This project is on Role of instructional materials in pupils academic performance. This research work empirically explored the role of instructional materials in pupil’s academic performance. The objectives of the study were ascertain the level of students’ academic performance in Nigeria, examine the influence of instructional material utilization on teaching in primary schools of Nigeria, determine measures for preventing low academic performance using instructional materials in primary schools of Nigeria. The scope of the study is all primary schools of FCT making use of student and staff of some selected primary schools, the behaviourist theory was used as a framework. The research design used for this study is survey, the population targeted for this study consists of all primary schools in Nigeria, a total of 50 schools was used as sample size consisting of 300 questionnaires administered to students and staffs and cluster sampling technique was applied. Instrument used for this study is the questionnaire. Data were collected from primary sources. From the analysis of the data, the findings shows that the level of pupil’s academic performance in junior primary schools is high, the level of pupil’s academic performance taught with instructional materials is very high, the problem of low academic performance can be solved using instructional materials such as prints, visuals. Following the findings, it was recommended that pupils should be taught using instructional materials, teachers should use the different instructional materials when teaching such as prints, visuals, audio, and audio-visuals. The study concludes that the use of instructional materials when teaching in primary schools should be embraced as this will help raise the level of comprehension. Keywords: instructional materials, academic performance, primary school, educational system.