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In order to ascertain the efficacy of some of commonly used toothpastes in Nigeria and to improve their antimicrobial qualities twenty three 23 toothpaste users were enrolled in the study Fifty 50 samples were collected of which 50 were mouth swabs and 50 were mouth washes Toothpaste TP C had the highest number of users and samples collected from users constituted 24 of the total samples Hundred isolates were obtained and characterized of which percentage of occurrence ranged from 22 of S aureus to 4 of C albicans pH of toothpastes was determined and the meanSTD pH of toothpastes ranged from 647007 of TP E to 770007 of TP B The MIC and MBC of antimicrobial agents on isolates was determined by broth dilution methods and ranged from 004mg/ml and 0625mg/ml of Ciprofloxacin to 375 and 50mg/ml of Erythromycin The KirbyBauer Disc diffusion method was used to determine antimicrobial activities of the toothpastes in vitro All toothpastes showed antimicrobial activity on isolates with mean zone of inhibition ranging from 1136mm E coli showed the highest sensitivity of 18 while C albicans showed lowest sensitivity of 132 to toothpastes TP A and TP F showed the highest effects on the isolates Crude extracts of C limon, C nucifera, A occidentale and D tripetla were obtained and screened in vitro for antimicrobial activities against isolates S mutans showed highest overall sensitivity of 229 to all the extracts A new toothpaste FennaPaste was formulated with common ingredients seen on toothpastes packs and also screened in vitro for antimicrobial activities against isolates There was significant difference in the activity of conventional toothpastes and newly formulated toothpaste pgt;005 when extracts obtained were added into the toothpastes Modifications of the extracts by heating and increasing of pH to 80 gave significant difference in activity pgt;005 Addition of these extracts in toothpaste is therefore suggested for improved antimicrobial effects


Title Page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Table of Contents v

List of Tables x

List of Figures xi

List of Plates xii

Abstract xiii



General Objectives 5

Specific Objectives 5



History of Toothpastes 7

Classification of Toothpastes 8

Antidecay toothpaste 8

Desensitizing Toothpaste 9

Antiplaque toothpaste 9

Anticalculus toothpaste 9

Whitening toothpaste 10

Oral Organisms 14

Oral Health 14

Causes of Dental Caries 15

Epidemiology of Dental Carries 16

Gingivitis 18

Periodontitis 18

Oral Candidiasis 18

Epidemiology of Oral Candidiasis 19

Herbal medicine 19

Difference of Herbal and Conventional Drugs 20

Some Medicinal Plants and their Uses 22

Mode of Action of Antimicrobials 26

Antibiotic Resistance 28

Mechanism of Antibiotic Resistance 29

Lemon Citrus limon 30

Phytochemistry of Lemon 31

Cashew Anacardium occidentale 32

Phytochemistry of Anacardium Occidentale 34

Coconut 35

Dennettia Tripetala 35

Materials and Methods 37

Design of the Study 37

Specimens 37

Development of Questionnaire 38

Collections of Samples 38

Preparation of Culture Media 39

Isolation of Organisms 39

Subculture 39

Microscopy 39

Gram staining 39

Biochemical Tests 40

Coagulase test 40

Catalase test: 40

Citrate test 40

Triple Sugar Iron Agar TSI Agar 41

Indole Test 41

Methyl Red Test MR Test: 42

The Voges Proskauer test VP Test 42

Motility 42

Hydrogen Sulphide Production 43

Hydrogen Sulphide Production 43

Urease test 43

Test for sugar utilization 43

Microscopy for Yeast 44

Direct Mounts 44

Lactophenol Mount 44

Biochemical Tests for Yeast 44

Germ Tube Test 44

Determination of the Microbial Load of Different Brands of Toothpaste 45

Determination of pH of Toothpaste 45

Determination of Antimicrobial Sensitivity of Isolates 46

Antibiotic Stock Solutions: General Considerations 46

Preparation of Antibiotic Stock Solutions 46

Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration MIC and Minimum

Bactericidal Concentration of MBC of Routine Antibiotics to Isolates 47

Preparation of the Inoculum 47

Broth tube Dilution Method 48

Reading Results 48

Determination of the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration MBC 48

Preparation of turbidity standard equivalent to 05 McFarland 49

Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effects of Toothpastes 49

Preparation of paper discs: 50

Sensitivity Tests 50

Preparation of Cashew Leave Extract 51

Preparation of Lemon Citrus limon Extracts 51

Extraction of Lemon Juice 51

Extraction of Lemon Oil 52

Preparation of Pepper Fruit Dennettia tripetala extract 52

Preparation of Coconut Oil 52

Sterility Test 53

Preliminary screening of solvent for antimicrobial activity 53

Preliminary Screening of Extracts for Antimicrobial Activity 53

Sensitivity Test performance of Crude Extracts 54

Sensitivity testing of Combined Extract 54

Determination of MIC and MBC of Extracts 54

Determination of Antimicrobial effects of combination of toothpaste and extracts 54

Preparation of Toothpaste 55

Determination of pH of the newly formulated toothpaste 56

Determination of the sterility of Fennapaste 56

Determination of the antimicrobial Activity of FennaPaste F on Isolates 56

Determination of the effect of Individual extract with FennaPaste 56

Determination of the Effect of combined extracts with FennaPaste 57

Modification of Extracts 57

Determination of the Effects of modified extracts on isolates 57

Determination of the effects of active ingredients in toothpaste Sodium Flouride and Zinc Sulphate on Isolates 57

Statistical Data Analysis 58

Result 59

Discussion 85

Conclusion 89

Recommendation 90

References 91

Appendix A 100

Appendix B 101

Appendix C 102

Appendix D 103


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