EFFECT OF SELF-INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE ON LOW-ACHIEVING STUDENTS IN MATHEMATICS

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of self instruction technique SIT on low achieving students in mathematics. Two research questions were answered and two null hypotheses tested. The population for the study was made up of 5,395 low achieving students in mathematics in Senior Secondary School II SSS II students in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State School System. The sample for the study was 104 SSS II low achieving students in mathematics. An instrument known as Mathematics Achievement Test MAT with 30 items was used for data collection. The data collected were analyzed using arithmetic mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions and analysis of covariance ANCOVA to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Results revealed that self instruction technique SIT is effective in enhancing the achievement of low achieving students in mathematics. self instruction technique SIT is more effective in enhancing the mathematics achievement of female low achieving students in mathematics than males. Based on the findings and their implications, it was recommended among others that school guidance counsellors should adopt this technique during group counselling on study habit techniques to enhance the achievement of low achieving students in mathematics among secondary school students. Also the limitations of the study and suggestions for further research were highlighted.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE i

APPROVAL PAGE ii

CERTIFICATION iii

DEDICATION iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v

TABLE OF CONTENTS vii

LIST OF TABLES x

LIST OF FIGURES xi

ABSTRACT xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study 1

Statement of the Problem 7

Purpose of the Study 8

Significance of the Study 9

Scope of the Study 12

Research Questions 12

Hypotheses 12

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Conceptual Framework 14

Concept of self Instruction Technique 15

Concept of Achievement 19

Concept of low achievement 20

Theoretical Framework

Constructivism and Constructivist Theory by Baldwin, Piaget,

Vygotsky and Bruner 23

SocialCultural Theory by Lev Semenovich Vygotsky 32

SelfRegulation Theory by Zimmerman, Pintrich and Baekaerts 37

SelfMonitoring Theory by Mark Synder 49

Theoretical Studies

Ingredients for SelfInstruction technique 51

Need for Achievement 77

Factors Associated with Academic Achievement 77

Clinical Picture of LowAchieving Students 79

Identification of Slow Learners 82

Causes of LowAchievement 83

Instructional Principles of Constructivism 86

Constructivist Approach Guidelines 90

Empirical Studies

Empirical Studies on SelfInstruction 92

Empirical Studies on LowAchieving Students 106

Summary of Literature Review 114

CHAPTER THREE: METHOD

Research Design 117

Area of the Study 119

Population of the Study 119

Sample and Sampling Technique 120

Instrument for Data Collection 121

Validation of the Instrument 122

Reliability Test of the Instrument 123

Control of Extraneous Variables 124

Method of Data Collection 129

Method of Data Analysis 132

Experimental Procedures 133

Activities for the Control Group 157

 

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

Summary of Findings 159

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS,

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Discussion of Results 163

Conclusion from the Study 167

Implications of the Study 169

Recommendations 171

Limitations of the Study 173

Suggestions for Further Research 174

Summary of the Study 175

REFERENCES 177

APPENDICES 194

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EFFECT OF SELF-INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE ON LOW-ACHIEVING STUDENTS IN MATHEMATICS

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