This project is on Comparative study of pupils’ academic performance in social studies in selected public and private primary schools in Kano state – a case study of Gwale local government area. This research work entitled Comparative Study of Pupils’ Academic Performance in Social Studies in Selected Public and Private Primary Schools in Kano State uses student’s and teacher’s questionnaire as instruments for data collection. The two types of schools i.e. public and private primary schools were used to compare the academic performance of public and private school pupils. Teachers questionnaire was used to find out the differences between school facilities, qualified teachers and welfare of teachers among the public and private primary schools. The researcher used stratified and proportionate sampling technique in the selection of sample. Test items were used. The answers obtained from five research questions and five hypotheses were tested. The statistical Techniques used in analyzing the Data collected were ANOVA and CHISQUARE because the researcher used two research instruments. The first statistical technique was used to analyze the scores of the pupils of public and private primary schools. The findings showed that there were no significant differences in the academic performance of male and female pupils in social studies in public and private primary schools. Chi-square was also used to test the other three research hypotheses and it was discovered that there were no significant differences in terms of school facilities and teacher welfare in public and private primary schools. However, based on the data collected and analyzed, it was found that private primary schools are having more qualified teachers than the public primary schools.