IMPACT OF INSECURITY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN BAUCHI STATE
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Nigeria is bestowed with a richness of diverse human, cultural and natural assets which are an immense resource to the nations development of tourism. Although, in spite the development of global tourism and its significance in developing nations, in Nigeria the industry of tourism has not developed substantially. Stability and peace are significant essentials to tourism development. The political uncertainty, ethnic/religious conflicts, and crime in Nigeria have been a significant obstacle to the development of tourism. Tourism, if relied on the rules and better practices polished through ecotourism, might be an influential technique that would decrease the nations reliance on oil. This form of environmentally and socially accountable tourism could also decreased political volatility by supporting in the generation of wealth, cover the cultural gaps, nurture peace among various religious and ethnic groups and foster rural areas. However, kidnappings, corruption, and killings appear to be the economic as well as political trinity harming Nigeria. The existing situation of bombings and insecurity particularly in the Northern region of the country has presented severe challenges to the stability and peace of Nigeria. The country has not merely suffered massive loss in properties, infrastructure and precious human lives; it has also faced economic disruption which directs to the disposition of foreign direct investment. Therefore, this dissertation will highlight the impact of security on the tourism development of Nigeria and the ways it can benefit the country in fostering its current state of instability.
Tourism in recent times has developed significantly to become one of the most rapidly growing industries in the world. According to the World Tourism Organisation WTO, 2002 global economy is presently driven by three major industries: technology, telecommunication and tourism. It is a fact, however, that irrespective of how naturally endowed a location can be, or well developed the physical infrastructures are, without peaceable environment such resources may never yield their full tourism potentials. There exists a noticeable symbiotic relationship between peaceful atmosphere and sustainable tourism development in a destination.
Conceptual Clarification Tourism is referred here as a service based industry which is made up of several elements including transportation, accommodation, food and beverage, tours and merchandising Essner , 2003. Terrorism represents the premeditated use or threat of use of extra normal violence or brutality by sub national groups to obtain a political, religious, or ideological objective through intimidation of a huge audience, usually not directly involved with the policy making that the terrorists seek to influence Enders, et al., 1992 . The United Nations referred to insecurity as a situation in which men and women could not have the right to live their lives and raise their children in dignity, free from hunger and the fear of violence, oppression or injustice United Nations, 2008.
HITORICAL BACKGROUN OF THE STATE
Bauchi State Home Of Peace amp; Hospitality
Located in the Northeastern part of Nigeria, Bauchi State has a vast fertile soil as an advantage for cattle rearing and other agricultural products such as guinea corn, rice, millet, groundnut and maize. The predominant tribes in the state are Hausa, Fulani, Jarawa, Tangale, Waja, Balewa, Sayawa and Tarewa. The state was formed in 1976 with its capital as the city of Bauchi when the former NorthEastern State was broken up.
With a population about 5 million according to the 2006 census, Bauchi state has gone through tremendous transformation since it was created. During the colonial era up to independence, it formed part of the BauchiPlateau of the then Northern Region, until the 1967 state creation exercise, when the Bauchi, Borno, and Adamawa provinces constituted the former NorthEastern State.
With the creation of Bauchi state in 1976, then comprising present Bauchi and Gombe states, it included 16 Local Government Areas. The number of Local Government Areas in the then Bauchi state was increased to 20 and later to 23. However, in 1997 when Gombe state was created out of Bauchi and additional local governments were created in the country, Bauchi state was left with 20 Local Government
Bauchi state is known for its arts and crafts which include beautiful embroidered caps and gowns known as babbanriga, fibre craft, and decorated calabashes. It is also very versatile in the production of metal works such as weaponry, agricultural tools, pottery, and leather works. The leather works include the production of sitting poufs, bags, footwaers, footballs.
Mat weaving is also a common craft in several Local Government Areas like Zaki, Ningi, Misau, etc. The outstanding festivals include Durbar whose main feature is horse racing. The durbar features the parade of horses from the Eidprayer ground to the palace of the traditional rulers where the horseracing and other display of horse manship takes place.
The people of Bauchi State are known for their traditional wrestling and boxing dexterity, which attracts participants even from neighbouring countries of Niger, Chad and Cameroon. The traditional wrestling is known as Kokowa while the traditional boxing is called Dambe.
Aside these festivals, the state also holds the Bauchi State Festival of Arts and Culture BAFEST. This annual event is held among Local governments. It includes a display of various traditions of the people of the state in the fields of traditional dances, music, arts, crafts, and fashion designs, as well as inventions and innovations.
Bauchi state has two distinctive vegetation zones, namely, the Sudan Savannah and the Sahel Savannah. Sudan savannah vegetation covers the southern part of Bauchi state where the vegetation gets richer and richer towards the south, especially along water sources or river.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main aim and objective in mind, is to evaluate the impact of insecurity in development of tourism in Bauchi State. Other objectives are listed below
To identify the impact of tourism to the society.
To highlight the security issues in bauchi toward development of tourism
Suggest possible ways by which insecurity can be addressed in Bauchi
To outline the impact of insecurity on the growth and progress of tourism industry
To offer recommendations on improving the microenvironment of Nigeria for a steady development of tourism industry.
SIGNIFICANE OF THE RESEARCH
The research is significant specially for the tourism industry of Bauchi and Nigeria at large. However, the research is equally important for the tourism industry of other countries that are at low security levels. Thus, the study is significant for researchers, tourists, Government, investors who can take advantage of this study.
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