Effective use of a tropical hop named bitter leaf [Vernonia Amygdalina] extract as a means of extending the shelf Life of locally brewed millet beer

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ABSTRACT

This research is on Effective use of a tropical hop named bitter leaf [Vernonia Amygdalina] extract as a means of extending the shelf Life of locally brewed millet beer. This  local  beer is  brewed  from  a   cereal  grain  called  millet, and  it  is  brewed  with  bitter  leave  extract  acting  as  hop  substitute  to  see  if  it  can  increase  the  shelf – life  of this  beer. The  production  process  include  malting, mashing, fermentation, and  maturation. The microorganisms  associated  with  fermentation  include  Saccharomyces  Cerevisiae and  Saccharomyces  Charelienia. These  yeast  hasten  fermentation  by  converting  the  sugar  in  the  beer  to  alcohol. Kunu  is  an  indigenous  alcoholic  beverages  that  is  traditionally  brewed  with out hops, and  because  of  this  it  has  a  shot shelf  life  as  compared  with  that brewed  with  the  tropical  hops. There   is  a  significant [P≥ 0.05] difference  in  chemical  properties of millet  with  hops  and  without  hops. Millet  with  hops  is  the  best  with  alcoholic  content  of  0.325 ± 0.004, total  acidity  of 0.645 ± 0.011(% lactic  acid),fixed  acidity  of  0.041± 0.002, specific gravity of 1.199±0.015 and  pH  of  4.03± 0.02.But  without  hops  we  have  an  alcoholic  content  of  0.316± 0.005, total  acidity(lactic  acid) of  0.427± 0.002, fixed  acidity  of  0.034± 0.005,specific  gravity  of  1.049± 0.007, and  pH  of  3.32±0.02.From  the  result  the beer without  hops  is  the  lowest  in  acceptance  of  chemical  properties  so  it  is  advisable  that  the local millet  beer  be  brewed  with  the tropical  hops (Vernonia Amygdalina).                                                                                               

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CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
This research is on Effective use of a tropical hop named bitter leaf [Vernonia Amygdalina] extract as a means of extending the shelf Life of locally brewed millet beer. Beer, alcoholic brewery made from a cereal grains known as barley and Millet. A process called Fermentation in which Microscopic fungi known as yeast is used to consume sugars in the grains to make Beers, converting them to alcohol and carbondioxide gas.This chemical process typically produce beers with an adequate level of alcohol content of about 2-6%.Over an aggregate of 70 types of beer are available in the modern worlds todays. Each style of beer derives its unique characteristics and differences in its brewing process. Four basic ingredients are used in brewing, which includes; grains, hops, [bitter leaves as a hops substitute]Yeast and water, Grains like Millet contain the natural sugars required for fermentation. It also provides beer with flavour, colour, body and texture. Hops are small, green,cone-shaped flowers from the hop plant, a vine related to the nettle plant over 50 varieties of hops are grown throughout the world, mostly in Europe, Australia and North America. But the hops we want to used is bitter leave acting as hops substitute. It is mostly grown here in Africa. Hops provides the Beer with spicy, bitter flavour and contribute natural substances that prevent bacteria from spoiling beer. Two species of Yeast; Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces uvarum and bakers yeast. Each yeast species is used in a slightly different method of fermentation and produces a distinct type of beer. Throughout history, where ever Cereal grains were grown, Humans made beer with beverage for them. They used Barley in Egypt, Millet and Sorghum in other parts of Africa, beer brewing is a major industrial revolution world wide. In 2002,In the United States,1800brewers,produced almost 175 millions barrels of beer. Beer is deeply interlined in the fabric of Society, from the Economic to the intangible locally owned breweries deliver social values better than global companies. Since early times beer which is the products of brewing processes has played an important role in our society, It bring people together in local pubs and breweries generating Camaraderie within Communities. As technology has progress brewing techniques have been developed and refined. As a result, we are currently consuming the finest beers ever produced. This is due to our increased knowledge in the fields of Biotechnology, Microbiology, and Chemistry.

1.1 AIM OF STUDY / PROJECT
The aim of study is primarily to have a capture of the effect use of a tropical hop named bitter leaf(Vernonia Amygdalina) extract as a means of extending the shelf life of a locally millet beer. In the course of achieving this goal, the ingredients used in brewing industries are taken into consideration together with various analysis carried on beer samples. Finally, beer should be of an adequate composition and texture in order to satisfy consumers need and sensitivity on the disadvantages of beer abuse to the health and body.

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Effective use of a tropical hop named bitter leaf [Vernonia Amygdalina] extract as a means of extending the shelf Life of locally brewed millet beer

2,500.003,000.00 (-17%)

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