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EXTENT OF THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES

ABSTRACT
This research work was aimed at identifying the extent of the use of instructional materials in teaching Social Studies in Nsukka Educational Zone. This work was necessary because the success of any classroom teaching depends more on the extent of the use of teacher resources than verbalization. Three research questions were posited to guide the researcher in the study. These questions are: (1) What instructional media are available for Social Studies Instruction in Nsukka Education Zone? (2) To what extent are instructional materials used in Social Studies Instruction? (3) To what extent are different methods used in Social Studies lesson? Twenty-nine schools were sampled for this study. Instruments for data collection were questionnaire distribution schedule and checklist designed to elicit information from teachers. The data collected were analyzed based on mean scores and percentages. The information collected indicated that most of the resource materials are not available in schools, while some were available in some schools. The available materials were not adequately used. Based on these findings, recommendations were made which include that, teachers should be resourceful and use available teaching materials to make their lessons interesting thereby providing some motivation to the learners. Government should provide some money to schools to purchase the resources that the teachers cannot improvise. The researcher believes that if these recommendations are followed strictly, there would be much improvement in the teaching and learning of Social Studies in Nsukka Education Zone

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
There is no single universal definition of Social Studies because the subject is defined according to the need of each society, which adopts it as a programme of study in schools and colleges. However, the Committee on Primary School Social Studies programme in Nigeria defines Social Studies as those common learning of man?s interaction with his social and physical environment, adding that it is not only a study, but a way of life, of how man influences, and is influenced by his physical, social, political, economic, psychological and cultural environment (Aina, Adeyoyin, Obilo. and Ahmadu, 1982)
Similarly Olaniyan (1998) emphasized that Social Studies is a programme which a society uses to instill in students the knowledge, skills, attitudes and actions it considers important concerning the relationship which human beings have with each other, their world and themselves. Bearing in mind the concept of Social Studies as an integrated discipline, the objectives are clearly stated in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004).
The primary concerns of the subject are encouragement of the awareness of the world in the child, inculcation and development of appropriate knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and social activities concerning relationships in people; to enable them find solutions to social problems in their surroundings and to develop positive
attitudes towards our fellow men in society.
Social science as the teaching and learning of individual subjects such as History, Geography, Government, etc. has finally given way to the conception in Social Studies as an integrated subject This came about in fact with the adoption in 1975 of the Integrated Social Studies Syllabuses developed by the National Educational Research Council fortheprimary schools and Teacher Training Colleges throughout the country at the on-set of the Federal Government University Free Primary Education (UPE). Similarly, the Integrated Social Studies Syllabus currently being used in the lower forms of secondary schools in the country as well as the one for the 3-3 Secondary School system of the New Education Policy was prepared by the Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre (CESAC), University of Lagos (Ogunsanya, 1984). Social Studies is a subject which deals principally with how human beings interact with one another and with the environment. The Committee on Social Studies singled it out as one major area of study through which national objectives on education in Nigeria can be achieved. Specifically, the Committee spelled out the underlisted objectives for teaching Social Studies in the primary and secondary school levels of the Nigerian education system:
1. To encourage the development of social responsibility towards other children, adult and the world.
2. To encourage the development of values, attitudes, skills and understanding necessary to live and function in society.
3. To create an awareness and an understanding of the evolving social and physical environment as a whole, its natural, man-made, cultural and spiritual resources together with national use and conservation of these resources for development
4. To ensure the acquisition of that relevant knowledge which is an essential prerequisite for personal development, as well as a positive personal contribution to the betterment of mankind.
5. To develop in children a positive attitude to citizenship and a desire to make a personal positive contribution to the creation of a progressive and united Nigeria.
6. To develop in the children the ability to think critically and reflectively and come to an independent conclusion.
7. To promise an understanding of the social problems facing the Nigerian society and a desire to find solutions to them (Ogunsanya, 1984; Obeta, 1996; and Enem, 2002).
The objectives of Social Studies Education in Nigeria, as stated above, show that the subj ect was introduced into the school curriculum to, among other things, get rid of certain social vices plaguing the Nigerian society. Such vices include tribalism, ethnicity, nepotism, political instability, mass poverty, immorality, drug abuse, disrespect for elders and so on. Social Studies also meet the needs of the society in the areas of social and intellectual skills as well as attitudes and values. The subject
is also concerned with acquiring the desirable information in order to be able to achieve meaningful development in all sectors of the economy (Ogunsanya, 1984). The summary of our discussion clearly indicates that Social Studies education is central to nation building. Our leaders and policy-makers need to acquire desirable social and intellectual skills, as well as positive attitudes and values that will enable them to make positive contributions to the process of nation building. They need to appreciate the economic and socio-political diversities of Nigeria, and the need for unity, tolerance and inter-dependence among the various component units of Nigeria.
To achieve the above objectives, the subject must be properly taught in our schools. One major characteristic of good teaching of Social Studies is the ability to inculcate in students a spirit of curiosity and self-instruction (Enem, 2002). A great deal has been discovered about what attracts the interest of children, holds their attention and fosters that natural curiosity. Enem (2002) opined that nothing attracts learners? attention faster than the use of relevant resource materials. For example, bright, contrasting colours seem to stimulate them as well as seize their attention. Similarly, interesting shapes and objects are also very important, especially at the lower levels of our education system.
The use of adequate and relevant resource materials has numerous advantages. For example, it facilitates teaching and learning, and makes learning faster and more permanent. Teachers do not need to expend a great deal of energy or time in giving out much information or much guidance. Rather, he guides the pupils to find out or
discover things on their own. For instance, if a picture of a boy eating a banana is shown to the class and the caption of the picture is: ?This boy is eating his banana?, the teacher could ask his class ?Where do you think the banana came from??. A question such as this forces the pupils to look at the picture critically and study it for contextual clues. Where is the boy standing? (Market, Farm or School?) What has he been doing? What are the commonest ways through which boys obtain banana?
In Social Studies, resource materials encourage the pupils to think critically and reflectively about their lives and their surroundings. This helps to build up the students? self esteem and confidence. In addition, resource materials arouse the students? interest on the subject. We all know that interest motivates learning. Social Studies teachers should make effective utilization of instructional materials in teaching because, they make teaching more meaningful, interesting and more permanent. The extent teachers make use of instructional materials in the teaching of Social Studies is not known. Therefore, the need arises for a determination of the extent teachers use instructional materials in teaching Social Studies at the Junior Secondary Schools (JSS).
Statement of the Problem
Experience shows that many teachers of Social Studies have been teaching for years without using teaching resources and without encouragement by the government. Abdullahi (1982) pointed to poor method of teaching as one of the
major factors that cause the poor performance of students in science subjects. Obi (1992) asserted that teachers have resorted to verbalizing their lessons relying heavily on the use of chalkboard, otherwise called ?talk chalk? method of teaching. Those views are in agreement with Mayer?s (1988) that teaching in the African context continues to be dominated by talk and chalk method. This poor method of teaching could be one of the reasons of underachievement of students in Social Studies.
There have been many researches directed at evaluating the extent of the use of instructional media in teaching Social Studies. For instance, researchers like Onyekwelu (1995), investigated Availability and Use of Media in Teaching History in Secondary Schools in Anam bra State. Angwe and Idogbe (2004) investigated the Availability and Use of Biology Lab Equipment in the Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools in Vandeiky a L.G. A. of Benue State. Onuoha (1999) investigated on Students? Perception of Television Religious Programmes in Imo State. Eze and Iloh (1999) researched on Resources Used in Teaching Christian Religious Knowledge in the Junior Secondary School at Nsukka Urban. Agu Emeka (1995) investigated the Status of Media in teaching and learning of Economics in Enugu- North L.G.A. Ukachukwu (1998) researched on Effect of Overlay Technique on Secondary School Students? Achievement in Biology. Using good diagrams, Winn (1982) Projected and Non-projected media; Nwizu (1992), Multimedia Approach; Obi (1992), Different Modes of Picture Presentation (Ofoegbu, 1992).
The problem of the study therefore, is the extent of the use of instructional
materials in the teaching of Social Studies in Nsukka Education Zone.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of the study is to determine the availability and the extent of use of instructional materials in teaching Social Studies in JSS in Nsukka Education Zone. In order to achieve this major purpose, certain specific investigations will be undertaken. These include:
1. To determine the type of instructional materials available for use in
schools in Nsukka Education Zone in teaching Social Studies.
2. To establish the extent of use of the available instructional materials for Social Studies lessons.
3. To identity methods used in teaching Social Studies in the schools.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be beneficial to the Social Studies teachers in Nsukka Education Zone. It will provide information on the available media which they can use. It will also be beneficial to the curriculum planners. It will help curriculum planners to determin e the type of instructional materials available for use, establish the extent of use and identify methods used in teaching Social Studies in the schools. This is with a view to determining instructional materials to be included in the curriculum of the JSS Social Studies and that of the Teacher Training Colleges.
It may provide the justification for emphasizing the teaching of improvisation to trainee teachers in the Colleges.
The results of the study will provide information on the available modes for Social Studies instruction. This will be very useful to ministries of education and policy makers by providing them with data on the materials that needed to be acquired for effective Social Studies instruction.
The extent of use of these materials will enable the Post Primary School Board to organize workshops, conferences and seminar on the production and use of instructional materials to facilitate the learning of Social Studies.
The results of the study will provide information that may be useful for research in this area.
Scope of the Study
The study is limited to the availability and use of instructional materials in teaching Social Studies in JSS in Nsukka Education Zone. It also includes a determination of the teaching methods teachers adopt in Social Studies instruction.
Research Questions
The following research questions have been formulated to guide the study:
1. What instructional materials are available in schools for Social Studies
instruction in Nsulika Education Zone?
To what extent are instructional materials used in Social Studies instruction?
What different methods are used in Social Studies lessons?

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DescriptionABSTRACT This research work was aimed at identifying the extent of the use of instructional materials in teaching Social Studies in Nsukka Educational Zone. This work was necessary because the success of any classroom teaching depends more on the extent of the use of teacher resources than verbalization. Three research questions were posited to guide the researcher in the study. These questions are: (1) What instructional media are available for Social Studies Instruction in Nsukka Education Zone? (2) To what extent are instructional materials used in Social Studies Instruction? (3) To what extent are different methods used in Social Studies lesson? Twenty-nine schools were sampled for this study. Instruments for data collection were questionnaire distribution schedule and checklist designed to elicit information from teachers. The data collected were analyzed based on mean scores and percentages. The information collected indicated that most of the resource materials are not available in schools, while some were available in some schools. The available materials were not adequately used. Based on these findings, recommendations were made which include that, teachers should be resourceful and use available teaching materials to make their lessons interesting thereby providing some motivation to the learners. Government should provide some money to schools to purchase the resources that the teachers cannot improvise. The researcher believes that if these recommendations are followed strictly, there would be much improvement in the teaching and learning of Social Studies in Nsukka Education ZoneCHAPTER ONE 1.0 Background to the Study Breast milk according to Olusegun (2006) has been described as the best natural food and drink created by God for newborn babies. According to him, newborn babies do not need any form of other food or drink, not even water or fruit juice because the breast milk contains enough water and fruit juice for the body. In this regard, UNICEF (2000) recommends that no additional food or fluid is necessary, as it could be a means of introducing harmful bacteria into a newborn baby?s system. However, breastfeeding is all about feeding an infant or newborn baby with breast milk directly from human breast rather than from a baby bottle or other container. This can be exclusive or inexclusive. According to UNICEF (1990), when breastfeeding is exclusive, breast milk alone is given to babies for the first six months of life and the introduction of complementary foods thereafter vice versa. Exclusive breastfeeding practice by nursing mothers has been noted to have a lot of influence on the physical appearance, growth and development of infants (WHO/UNICEF, 2007). However, it is quite unfortunate that a reasonable number of nursing mothers are not aware of this paramount importance of exclusive breastfeeding practice. Some of them that are aware of it do not practice it due to factors ranging from socio-economic to environmental. Relatively, the WHO/UNICEF?s study in 2007 showed that exclusive breastfeeding of babies during the first six months of life was significant in cushioning the rate of child mortality by an estimated 20% in different parts of Africa. The study also revealed that 1.3 million additional children?s lives could be saved every year if exclusive breastfeeding rate could be raised above 90% level. In addition, Wilson (1998) pointed out that initiation of exclusive breastfeeding in the first hour of life reduces the rate of neonatal mortality by nearly four times. Besides, infants and children under five years of age have been noted to be the most vulnerable to malnutrition and preventable diseases. In this part of the world, especially in Nigeria as noted by Olusegun (2006), mortality rate has remained high as a result of poor exclusive breast feeding practice. In 1990, it was reported that the recorded deaths of more than one million infants which were mostly caused by feeding those infants with breast milk substitutes could have been prevented via exclusive breastfeeding practice (UNICEF, 1995). Hence, exclusive breastfeeding according to UNICEF (1994) provides complete hygienic nutrition for newborn babies. Nevertheless, Gilhan et al (2001) and Arenz et al (2004) further revealed that there is a link between breastfeeding and non-communicable disease. Also, Pettit et al (1997) and Young (2002) further revealed in their study that the prevention of chronic diseases in later life could be guaranteed through exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life. It is against the above numerous importance of exclusive breastfeeding and its diverse impact on the life of newborn babies that inspired the carrying out of this study to examine the extent to which exclusive breastfeeding could influence the physical appearance of three to six months old babies. 1.1 Statement of Problem The entire business of this study bothers on determining the extent to which exclusive breastfeeding practice could affect the physical appearance of three to six months babies. This is predicated on the findings of Olusegun (2006) and Wilson (1998) which respectively revealed a positive influence of exclusive breastfeeding practice on the physical appearance of newborn babies. However, this study attempts to authenticate the truism of the above findings. 1.2 Purpose of the study The aim of this study includes: 1. To examine the effect of exclusive breastfeeding practice on the health of babies between the ages of three to six months. 2. To assess the effect of exclusive breastfeeding practice on the size of babies between the ages of three to six months. 3. To determine the extent to which exclusive breastfeeding practice could affect the physical development of babies between the ages of three to six months. 1.3 Research Questions The following research questions were raised to guide the study. 1. Does exclusive breastfeeding practice affect the health of babies between the ages of three to six months? 2. Is the size of babies between the ages of three to six months affected by exclusive breastfeeding practice? 3. To what extent is the physical development of babies between the ages of three to six months affected by exclusive breastfeeding practice? 1.4 Research Hypothes The following hypotheses were posited for testing during the study. 1. The health of babies between the ages of three to six months is significantly affected by exclusive breastfeeding practice. 2. The size of babies between the ages of three to six months is significantly affected by exclusive breastfeeding practice. 3. The physical development of babies between the ages of three to six months is significantly affected by exclusive breastfeeding practice. 1.5 Significance of the Study The study of exclusive breastfeeding practice and its effect on the physical appearance of three to six months babies would be of immense significance to mothers, students, home economics teachers, health practitioners and even the government. It would serve as a guide to the government and other health agencies in the formulation of health policies that would benefit the infants in terms of reducing infant mortality rate as well as diseases associated with babies in their early childhood life. It would also serve as a great reference material to nursing mothers and students carrying out research on the same or similar topic in the department of home economics of the University of Lagos. It would as well be helpful to health practitioners in counselling their female clients on matters patterning to the essence and paramount importance of exclusive breastfeeding practice. 1.6 Scope of the study The study was focused on exclusive breastfeeding practice and its effect on the physical appearance of newborn babies. It covered only three to six months babies and was limited to some selected families in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State. The variables studied include the physical health, size/weight and development of the newborn babies involved in the study. 1.7 Definition of terms Breast: This is a part of a woman?s body that produces milk. It can also be referred to as the upper front part of the human body called the chest. Breastfeeding: This can be defined as the feeding of a young child or infant with breast milk directly from human breast rather than a baby bottle or other containers. Exclusive breastfeeding: This refers to the feeding of an infant with breast milk alone for the first six months of life without any other food or drink complement. Lactation: This is the production, secretion and ejection of milk by a woman to babies. Probit: This simply means the promotion of breastfeeding intervention trial. Wet nurse: This is a woman hired to feed another woman?s baby with her own breast milk. Infant mortality: This is the death of infants at an early stage of their lives or shortly after birth. Bonding: This is the process of establishing a solid affection or relationship between the baby and the mother through breastfeedingAbstract This study determines the influence of Economics teachers effectiveness and academic performance of senior secondary school student in Owerri Municipal Council. The researcher focused on how the teacher?s effectiveness helps in the academic performance. And why the researcher carried out this research was because many opinions were made from the population and many agreed to each questions been given and few disagreed like in research question 180 percent of the 222 questionnaire agreed on how the effectiveness of the teacher affects the academic performance of the students while 40 percent disagreed. This research has three research questions and different questions were asked, sources were gotten from the Owerri Municipal students which consist of 222 population of students. The data collected were analyzed using weighted mean method and presented in the tables or tabular forms. In my findings, I found out some problems that face the academic of the students which include: lack of interest, poor socio-economic background and illiteracy. In all government should make provisions for their educational stability. Moreover the researchers found out that the government has policies that is guiding the teaching and learning is area. The researchers also made some recommendation. The researchers also made some recommendation which if implemented will help the future upcoming teachers and student.CHAPTER ONE Background to the study The relevance of profession to an individual or his success in it is not determined by the preponderance of same sexed people with the individual in that profession. Gender stereotyping is a conformist behaviour which hardly makes for a divergent expression of one personal quality or the uniqueness of an individual. This validates the reasoning that no profession should be held as conventional for any human gender. Gender according to the United Nations definition as adopted by the Fourth World Conference on Women (1996) in Beijing China is ?Man and Woman?. But to Bassow (1991), gender is seen as a psychological term describing behaviours and attributes expected of individuals on the basis of being born either male or female. It is on this note that Azikiwe, (1993) illuminates that gender differences are obvious from birth and children are socialized very early into appropriate sex-typed occupation. This assertion tries to identify gender as one of the significant determinants of choice of vocations among people. Emeyonu (1994) articulates this point in his words stating that girls were not supposed to go into Engineering, Law, or Medicine; but should go into professions like teaching and nursing. He went further to assert that: ?A female student applying to study mechanical engineering is look down upon as an oddity and an exception to the rule and perhaps should have her head examined. Girls were supposed to do Arts, Education and Home Economics. Unfortunately, most young Nigerian girls aspiring for higher studies have come to believe this myth and have approached their choice of careers with difference and timidity? (p 125) Besides, culture and tradition working through the family setting have assigned occupations to males and females in the society; thus each sex is straight-jacketed in areas considered exclusive for it according to family traditional belief or background. In the Nigeria pre-colonial traditional setting before the advent of Western Education, Traditional Education was highly characterized by domestication of girls and trade learning for boys; hence, education of children was polarized between sexes according to their future roles in the society. Fafunwa (1974) who captured this trend in his work notes that boys received rigorous training on the farm under the instruction of their father and latter sent to learn one trade or the other under the apprenticeship system; while girls underwent training at home in child care, food preparation and so on under strict supervision of their mothers. Today, Western Education is seen to have taken over from Traditional Education, yet, may be as carry over effects of the Traditional Education impartation, a strict dichotomy still exists in the kind of vocations pursued by boys and girls in a family. The family background of a person/apprentice has always been a determining factor in the person?s choice of vocation. Parents at all times want to channel the future of their children and as such go as far as deciding on their children?s choice of careers and vocations without the slightest consideration of whether their children had any flare in the vocations chosen for them. Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) is an integral part of the general education process. (UNESCO 2001) this socio-economic factor has been subject of various definitions depending on the needs of the nations at that point in time, or the perception of the interested individual. However, the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has advanced a definition which may be considered as universal and adaptable to the various level of the socioeconomic development of the nations. This definition attempts to liberalize TVE and compensate for the apathy that is usually demonstrated towards its development at some early stages until the needs inevitably arouse. (Kantor, 1986, UNESCO & ILO 2002, FRN 2004) The UNESCO definition, which has also been adopted by Nigeria stated thus: "Technical and Vocational Education is used as a comprehensive term referring to those aspects of educational processes involving in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences and acquisition of practical skills, attitudes understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life " (UNESCO & ILO 2002, FRN 2004). The inherent characteristics of TVE that made it amenable to entrepreneurship included it being means of preparing for occupational fields and for effective participation in the world of work; an aspect of lifelong learning and a preparation for responsible citizenship; an instrument for producing environmentally sound sustainable development; and a method of facilitating poverty alleviation (UNESCO/ILO 2002 FRN 2004). According to Daniel and Hut tin (2002), quality Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET), help develop the individual's knowledge of science and technology in a broad occupational area requiring technical and professional competencies and specific occupational skills. This virtue?s essential for the development of entrepreneurship. TVE represents the productive aspect of the educational process in of that it is directly linked with the world of work, TVE is an investment not a cost, with significant returns, including the well being of workers; enhanced productivity and internal competitiveness (UNESCO 2000) The accumulation of these benefits constitutes a profit to the investment and as such compensation for the risk-taking tendencies of an entrepreneur. The current emphasis on vocational education started in the primary Education section in 1976 with the implementation of the Universal Primary Education (UPE) scheme, which the Federal government of Nigeria was the sole financier. Secondary schools embraced the vocational/technical emphasis in 1982/83 school year when the first batch of the UPE was ready for secondary education. Vocational/technical education was made so popular that children from well-to-do families sought and gained admission in vocational/technical schools, which before then was seen to be demeaning for children from higher socio-economic backgrounds in Nigeria. That was when the 6-3-3-4 education structure started. Nigeria is a developing nation characterized by a slow rate of industrial growth, which does not match her population growth rate. Since the mid 1970s emphasis has been placed on vocational education as a strategy for combating unemployment of youths. Vocational education was envisaged as the type that school leavers could employ themselves and others if they become entrepreneurs. This prospect is made for vocational school leavers irrespective of sex. Besides, Nigeria as a developing nation is characterized by a slow industrial growth rate which lays emphasis on right choices of vocations towards entrepreneurial skill development as a strategy for combating unemployment of youths. Entrepreneurial vocations are therefore envisaged as the type of courses needed by school leavers to be self-employed and employers of others as they become entrepreneurs. Besides, we are in globalization era which widens opportunities for employment and entrepreneurship; and if youths are highly proficient in the requisite skills, they can become employers or gain employment not only in their areas of specialization in the country but even outside the national borders. Statement of Problem This study attempts to examine gender and family background as determinants of choice of vocations among apprentices in vocational centres in Lagos. This is predicated on the findings of Akpan (2006); Etuk (2002) and Chimuaza & Obanaya (1989) which reveal that gender and family related factors are significant determinants of choice of careers among youths. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which the choice of vocations among apprentices in vocational centres in Lagos is influenced by gender and family background. Based on the above main objective, this study would examine the extent to which choice of vocations among apprentices is influenced by the following: ? Gender of the apprentice, ? Educational background of the family, ? Financial status of the family, ? Religious background of the family, and ? Cultural background of the family. Research Questions The following questions are raised to guide the study in attaining the above objectives. (i) Is gender a determinant of choice of vocation among apprentices? (ii) Does educational background of the family determine the choice of vocation among apprentices? (iii) Is financial status of the family a determinant of choice of vocation among apprentices? (iv) Does the family religious belief affect the choice of vocations among apprentices? (v) Is cultural background of the family a determinant of choice of vocations among apprentices? Research Hypothesis The following hypotheses were posited for the study. (i) Choice of vocation among apprentices is not significantly determined by their gender. (ii) Choice of vocation among apprentices is not significantly determined by the educational background of their family. (iii) Choice of vocation among apprentices is not significantly determined by the financial status of their family. (iv) Choice of vocation among apprentices is not significantly determined by the religious belief of their family. (v) Choice of vocation among apprentices is not significantly determined by the cultural background of their family. Significance of the Study This study is a contribution to knowledge for its painstaking elaborate effort to articulate the extent to which choice of vocations among apprentices in Lagos is susceptible to their gender differentials and family related factors. The study will also serve the purpose of a reference document in the department of Adult Education, University of Lagos for researchers and students carrying out research on the same or similar topic. The findings of this study will be useful to gender analysts as well as to counsellor trainers and psychologists. It will also be useful to instructors at the vocational centres as well as to parents and students. Scope of the Study This study is limited to examine the extent to which choice of vocations among apprentices in Lagos is determined by gender and family related factors. The study covered only the vocational centres in the Akoka area of Lagos State; but was limited to involve only Federal College of Education (Tech), Akoka, Lagos. Besides, out of the entire apprentices of the above centre, only hundred and twenty (120) of them were involved in the study.ABSTRACT Instructional materials enhance the teaching/learning process by exhibiting information necessary to acquire knowledge and skills. The acquisition of basic vocational knowledge, skills and attitudes to facilitate occupational efficiency requires skill oriented teaching and learning activities. Over the years, the poor performance of students in public examinations has been blamed on the wrong choice of teaching methods by teachers. Teaching and learning activities have a lot to do with other variables, such as instructional materials, school environment variables, students? factors and so on. In this study, instructional material utilization is the main focus in order to determine their effects on the performance of the students. Instructional materials are the devices developed or acquired to assist or facilitate teachers in transmitting, organized knowledge skills and attitudes to the learners within an instructional situation. Teachers use different instructional materials to motivate learning. The success in the skill and knowledge acquisition in an instructional situation depends on the suitability of the instructional material, adequacy and effective utilization of the available materials. Also, the relevance of instructional materials to the objective of the lesson and the ease of use of the instructional materials are serious considerations in instructional materials utilization to better the learner?s performance. The role of instructional materials in the teaching/learning process cannot be overemphasized. They facilitate and encourage self-study or independent study in students. The finding of this study has shown that inadequate use or lack of use of instructional materials in the teaching/learning situation (lecture method) negates the objective of teaching. Teachers who do not make use of instructional materials hide in the cover of none supply of the teaching resources. Therefore, as a matter of policy implementation, the governments at all levels should supply regularly standardized instructional materials, some useful hard and soft ware?s for use in schools. The vocational, technology and science teachers should be trained retrained and exposed regularly to make them to be up to date in the effective selection and utilization of instructional materials for effective teaching.
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ContentCHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background of the Study There is no single universal definition of Social Studies because the subject is defined according to the need of each society, which adopts it as a programme of study in schools and colleges. However, the Committee on Primary School Social Studies programme in Nigeria defines Social Studies as those common learning of man?s interaction with his social and physical environment, adding that it is not only a study, but a way of life, of how man influences, and is influenced by his physical, social, political, economic, psychological and cultural environment (Aina, Adeyoyin, Obilo. and Ahmadu, 1982) Similarly Olaniyan (1998) emphasized that Social Studies is a programme which a society uses to instill in students the knowledge, skills, attitudes and actions it considers important concerning the relationship which human beings have with each other, their world and themselves. Bearing in mind the concept of Social Studies as an integrated discipline, the objectives are clearly stated in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004). The primary concerns of the subject are encouragement of the awareness of the world in the child, inculcation and development of appropriate knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and social activities concerning relationships in people; to enable them find solutions to social problems in their surroundings and to develop positive attitudes towards our fellow men in society. Social science as the teaching and learning of individual subjects such as History, Geography, Government, etc. has finally given way to the conception in Social Studies as an integrated subject This came about in fact with the adoption in 1975 of the Integrated Social Studies Syllabuses developed by the National Educational Research Council fortheprimary schools and Teacher Training Colleges throughout the country at the on-set of the Federal Government University Free Primary Education (UPE). Similarly, the Integrated Social Studies Syllabus currently being used in the lower forms of secondary schools in the country as well as the one for the 3-3 Secondary School system of the New Education Policy was prepared by the Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre (CESAC), University of Lagos (Ogunsanya, 1984). Social Studies is a subject which deals principally with how human beings interact with one another and with the environment. The Committee on Social Studies singled it out as one major area of study through which national objectives on education in Nigeria can be achieved. Specifically, the Committee spelled out the underlisted objectives for teaching Social Studies in the primary and secondary school levels of the Nigerian education system: 1. To encourage the development of social responsibility towards other children, adult and the world. 2. To encourage the development of values, attitudes, skills and understanding necessary to live and function in society. 3. To create an awareness and an understanding of the evolving social and physical environment as a whole, its natural, man-made, cultural and spiritual resources together with national use and conservation of these resources for development 4. To ensure the acquisition of that relevant knowledge which is an essential prerequisite for personal development, as well as a positive personal contribution to the betterment of mankind. 5. To develop in children a positive attitude to citizenship and a desire to make a personal positive contribution to the creation of a progressive and united Nigeria. 6. To develop in the children the ability to think critically and reflectively and come to an independent conclusion. 7. To promise an understanding of the social problems facing the Nigerian society and a desire to find solutions to them (Ogunsanya, 1984; Obeta, 1996; and Enem, 2002). The objectives of Social Studies Education in Nigeria, as stated above, show that the subj ect was introduced into the school curriculum to, among other things, get rid of certain social vices plaguing the Nigerian society. Such vices include tribalism, ethnicity, nepotism, political instability, mass poverty, immorality, drug abuse, disrespect for elders and so on. Social Studies also meet the needs of the society in the areas of social and intellectual skills as well as attitudes and values. The subject is also concerned with acquiring the desirable information in order to be able to achieve meaningful development in all sectors of the economy (Ogunsanya, 1984). The summary of our discussion clearly indicates that Social Studies education is central to nation building. Our leaders and policy-makers need to acquire desirable social and intellectual skills, as well as positive attitudes and values that will enable them to make positive contributions to the process of nation building. They need to appreciate the economic and socio-political diversities of Nigeria, and the need for unity, tolerance and inter-dependence among the various component units of Nigeria. To achieve the above objectives, the subject must be properly taught in our schools. One major characteristic of good teaching of Social Studies is the ability to inculcate in students a spirit of curiosity and self-instruction (Enem, 2002). A great deal has been discovered about what attracts the interest of children, holds their attention and fosters that natural curiosity. Enem (2002) opined that nothing attracts learners? attention faster than the use of relevant resource materials. For example, bright, contrasting colours seem to stimulate them as well as seize their attention. Similarly, interesting shapes and objects are also very important, especially at the lower levels of our education system. The use of adequate and relevant resource materials has numerous advantages. For example, it facilitates teaching and learning, and makes learning faster and more permanent. Teachers do not need to expend a great deal of energy or time in giving out much information or much guidance. Rather, he guides the pupils to find out or discover things on their own. For instance, if a picture of a boy eating a banana is shown to the class and the caption of the picture is: ?This boy is eating his banana?, the teacher could ask his class ?Where do you think the banana came from??. A question such as this forces the pupils to look at the picture critically and study it for contextual clues. Where is the boy standing? (Market, Farm or School?) What has he been doing? What are the commonest ways through which boys obtain banana? In Social Studies, resource materials encourage the pupils to think critically and reflectively about their lives and their surroundings. This helps to build up the students? self esteem and confidence. In addition, resource materials arouse the students? interest on the subject. We all know that interest motivates learning. Social Studies teachers should make effective utilization of instructional materials in teaching because, they make teaching more meaningful, interesting and more permanent. The extent teachers make use of instructional materials in the teaching of Social Studies is not known. Therefore, the need arises for a determination of the extent teachers use instructional materials in teaching Social Studies at the Junior Secondary Schools (JSS). Statement of the Problem Experience shows that many teachers of Social Studies have been teaching for years without using teaching resources and without encouragement by the government. Abdullahi (1982) pointed to poor method of teaching as one of the major factors that cause the poor performance of students in science subjects. Obi (1992) asserted that teachers have resorted to verbalizing their lessons relying heavily on the use of chalkboard, otherwise called ?talk chalk? method of teaching. Those views are in agreement with Mayer?s (1988) that teaching in the African context continues to be dominated by talk and chalk method. This poor method of teaching could be one of the reasons of underachievement of students in Social Studies. There have been many researches directed at evaluating the extent of the use of instructional media in teaching Social Studies. For instance, researchers like Onyekwelu (1995), investigated Availability and Use of Media in Teaching History in Secondary Schools in Anam bra State. Angwe and Idogbe (2004) investigated the Availability and Use of Biology Lab Equipment in the Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools in Vandeiky a L.G. A. of Benue State. Onuoha (1999) investigated on Students? Perception of Television Religious Programmes in Imo State. Eze and Iloh (1999) researched on Resources Used in Teaching Christian Religious Knowledge in the Junior Secondary School at Nsukka Urban. Agu Emeka (1995) investigated the Status of Media in teaching and learning of Economics in Enugu- North L.G.A. Ukachukwu (1998) researched on Effect of Overlay Technique on Secondary School Students? Achievement in Biology. Using good diagrams, Winn (1982) Projected and Non-projected media; Nwizu (1992), Multimedia Approach; Obi (1992), Different Modes of Picture Presentation (Ofoegbu, 1992). The problem of the study therefore, is the extent of the use of instructional materials in the teaching of Social Studies in Nsukka Education Zone. Purpose of the Study The major purpose of the study is to determine the availability and the extent of use of instructional materials in teaching Social Studies in JSS in Nsukka Education Zone. In order to achieve this major purpose, certain specific investigations will be undertaken. These include: 1. To determine the type of instructional materials available for use in schools in Nsukka Education Zone in teaching Social Studies. 2. To establish the extent of use of the available instructional materials for Social Studies lessons. 3. To identity methods used in teaching Social Studies in the schools. Significance of the Study The findings of this study will be beneficial to the Social Studies teachers in Nsukka Education Zone. It will provide information on the available media which they can use. It will also be beneficial to the curriculum planners. It will help curriculum planners to determin e the type of instructional materials available for use, establish the extent of use and identify methods used in teaching Social Studies in the schools. This is with a view to determining instructional materials to be included in the curriculum of the JSS Social Studies and that of the Teacher Training Colleges. It may provide the justification for emphasizing the teaching of improvisation to trainee teachers in the Colleges. The results of the study will provide information on the available modes for Social Studies instruction. This will be very useful to ministries of education and policy makers by providing them with data on the materials that needed to be acquired for effective Social Studies instruction. The extent of use of these materials will enable the Post Primary School Board to organize workshops, conferences and seminar on the production and use of instructional materials to facilitate the learning of Social Studies. The results of the study will provide information that may be useful for research in this area. Scope of the Study The study is limited to the availability and use of instructional materials in teaching Social Studies in JSS in Nsukka Education Zone. It also includes a determination of the teaching methods teachers adopt in Social Studies instruction. Research Questions The following research questions have been formulated to guide the study: 1. What instructional materials are available in schools for Social Studies instruction in Nsulika Education Zone? To what extent are instructional materials used in Social Studies instruction? What different methods are used in Social Studies lessons?CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Study The issues of poor academic performance of student in Nigeria have been of much concern to all sundry. The problem is so much that it has led to the widely acclaimed fallen standard of education. Education has been described as the key that unlock the door to modernization. Observation has shown that the story is different at the national level. Over time students academic performance in both external and internal examinations has been used to determine excellence in teachers and teaching (Taya, 2001). Teachers have been shown to have an important influence on students? academic achievement and they also play a crucial role in educational attainment because the teacher is ultimately responsible for translating policy into actions and principles based on practice during interaction with the student. (Eze E.N. 2011). Both teaching and learning depends on teachers. No wonder an effective teacher has been conceptualized as one who produces desired results in the course of his duty as a teacher. Nigeria secondary schools lack dedicated and qualified economic teachers, especially since 1989 when secondary school student population started to increase astronomically in many states of the federation. It should be noted that no educational system could rise above the effectiveness of its teacher and for any society to change the citizens must be dedicated. This is so because education helps one to acquire knowledge and skill, which enables him to understand his problem and look for way of solving these problems. It is an ironic coincidence that while developed countries would love and cherish economics in their schools, the Nigerians in the secondary and tertiary institution are scared of the subject economics because of mathematics and statistics aspect of it. This hatred has also led to the poor performance in senior certificate examination. The Ashby commission set out in 1959 observed that a well qualified teaching staff is the first important step to be considered in an attempt to train skilled manpower. The commission asserted that one out of every two teachers in secondary schools should be a graduate. The commission also recommended the introduction of Bachelor of Arts degree in Education B.A (Education) in all Nigerian Universities. It is a universal agreement that teachers are the main determinant of the quality of education one receives. The kind of teachers trained and posted to our secondary schools may well determine what the future generation will be. Economics is as old as human race, the early agricultural, manufacturing, weaving, trading, industrial and mercantile activities brought the civilization which started in Egypt, Greece and Rome. One group acquiring culture and knowledge from the other, whenever and wherever people have this type of relationship, there exist the need for transaction. So economics is indeed not a new subject though it is still difficult to say the exact data, economic events were translated into significant manner in monetary terms to create room for informed judgment, therefore the need for practicing economics. (Udo, 1995) views the study of economic as a pursuit toward understanding those fundamental concepts and issues which economics as a subject aspire to find solution to such as wants, scarcity, choice, scale of preference and opportunity cost etc. which are of great importance to man?s existence hence, proper analysis and documentation of their functional rehire is of paramount importance. It is not correct to assume that economic data need to be kept only by profit making organizations. They are equally important in non-profit making organization such as social clubs and motherless babies home etc. As of the increase in business activities, demands for economics and data in the labour market rises above the supply of relevant economic data. This is as a result of poor performance in economics in senior school certificate examination which is due to inadequate qualified teachers. 1.2 Statement of Problem In recent times, more attention has been given to the performance of students on economics in the senior secondary schools. The performance has been poor; this is being attributed to the unqualified teachers that teach economics, lack of instructional material, poor method of teaching, attitude of learners and teachers towards teaching and learning. Furthermore, due to these poor performance of students enrollment on economics at senior secondary school examination has been low, which in turn affected the number of students that would study pure economics in higher institution. Amafula E.U. (2001), views the problem as mainly due to inadequate teachers? preparations. 1.3 Purpose of Study The purpose of this research therefore is to determine the influence of the level of effectiveness of teacher on the students academic performance in economics also in some other subject in our secondary school. 1. To investigate how the qualification of economics teachers in senior secondary schools affect the performance of the students. 2. To ascertain how the teachers method in teaching economics affect the student in senior secondary schools. 3. To find out how the motivation of the teacher affect the academic performance of the students in senior secondary school. 1.4 Delimitation of Study The study would be limited to testing the impact of teacher?s effectiveness on student performance in economics and some other subject in senior secondary certificate examination in the government owned senior secondary school in Owerri Municipal Council of Imo State. 1.5 Significance of Study The project would be of immense benefit to the government because it will be a working document for policy formulation in relation to the training of teachers. It will contribute to the existing literature on students performance and teachers qualification; hence it will be important to both teachers and student. It would go a long way in helping curriculum planners make some adjustments in some of the topics in the syllabus. It should be of great important to economics teachers to implements the curriculum and seek for further improvements on the subject through in service training such as attending seminars and work shops, which will help in improving their method of teaching. In this part of country, there has been a great increase in the number that enroll knowledge of economics in order to run his business affairs then the question is how effective is the teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools to make the understanding of economics a reality for the average student? This study would also find out whether the reason for increasing economics in the curriculum is being achieved. This is because economics is aimed at providing vocational skills that will be necessary for industrial and economic development in Nigeria as a whole. 1.6 Research Question The following research questions are formulated as a guide to the study:- 1. To what extent does the qualification of economic teachers in senior secondary school affect the performance of the student? 2. To what extent does the teachers method in teaching economics affect the student academic performance? How often does the teacher motivation affect the academic performance of the student?CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM IN EACH BACKGROUND Introduction Lack of classroom materials is one of the problems that our public school has. Because of these problems, teachers are spending their own money in buying materials that will sustain the productivity of the classroom. Lack of classroom materials has a big impact in the process of Teaching and Learning. Through this problem teaching learning process will not become productive and conducive. Classrooms lack basic materials that the teacher need. Many classroom lacks of enough books, art supplies and technology to provide same instruction offered at schools with greater resources. Lack of books translates into an inability for students to take books for homework. Lack of classroom materials is a negative cycle. Without materials, the work doesn?t get done, and without the work there is little incentive to buy into school at all supplies don?t get purchased. ?Everything sends a message. When school doesn?t have supplies, the message is that the students are not important people doing important work. Our students already have doubts about their importance and the value of school. The children without pencil learn to pretend that they don?t care about being prepared, but it is clearly a source of stress. When you?ve lost your last pencil, it?s hard not to feel like a loser. Conversely, having a pencil to lend is a social plus. I have purchased countless supplies for mystudent over the years. Receiving these things from a teacher feels special to students. It?s a practical and tangible expression of care and affection?. Said by Lynn Yellen. It means that these problem calls an attention to our government. We must be a resourceful teacher to find out alternate solution. In this case we are the one who provides the materials that are not available to maintain a learning environment of the classroom. Elementary teachers spend more of their own money on materials and resources than middle and high school teacher. This is because they do more hands on activities that involve the construction paper, paint, glue, and much more. Teachers already aren?t the most paid workers, but they spend the most money out of their pocket. This is true dedication. They see the need that these students need. Teachers are taking away from their selves and their family to pay for your students. They are provided the supplies that your children need and the parents aren?t picking up the slack. When the economy is in a recession like it is now, the schools systems are lacking more and more. Teachers today are buying supplies for their student in order for their student to get the best education that they believe that their students deserve. This research will be an avenue for the reader to know the lack of school supplies in the school. The students? personal school supplies and the teachers? access to supplies are both included in this research. I want to discuss how by not having certain school supplies the students are not receiving the best possible education that they could be. I choose this topic as my main focus for my research because I am studying to be a teacher and to know the effects of it happening. This topic is very dear to me and I see the effects on the students. I hope to influence all who read my research to think about helping the school system and how one supply in the school could change the learning experience for a student. I suggest in this problem is to have a Teacher Mini Grants Program. In this program or charitable it gives a funds for them to buy the needed classroom materials. In a practical way our government should focus on this issue and to find solution in this problem. So we can be able to have a quality education. Statement of the Problem The General Problem of this study; How does lack of school supplies affect Teaching LearningProcess? Specifically the study will seek to answer the following question; 1. What are the condition of pupils in Kaypian Elementary School in facing lack of school supplies in terms of; 1.1 Books 1.2 Chairs 1.3 Visual aids 1.4 First aid kit 1.5 Technology 2. What is the level of the mode of manifestation of lack of school supplies as to; 2.1 Examination 2.2Performance 2.3 Interest 2.4 Otheroutputs 3. Is there a significant effect between lack of school supplies and the process of teaching and learning? Significance of the study The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of lack of school supplies in teaching learning process. The following will be benefited the study like students, parents, administrators, teacher and future researcher. Students are the most important person in teaching. Without students teaching learning process will not take place. Students are the one who receives information and knowledge on their teacher. But if the school is facing lack of school supplies, then education will not become market place of idea. Even we lack school supplies if the students are not listening to their teacher, then they cannot be able to learn. That?s why the teacher tells to his/her students to pass different materials like cartolina, Manila paper, colored paper etc. Through this strategy, lack of school supplies is being sustained with the help of his/her students. The students should know the importance of education. Even we encounter different problem in school like lack of school supplies. The students should have a right values and work, so they can gather lots of information. Parents are the one who provide the needs of her children. In school parents are monitoring the growth and development of their child. The parents can help the school by donating different instructional materials. In this way they are showing their support. The parents should know these problems. In a sense that they are aware that lacking of school supplies is the most problem that the school have. Through this way there are not just aware on their child?s performance but rather the school condition. It is important that they know this, so at least they can help the school in a simple way. These small things are a big help for the improvement of the school. The involvement of the parents to the teacher up to the school is an important matter that they should know. Administrators are the one who administer the school. The role of administrators is to know, the problems that the teacher encounter. Administrators are the one who make solution on a particular problem. A good administrator will lead to a good school. Even though we have good administrator, lack of school supplies is the hardest problem to solve. We know that we also lack funds to buy the needed materials in teaching. If the administrator will call help to other person, then this problem will be possible to solve. In this thing, the administrators are doing something to sustain the needs of the school. Administrators are the one who maintain the productivity of the school. That?s why they arecalledadministrators, because they are the one who leads the improvement of education in their school. Teachers are a key factor in teaching. Without teacher the learners will not gain and gather information. In this problem the teacher is the most affected person. If the teacher is a resourceful person, then this problem will be solved. It is important that we us a teacher must make an alternate solution or ways on how to sustain our needs in teaching. Through this ways teaching learning process will become productive and conducive. The teacher is the one who buy materials that are not available in school. Teachers are spending their own money not just for the materials, but also the things of her pupils. Through this way the teacher are showing love and care to his/her students and to the profession that he/she have now. We know that classroom supplies are the important material in teaching. Without these materialslearning cannot take place. Future researcher is the one who gather and know the problems that he/she seen in a public school. The future researcher can use this study to become his/her guide in conducting research work. It is important that this study will know the future teachers, so they can easily embrace and accept teaching as their profession. Scope and Limitation The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of lack of school supplies in teaching learning process.The condition of pupils in Kaypian Elementary School in facing lack of school supplies in terms of books, chairs, visual aids, first aid kit and technology.The level of the mode of manifestation of lack of school supplies as to examination, performance, interest and other outputs. The respondent of the study is the grade five (V) of Kaypian Elementary School. The study will be conducted for five months (5) from November to MarchThe Aspire 5 is a compact laptop in a thin case with a metal cover, a high-quality Full HD IPS display and a rich set of interfaces. Thanks to its powerful components, the laptop can handle resource-intensive tasks perfectly and is also suitable for most games. Key Features:
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