of drying on the quality properties

    Process the yam samples into chips and carryout approximate analysis of the fresh and dried samples.

    Production of flour from the yam chips

    Compare flour samples in terms of colour and texture evaluation.



    Perfume extraction refers to the extraction of aromatic compounds from raw materials, using methods such as distillation, solvent extraction, expression or enfleurage. The extracts are either essential oils, absolutes, concretes, or butters, depending on the amount of waxes in the extracted product. Heat, chemical solvents, or exposure to oxygen in the extraction process denature the aromatic compounds, either changing their odour, character or rendering them odourless. In this work three methods, solvent extraction, hydro distillation and enfleurage methods were used to extract essential oil from lemongrass. Solvent extraction method yielded 2.08, enfluerage method yielded 1.96 and hydro distillation methods yielded 0.95 essential oil respectively. From the analysis solvent extraction gave the highest yield because of the less exposure air and heat and this conform the literature value. The extracted essential oil was formulated into perfume using a fixative and carrier solvent.




    1.1 Background

    Perfume is a fragrant liquid made from an extract that has been distilled in alcohol and water.

    Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have attempted to mask or enhance their own odor by using perfume, which emulates natures pleasant smells. Many natural and manmade materials have been used to make perfume to apply to the skin and clothing, to put in cleaners and cosmetics, or to scent the air. Because of differences in body chemistry, temperature, and body odors, no perfume will smell exactly the same on any two people.

    Perfume comes from the Latin per meaning through and fume, or smoke. Many ancient perfumes were made by extracting natural oils from plants through pressing and steaming. The oil was then burned to scent the air. Today, most perfume is used to scent bar soaps. Some products are even perfumed with industrial odorants to mask unpleasant smells or to appear unscented.

    While fragrant liquids used for the body are often considered perfume, true perfumes are defined as extracts or essences and contain a percentage of oil distilled in alcohol.

    Techniques involved in perfume extraction from plants include; solvent extraction, distillation and effleurage method. These methods to a certain extent, distort the odor of the aromatic compounds that are obtained from the raw materials.

    Important thing in relation to perfume making is that there are three key ingredients you will need to produce perfume:

    1. Essential Oils these have been extracted from various plants organic or nonorganic and when combined give the smell of the perfume you are trying to produce.

    2. Pure Grain Oil

    3. Water


    Family: Poaceae Gramineae, Cymbopogon species

    The genus has about 55 species, most of which are native to South Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia. Two major types have considerable relevance for commercial use: East Indian lemongrass Cymbopogon flexuosus is native to India, Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand, whereas West Indian lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus is assumed to originate in Malaysia. The plants grow in dense clumps up to 2 meters in diameter and have leaves up to 1 meter long. Further Cymbopogon martini Roxb. J.F. Watson var. martini, which is native to India and cultivated in Java isworth mentioning as it also grows in Bhutan and is extracted for palmarosa oil. Another species with commercial relevance is citronella grass Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt which also stems from India, but is today grown throughout the tropics.



    The problem of perfume extraction process is the distortion of the odor of the aromatic compounds obtained from the raw materials. This is due to heat, harsh solvents and also through the exposure to oxygen which will denature the aromatic compounds. These will either change their odor, character or render them odorless.

    The problem of formulation of perfume involves knowing the proportion in which essential oil, and other materials to be mixed to avoid skin irritation and increase the intensity and longevity of the perfume.

    Most imported perfumes are synthetic odorant which are not pure chemical substance but are mixture of organic compounds that are harmful when applied.

    There are limited perfume plants, from which perfume can be made; this can lead to importation of perfume thereby causing the decline of foreign reserves and unemployment.



    The main objective of this project is to extract and formulate perfume from Lemon grass CYMBOPOGON FLEXUOSUS.


    This project focuses on the production of perfumes from natural/plant sources as against synthetic chemicals thereby will reduce any side effect resulting from synthetic chemicals.

    The success of this work will stimulate the development of the perfume industry locally because of available, cheap raw materials.

    More jobs will be created by those that will be engaged in planting/cultivating of the plant as well as establishing small scale extraction plants.

    There will be reduction on the resources spent on importation of lemon grass fragrance by end users.


    This project work is on how perfumes are extracted and formulated from lemongrass. It further entails;

    1. The synthetic and aromatic sources of perfumes.

    2. The composition of perfumes and its concentration

    3. The extraction methods and formulation process involved

    4. The economic importance of lemongrass and the uses of lemongrass oil in perfume production process.



    This study is a comparative analysis of the use of coal, fuel oil and natural gas for cement production noting their physical and chemical properties, cost and availability, impact on the environment and human health. Out of the seven cement manufacturing industries in Nigeria, three industries use these fuels were selected for the study. The industries are NigerCem Ebonyi state, Dangote cement Benue state and UniCem Cross river state. Questionnaires were used to gather information on the three fuels. The likert 3 scale model was adopted, using 2.0 as the cut off mark. Based on the analysis of the study, it was observed out that amongst these three 3 fuels, fuel oil is presently expensive though available, while coal and natural gas are cheap but coal is not available due to the closure of Nigerias coal mine. In terms of environment and health, coal and fuel oil emit much harmful gases to the environment and cause more health problems to cement worker but natural gas emits less of these harmful gases to the environment and cause less health problems to workers. The study therefore shows that natural gas is the best fuel because it is cheap, readily available and creates fewer problems to the environment.




    Energy is commonly defined as the ability to do work or to produce heat.

    Normally heat could be derived by burning a fuel i.e. a substance that contains internal energy which upon burning generates heat. IEA, 2004.

    The energy system today is highly dependent on fossil fuel with coal, fuel oil and natural gas accounting for about 80 of world primary energy demand. Kul, 2001.

    Fuels are the major source of energy for industries and cement industry is not an exception. However, the energy source to be adopted will have to meet the varying needs of different countries and at the same time enhance the security of each against the energy crisis that have taken place in the past. The selection/ choice of fuel type depend on various factors such as environmental pollution, ease in processing, storage and handling, availability and cost of the fuel.

    Coal, fuel oil and natural gas are the most commonly used energy carrier in cement industries. The energy use for cement production is distributed as follows:

    92.7 for pyroprocessing

    5.4 for finishing grinding and

    1.9 for raw grinding Choate, 2003.

    The choice of fuel use entails the level at which green house gases GHG are emitted, the cost of cement and the quality of the cement produced.

    This research work will help in selecting the best fuel and techniques to be use in order to attain a high quality product at a lower cost with lesser green house gas emission to the environment.


    The choice of fuel is attained by comparative analysis of coal, fuel oil and natural gas in cement production. In comparing these fuels, the following problem arises:

    Knowledge of the physio chemical properties of coal, fuel oil and natural gas.

    Knowledge of the green houses gases GHG emitted by each of these fuel, their level of emission and their effects on the environment and humans health esp. cement workers.

    Knowledge of the cost and availability of coal, fuel oil and natural gas.


    The aims of this research work is to;

    Study the physical and chemical properties of coal, fuel oil and natural gas.

    Gain knowledge on the green house gases GHG emitted, their effect on the environment and humans health and the level of emission from each fuel.

    Study coal, fuel oil and natural gas in relation to cost and availability.


    With the growth in industrialization today, this study will offer numerous values both to the cement industry and staff, the environment and society at large.

    It will choose an economical and less hazardous fuel and techniques for cement production.

    Also, it will help in the selection of techniques /fuel that will reduce the emission of green house gases GHG from cement industries to the environment. This gases emitted causes acid rain, smog etc. which can cause cancer to human and destroys plant lives.

    In terms of infrastructural development, an economical fuel for production will lead to a reduction in the cost of cement, thereby encouraging the development of buildings and Government in development of roads, bridges, and other construction oriented projects.

    This study will also give students of chemical engineering and other related courses an insight of these fuels with their different environmental implications, properties and choice of fuel when combustion of fuel is required.


    This study would have covered all the Nigerian cement industries but due to time and cost of analysis, it is limited to three3 cement industries namely: Dangote Cement in Gboko Benue State, United Cement Company in Calabar Cross River State UniCem, and Nigerian Cement Company in Nkalagu Ebonyi State NigerCem of which each uses Fuel oil, natural gas and coal respectively as energy source.

    The intention of the study is to cover the effects of coal, fuel oil and natural gas in the production of cement with reference to cost, storage and handling, availability, product quality and environmental impact.



    This project was done to extract and characterize bean oil according to their particle sizes. The experiment was carried out using scent bean i.e. Ozaki, Ijilizior Azamu as sample. The oils were extracted by solvent extraction /leaching extraction using nhexane. Proximate analysis was carried out to obtain percentage moisture content, ash content, total oil content, protein content and carbohydrate content of the extracted oils. From observation, it was noticed that as the diameter of the sieve decreased, the quantity of oil obtained increased.




    There has been an increase in the world production of oilseeds over the last thirty years Murphy, 1994; this would appear to be related to the increasing demand for oilseed products and byproducts as oilseeds are primarily grown for their oil and meal.

    Oils from most edible oilseeds are used in the food industry, though there is growing emphasis on industrial utilization as feedstock for several industries with about 80 of the world production of vegetable oils for human consumption. The remaining 20 utilization is between animal and chemical industries Murphy, 1994.

    According to Rajagopal et al. 2005, biooils from oilseeds are used as Straight Vegetable Oil SVO or as biodiesel trans esterified oil depending on type of engine and level of blend of the oil; scent bean oil i.e. Ozaki, Ijiliji, or Azamu is found mainly in the SouthEast of Nigeria and is not an exception. This phenomenon has created a school of thought that it is better to use oilseeds as biofuel, which will lessen the competition for fossil fuels, which are not renewable. Fossil fuels are not only costly in terms of price but are also costly to the environment as they degrade land, pollute water and cause a general destabilization of the ecosystem with global warming as an end result. Furthermore, crude oil wields sociopolitical power that often dictates the pace of economic growth in specific locations, especially nonoil producing nations.

    1.2. Problem Statement

    Many plants have been identified as sources of oil, with some of the plant species and their oil extracted and used as medicines and food. However, very few of these species have their oil characteristics determined.

    Because of the high demand of oils for various purposes including medicinal, perfumery, soap making, insecticides et al. Imported oils are very expensive to meet the demands of our local consumer industries; therefore, it becomes necessary to source and synthesize these oils locally. Since these oils can be produced locally, it gives no reason for their importation or at least should reduce the rate at which these oils are imported and give attention to local production.


    The purpose of this study is to

    a. Find the percentage composition of oil in the bean seed

    b. To determine the effect of particle size on the yield of the oil.


    Exploitation of fruits and seeds as a source of oil can help to reduce oil costs by diversifying the sources for this commodity. Data generated from this study will benefit industries for production of oils for various purposes.

    In addition the content and composition of fatty acids of plant seed oils can serve as plants taxonomic markers.


    Some factors and benefits of bean Ozaki, Ijiliji or Azamu oil make the research worthwhile;

    1 The bean is readily available.

    2 Oil from this particular bean is medicinal and applicable in pharmaceutical industries.

    3 Small scale industries coming up as a result of oil extraction can reduce unemployment.

    4 It can attract foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria.



    This project work studied the refining of crude soya bean oil extracted from soya bean seed using alkali /caustic refining method. The work was carried out using phosphoric acid for the degumming /pretreatment process and sodium hydroxide for the neutralization /refining of the oil. Certain tests were carried out on both the crude and refined oil such as saponification value, acidic value, iodine value, specific gravity and viscosity, the results obtained after the tests include 42.075, 164.28, 589.05, 0.8944 and 0.038 respectively for refined oil and 44.88, 109.52, 448.8, 0.8148 and 0.035 respectively for the crude oil.



    Refining of vegetable oils is essential to ensure removal of germs, phosphatides and free fatty acids F.F.A from the oil, to impact uniform colour by removal of colouring pigments and to get rid of unpleasant smell from the oil by removal of odiferous matter.

    Refining is carried out either on batch operation or as continuous operation. With certain oils even physical refining can be carried out instead of chemical.

    For processing less than thirty tones of oil per 24 hours, and when oil has F.F.A content of 1 percent or less normally batch process is recommended. Batch process involves low capital investments, simplicity of operation and low maintenance, making refining economically a viable proposition even at capacity as low as 10 tonnes per 24 hours. According to Dietary fats and oils in Human Nutrition. Rome 1977.

    Crude soyabean oil of good quality has a lighter amber colour which upon alkali refining is reduced to the light yellow colour of most vegetable seed oils. Soyabean oil produced from green or immature beans may contain sufficient chlorophyll to have a greenish cast but this is not usually very evident until after the yellow red pigment of the oil have been bleached in hydrogenation G.S Breck and S.C Bhatia, 2008.


    Crude fats and oils are processed by general scheme shown below with modifications or exceptions for specific species.

    The soap stock can be dried if refining is done adjacent to an extraction plant or acidified again to remove fatty acids and sold to the olechemical industry. The oil is then water washed and centrifuge one or two times to remove residual soaps.

    According to GS Breck and S.C Bhatia, a total degumming process for removing essentially all the phosphatide from soyabean oil using first an acid and then an alkali and two centrifuges has shown higher yields than conventional refining. This process however, does not remove prooxidant metals efficiently and for this reason has not found commercial acceptance in the united state.

    G.S Breck and S.C Bhatia have stated that Dijkstra has described a novel process where the washing water is recycled to the oil feed and use to dilute concentrated alkali. This process does not generate an aqueous effluent and can be used for both acid and alkali refining, thus allowing refiners to change gradually from alkali refining to physical refining. Neutralization of soyabean oil with alkali solution assures elimination of free fatty acids without notable change in the phosphatide content.


    In the market today, most vegetable oils solidify at a low temperature of less than 250c. This work is to process and refine edible and quality soyabean oil that will not undergo solidification at a low temperature.


    The objective of refining and processing fats and oils include:

    Removal of free fatty acids, phospholipids gums colour and offflavour/odour compounds and toxic substances to produce light coloured and bland products with long shelf lives.

    Obtaining a mixture of the triacylglycerols with the desired solid content profiles over the range of product use.

    Preparation and storage of semisolid products with desired textures.


    The crude oil extracted from soyabean needs further treatment to convert it to a bland, stable, nutrition products that is used to manufacture margarine, shortening, salad and cooking oil, mayoniaise, food products, Olechemicals.

    This study entails the process of producing good quality oil through caustic/alkali refining process which is going to becompared with other good quality products in the market like grand product etc.



    This work was carried out to investigate the effects of Burantashi extract on liver enzymes of albino male and female whistar rats. Burantashi is a popular seasoning agent to barbecued meat suya in Nigeria,mostly found in the northern part of the Nigeria. Liver Enzymes are those enzymes that plays important role in the liver both in function and regulation. Erectile dysfunction ED is defined as the consistent or recurrent inability of a man to attain or maintain penile erection, sufficient for sexual activity 2nd International consultation on sexual Dysfunction Paris, June 28th July 1st, 2003. Following the discovery and introduction of Burantashi research on the mechanism underlying penile erection, has had an enormous boost and many preclinical and clinical papers have been published in the last five years on the peripheral regulation of, and the mediators involved in human penile erection. The most widely accepted risk factors for ED are discussed. The research is focused on human data and the safety and effectiveness of Burantasni Stem as a phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors PDE5 used to treat Erectile Dysfunctions.





    Penile Erection involves an integration of complex physiological processes involving the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, hormonal and vascular systems. Any abnormality involving these systems whether from medications or disease has a significant impact on the ability to develop and sustain erection; ejaculate and experience orgasm. Laumann et al., 1999.

    The physiological process of erection begins in the brain and involves the nervous and vascular system. The chemicals that initiate erection are neurotransmitters present in the brain. Any kind of stimulation physical or psychological, causes nerves to send message to the vascular system which result in significant blood flow to the penis. Two arteries in the penis supply blood to erectile tissues and the corpora cavernous which become engorged and expand as a result of increased blood flow and pressures. Because blood must stay in the penis to maintain rigidity. An erectile tissue is enclosed by tunicae, which is fibrous elastic sheathes cinch which prevents blood leaving he penis during electron. When muscle in the penis contract to stop the inflow of blood and open out flow channels and an electron is reserved.


    Oestrogen/Progesterone: These are female hormones that cause clitoral

    erection. If the body has two much oestrogen and or too little testost erone, she ca n get very wet but can not erect her clitoral and Gspot. Haimen et al., 2002. Estrogen tends to increase the size of the bread, labia minors inner lips and clitoral hood, but shrinks the glans clitoris into the clitoral hood making it invisible. It also increases the thickness of the vaginal lining making the Gspot inaccessible. The mechanism of the clitoral and Gspot erection is the same as that of the penis. It is driven by the parasympathetic sexual nerve The neurotransmitter acetylcholine through the neurotransmitter. Nitric oxide and the erection dilator cGMP, which is continuously powered by the burning of testosterone without a testosterone burst and burning. She cannot pop the glans Clitoris and Gspot out. If she is on birth control pills there is a chance that her body is over flooded by estrogens and low progesterone. Over loaded liver cannot produce sufficient essential enzymes to synthesize sufficient NO, cGMP and testosterone to support the clitoral and Gspot erection infact excessive estrogen or progesterone in the body will shrink the penis, clitoral and Gspot, but likely increase the breast size under the excessive estrogen action.


    A spinal reflex and the Larginine nitric oxide guanglyl cyclasecyclic guanosine monophonsphate cGMP pathway mediate smooth muscle relaxation that results in penile erection. Nerves and endothelial cells directly release nitric oxide in the penis, where it stimulates guanylyl cyclase to produce cGMP and lowers intracellular calcium level. This triggers relaxation of arterial and trabecular smooth muscle, leading to arterial dilation, venous constriction, and erection. Phosphodiesterases PDEs is the predominant phosphodiesterase in the corpus cavernosum. The catalytic site of PDE5 normally degrades cGMP and PDE5 inhibitors such as sildenafil potentiate endogenous increase in cGMP by inhibiting its breakdown at the catalytic site. Phosphorylation of PDE5 increases its enzymatic activity as well as the affinity of its allosteric noncatalytic/GAF domains sites for cGMP. Binding of cGMP to the allosteric site further stimulates enzymatic activity. Thus phosphorlation of PDE5 and binding of cGMP to the non catalytic site mediate negative feed back regulation of the cGMP pathway.


    Biology And Therapeutic ImplicationsFor approximately a decade now, substantial evidence has accrued supporting nitric oxide NO as the central component of major signal transduction system that ats in the penis to mediate the erectile response. This molecules subserve a

    Unique biochemical cascade invading production of the potent second messenger molecule, 35 cyclic guanosine monophosphate cGMP and its activation of protein kinase G PKG which induces physiologic penile erection by regulating the state of penile smooth muscle contractility Burnett, 1997. In fact, current data support the notion that this NO based biochemical cascade represent a convergence of cellular biochemical and molecular inputs, which on the signal transduction regulatory level, is indispensable for the mechanism of penile erection Hedland et al., 2000. Consistent with the importance of NO radiation of penile erection, its biology in the penis is quite complex, involving multiple regulatory interactions, the molecule itself may target several biochemical mechanisms that achieve erectile tissue relaxation but is also the target of a host of modulatory influences that determines its release and mode of action in erectile tissue. At the same time, premier signal transduction mechanism has been exploited for therapeutic purposes, specifically in the clinical management of erectile dysfunction. Discoveries pertaining to the field of NO biology in the penis have, in recent years been rapidly translated into the clinical management of the first orally effective pharmacotherapy for erectile dysfunction, sildenafil citrate Viagra Goldstein et al., 1998.


    Traditional understanding of the action of NO in the penis invokes the constitutive formation of this molecule under normal physiologic conditions with the expression and activities of the enzyme, sources localized to neural and endothelial components of the corporal tissue. The verification that NO derives from the autonomic innervations supplying the penis has directly supported the description of this molecule as a peripheral neurotransmitter of non adrenergic, no cholinergic1992 mediated penile erection Kim et al.,1991 the confirmation that the molecule also is produced within vascular and trabecular endothelium comprising the penile vascular supply, has offered additional support for the role of NO serving as an endothelial relaxation factor of penile erection kimoto et al., 1990, knispel et al., 1991, azadzoic et al., 1992, Hedlund et al., 2000.


    Erectile dysfunction ED is a sexual dysfunction that affects the reproductive systems of both men and women.

    According to the definition by national Institute of Health consensus Development NIHCD panel on importance 1993 in males. It is sexual dysfunction characterized with the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. It is also known as male impotence or Baby D syndrome. While in women according to American psychiatric Association APA 1994, it is characterized with the persistant or recurrent inability to attain, or maintain until completion of the sexual activity,an adequate lubrication. Swelling response that otherwise is present during fem ale sexual arousal and sexual activity is thus prevented. Hence it is called woman impotence or female erectile dysfunction. NIH, 2005.


    Erectile dysfunction ED, varies in severity; some men have a total inability to achieve an erection others have inconsistent ability to achieve an erection, and still others can sustain only brief erection. The variation in severity of erectile dysfunction makes estimating its frequency difficult. Many men also are reluctant to discuss erectile dysfunction with their doctors, and thus, the condition is under diagnosed nevertheless experts have estimated that ED affects 30 million men in united sates, Again, according to the statistical research carried out by Adegunloye and Eze in 2002 and 1994 respectively in Nigeria, results show that about 2326.5 of men suffer from this condition while according to carey in 1990, discovered that about 4.9 of men suffer from the condition in the united states.


    Erection dysfunction which is known as female erectile dysfunction in woman occurs about 43 of American women NIH consensus conference, 1993. And this medical condition is a persistent or recurrent inability to attain or maintain clitoral erection until completion of the sexual activity, an adequate lubrication. Swelling response that is normally present during female sexual arousal and sexual activity is therefore absent. The individual having the condition is said to experience frigidity American Psychiatric Association, 1994. Again according to Otuba et al in 1989, about 8.7 of women suffer from this very condition in the United States while between 35.340, according t o Adegunloye in 2002 and Eze in 1994 of women in Nigeria suffer from this condition. Spector and carey in 1994 reported 510 in the united states.


    The aim of this research is to find out the effects of Barantashi. pausinystalia yohimbe. Extract on the liver enzymes of albino male and female whistar rats.


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