IMPACT OF TOURISM AND MANAGEMENT ON SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Tourism is now one of the worlds largest industries and one of its fastest growing economic sectors. For many countries tourism is seen as a main instrument for regional development, as it stimulates new economic activities. Tourism may have a positive economic impact on the balance of payments, on employment, on gross income and production, but it may also have negative effects, particularly on the environment. Unplanned and uncontrolled tourism growth can result in such a deterioration of the environment that tourist growth can be compromised. The environment, being the major source of tourist product, should therefore be protected in order to have further growth of tourism and economic development in the future. This is specially true with regard to tourism based on the natural environment. Sustainable tourism has three interconnected aspects: environmental, sociocultural, and economic. Sustainability implies permanence, so sustainable tourism includes optimum use of resources, including biological diversity; minimization of ecological, cultural and social impacts; and maximization of benefits for conservation and local communities. It also refers to the management structures that are needed to achieve this.The research work provides a theoretical framework for sustainable tourism. The first part presents general views on tourism and sustainable economic development, and some opinions on the relationship between tourism and the environment. The second part concentrates on strategies and policy instruments. Also, this research work was supported based on the hypothesis tested and the method of research is a quantitative research method and testing tools is the SPSS data tool and analysis with chisquare using a 0.5 significance difference
In 1992 at the Rio Earth Summit, 178 governments approved Agenda 21 and the Rio Declaration. Agenda 21 offered a blueprint for sustainable development, while the Rio Declaration articulated the main principles for sustainable development in the 21st century. Both documents challenged organizations, governments and industries to work towards maximum levels of sustainability, a number of countries in Africa and the Pacific consider tourism to be an important vehicle for economic and social development. The tourism industry has the potential to generate foreign exchange earnings, create employment, promote development in various parts of the country, reduce income and employment disparities among regions, strengthen linkages among many sectors of the national economy and help to alleviate poverty. However, this standard view of the tourism industry does not give a complete picture of the potential contribution that tourism can provide for developing countries. A more complete viewpoint can be provided by the concept of sustainable tourism development, because it can help policymakers make more effective policies and plans designed to realize the full social and economic potential of the tourism industry. Sustainable tourism development is premised on the responsibility of governments and all stakeholders in the tourism sector to ensure that longterm prosperity and the quality of life of future generations is not placed at risk.
In order to sustain tourism, it is necessary for countries to address various issues arising from tourisms contribution to development in a comprehensive, systematic way. Issues of policymaking, planning, management and the participation of the private sector and other stakeholders must be addressed in terms of opportunities for action and possible constraints that need to be overcome by concerted efforts.
Tourism plays important role in economic development at any community, national, regional and global levels by using natural resources and environments as key physical inputs. In making use of the environment and natural resources, the negative impacts have to be minimized to assure sustainable use, as well as generate enough tourism revenue to reinvest a certain portion of funds. The reinvestment should aim at enhancing the quality of the resources and build the management capacity at various levels. There is a complex relationship between tourism and the environment, such that tourism has inevitable and important environmental impacts, including: resource use, consumption, waste, pollution and effects from tourismrelated transport. At the same time, beaches, mountains, rivers, forests and diverse flora and fauna make the environment a basic resource that the tourism industry needs in order to thrive and grow. While the viability of tourism could be threatened by negative environmental impacts, tourism could also contribute significantly to environmental protection.
1.1Background of the Study
Sustainable Development has become an accepted concept for policy development. International Agencies and Organizations like the World Tourism and Travel Council WWTC and the International Federation of Tour Operators IFTO have attempted to highlight tourism environment issues. In 1993, the World Tourism Organisation WTO published a Guide for sustainable development for local planners. UNEP, in collaboration with the International Hotels Environment Initiative has produced guidelines to improve the environmental performance of hotel units The Green Hotelier, Going Green Makes Sense, Environmental Management for Hotels. The Convention for Biodiversity and Agenda 21 support incentives towards sustainable tourism development.
The European Commission has published the Green Paper on the Role of the Union in the field of Tourism. During 1995 and 1996 it established ECONETT, a network for tourism and environment. Significant initiatives for sustainable tourism were also undertaken by the Council of Europe. Because of Treaty obligations, the EUs tourism sector cooperation with governments or private business needed to include a consideration of the environmental effects of each planned action. Within this context the private sector also undertook initiatives towards reducing impacts of tourism on the environment.
Hotels, airlines and others implemented several measures in order to promote sustainable consumption of natural resources and minimization of waste production.
Travel over long distances requires a large amount of time and/or energy. Generally this involves burning fossil fuels, a largely unsustainable practice and one that contributes to climate change, via CO2 emissions. Mass transport is the most climate friendly method of travel, and generally the rule is the bigger the better compared to cars, buses are relatively more sustainable, and trains and ships are even more so. Human energy and renewable energy are the most efficient, and hence, sustainable. Travel by bicycle, solar powered car, or sailing boat produces no carbon emissions although the embodied energy in these vehicles generally comes at the expense of carbon emission.
Tourism is a rapidly growing phenomenon and has become one of the largest industries in the world. The impact of tourism is extremely varied. On one hand, it plays an important and certainly positive role in the socioeconomic and political development in destination countries by, for instance, offering new employment opportunities. Also, in certain instances, it may contribute to a broader cultural understanding by creating awareness, respecting the diversity of cultures and ways of life. On the other hand, as a tool to create jobs, it has not fulfilled its expectations. At the same time, complaints from tourist destinations concerning massive negative impacts upon environment, culture and residents ways of life have given rise to a demand for a more sustainable development in tourism. Different parties will have to be involved in the process of developing sustainable tourismUNCSD NGO,1999.
Tourism development can have both positive and negative impacts on destinations. Sustainable tourism development attempts to find a balance between these impacts to create an improved quality of life for the host community and the destination. The World Commission on Economic Development WCED describes sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the abilityof future generations to meet their own needs. This session further describes some of the principles that havebeen proposed to ensure that the tourism industry of the future is characterized by rewarding and sustainabletravel experiencesWCED, 1987.
1.2 Statement of Problem
In the past decade, tourism has become the largest and most lucrative industry worldwide in terms of employment and share of global gross domestic product. The tourism industry has been growing rapidly as well as changing at a fast pace, as more people are interested in spending leisure time in nature, ecotourism it has become one of the fastestgrowing segments of the tourism industry. This creates opportunities in areas characterized by natural attractions, wildlife and wilderness habitats. Local communities may benefit in economic terms as well as create a commitment to conservation and sustainable development.
At present, increased demands for ecotourism create pressure on carrying capacity. Greater numbers of visitors makes it more likely that habitats will be at risk and the wilderness and cultural heritage could be ruined. For instance, in China they will encounter many challenges, because they are ranked sixth worldwide in terms of tourist arrivals. In the next twenty years, China is forecast to be the top tourist destination and the fourth largest source of tourists in the world. This prospect for major tourism growth in China makes it important to quickly consider the environmental and social issues that are part of sustainable tourism development. Careful planning and assessment are important parts of sustainable tourism development. Officials responsible for national parks and other nature areas will have a major responsibility for handling the challenges and deciding which opportunities for tourism development can be sustained over the long term. Local communities will also have to participate in planning and assessment when culture and heritage are important parts of ecotourism. It has been noted that the principles for ecotourism have not yet been firmly established in order to guide planning and assessment. However, two basic principles of ecotourism that have been identified are: 1 encourage conservation and 2 provide benefits to the local populations. However they are certain tools that can be used to help achieve balance, such as assessment of carrying capacity, finding the limits of acceptable change and doing cost/benefit analysis. Tourism policymakers, planners and managers should consider these tools as helpful only if they take a holistic, coordinated approach, especially since benefits and costs in terms of sustainable tourism development are not easily defined in monetary terms. Furthermore, measuring the success of tourism involving nature for example, national parks and culture for example, villagebased tourism like Olumo rock should not just be based on number of visitors or amount of income; rather measurement should include the length of stay, quality of the experience and whether natural and cultural resources have been conserved. Ecotourism can clearly create opportunities for spreading the economic benefits of tourism to villages, remote areas and national parks, as long as the government policy aims to have more tourism in these areas and the local people have participated in the process. Along these lines, policymakers should be aware that smallerscale business operators are more appropriate for activities related to ecotourism and government policies need to support this level of tourism services.
1.3Objective of the Study
This research work is set to explore on the impact of tourism and management on sustainable tourism development with other objectives as follows:
How to improve the sustainability of tourist centers Olumo rock to be enjoyed by future generations and how its long term survival must not be prejudiced by shortterm considerations.
How the relationship between tourism and environment can be managed so that the environment is sustainable in the long term.
Managing Olumo rock tourism and development activities so as to give proper importance to the nature and character of the place Olumo rock in which it is sited.
Highlight, tourism and give recognition to it as a positive activity with a potential benefit to the local community.
1.4 Research Question
The research work is guided with same research question, which will be administered and distributed among the researchers area of study. The questions was carefully structured to gather information for better understanding of the research work.
How is the sustainability of Olumo rock managed for a long term survival of sustainable development
Is the activities carried out at Olumo rock related or gives proper importance to the nature of the tourist center
Do you find Olumo rock more interesting each time you visit it for the past years you have known the tourist location
What has been the potential benefits of the Olumo rock to the local community
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The researcher formed some of the hypothesis which will be tested to support this study. The hypothesis will be tested at 0.05 level of significance using the chisquare method and percentage analysis.
The research hypothesis are as follows.
Hypothesis 1: there is a significance between tourism and management to sustainable tourism development.
Hypothesis 2: long term survival of tourism is significantly related to tourism and management.
Hypothesis 3: There is no significant value to tourism location to sustainable tourism development.
1.6Significance of the Study
This research work highlights on the importance of tourism and management as a means of sustainable tourism development. It is believed that the findings of this research work should provide detailed information on the how to manage tourist centers for a sustainable development and long term survival. It is also expected that the study will benefit the hospitality industries and management.
The research will also have a significance difference to the researcher. This is because the study will expose the researcher to so many related areas in the course of carrying out his research. This will enhance the researchers experience, knowledge and understanding on tourism and management for a sustainable development.
1.7Limitation of the Study
Due to time constrain, this research work should have covered a whole festive period of the Olumo celebration, but was shorten, also this research work is limited to the study of Olumo Rock and its surrounding Abeokota along Ikeja road Ogun State of Nigeria. Also,
Little materials are also available because the work is relatively new.
Financial constrain poses another challenges.
1.8Scope of the Study
This research work is will be conducted with 180 respondents and the analysis for the research work will employ the use of chisquare and table percentage analysis. Also, work covered Olumo rock of Abeokota Ogunn State, and all its activities. Finally, the whole of the research work was conducted within a period of eight weeks.
1.9Definition of Terms
Sustainable tourism: is the concept of visiting a place as a tourist and trying to make only a positive impact on the environment, society and economy. Tourism can involve primary transportation to the general location, local transportation, accommodations, entertainment, recreation, nourishment and shopping.
Development: this a process of establishing or enhancing something to a better place or point
Tourism: is travel for pleasure; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
African Hospitality 2006. UNWTO says African Tourism is on the fast lane. African Hospitality and Tourism. 103, 19
Awoseyin, L. 2006. Hospitality and Tourism Industry in National Development. African Hospitality and Tourism. 103, 26
Babatunde, J. 2006. Tourism in Nigeria needs organizational change. African Hospitality and Tourism. 103, 30
Nigeria Tourism Development Corporation NTDC, 2007. Rediscover Nigeria through tourism.
Accessed at http://www.nigeriatourism.net/index.htm on 22/03/2009Wikipedia 2009. Rock Shelter. Accessed at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rockshelter on 24/04/ 2009
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