Before the advent of mass communication, the process of communication employed was interpersonal communication that is face to face communication. Interpersonal communication reaches limited audience but mass media make it possible for message to reach far beyond the immediate proximity of the sender. A few hundred feet may be all the distance the human voice prospect to a crowd, without the aid of a public address system. But a mass media can take the same message around the world (Bittenevn 1973: 11). But for this research work, we are narrowing it down to a particular mass media known as television. Although, there are other mass media like (radio) even the print media. The presence of television has influenced the society communication pattern, large audience now believes on television to provide a continuous flow of information, education, communication, entertainment and many others may depend on television for truth in complication and complex situation and when it is not granted they felt deprived. The impact of television in changing and shaping attitude and behaviours of the masses is the subject of debate because television influence modified by many factors. It is probably less powerful than many people think. But television do have an indirect influence on attitude at least they make people conscious. We witness the horror of war, crime, religious crises, ethnic and racial discrimination and so many societal ills its in the privacy and comfort of our living rooms. We learn new things, ideas and concepts when we listen and view television. This medium in its frequent reporting is about the issues like HIV/AIDS makes us to be aware of dreaded disease. The symptoms and signs, ways of contracting it, dangers it poses on immediate and future implication as well as prevention and treatment. Publicity in a corrupt society is believed to be a vital step to finding the cure of many societal ills. In line with this, it is believed that an existence courage and true information on ANTI-AIDS campaigns will get to perhaps, shape and mould the sexual habits of people more especially the youths.
1.2 Background of the study
We do not know how many people that have contracted this dreaded disease. AIDS in the 1970s and probably do not were AIDS virus HIV was originated from. The dominant feature of this first period was silence. HIV was unknown and transmission was not accompanied by signs and symptoms. Salient enough to be noticed seroarchaclogical studies have documented human infections with HIV prior to 1970s available data suggest that the current pandemic started in the mid to date 1970s. By 1980, HIV has spread to at least five continents such as Northern America, Southern American, Europe, Africa and Australia. In April 1981, there is an increase in case of rare lung, Infection pnuemocystic carnii pneumonia (PCP) at the center for disease control in Atlanta in June. The CDC published a report about the occurrence without indefinable cause of PCP. This report is sometimes referred to the beginning of AIDS, but it might be more accurate to describe it as the beginning of the general awareness of AIDS in the U.S.A. Around this time, a number of theories were developed about the possible cause of the opportunistic infections and cancers knowledge about this new disease was changing so quickly that certain assumption made at this time were shown to be unfounded just a few months later. In July, 1981, Dr Curran reported that no apparent dangers to non-homosexual from contagion. He said that no cases have been reported to data outside the homosexual community or in women. In June, 1982, report of a group of cases amongst gay men in southern California suggested that the disease might be caused by an infectious agent that was sexually transmitted. By the beginning of July, a total of 452 cases from 23 states had been reported to the CDC. Later that month, the report appeared that the disease was occurring in Haitian as well as in hemophilia. It is at the acronym AIDS was suggested at the meeting at Washington dc. By August, this name was being used in newspaper and scientific journals. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) was first properly defined by the CDC in September, doctors though AIDS was an appropriate name because people acquired the situation rather than inherited it, because it resulted in a deficiency within the immune system, because it was syndrome with a number of manifestations, rather than a single disease. It was also becoming clear that AIDS was throughout 1982 there were separate reports of the disease occurring in a number of European countries on the same 1982, a number of AIDS specific voluntary organizations had been set up in the U.S.A. These include the san Francisco AIDS foundation (ASFAF), AIDS project los Angeles (APLA) and gay mens health crisis (GMNC). In November, 1982, the first AIDS organization is the terrenes Higgins trust was formally established in the UK, and by this time a number of AIDS organization were already producing safer sex advice for guy men.
1.3 Statement of problems
An Anti – HIV/AIDS advocacy programme which comprises publicity announcement, advertisement and ANTI-AIDS campaign was geared towards curbing the spread of the disease. Again it expected to help in changing and shaping the behaviours pattern of youth towards sex. This has called for ascertaining how these ANTI-HIV/AIDS programmers have influenced the sexual habits of youth or not.
1.4 Objectives or purpose of the study
This research work was aimed at examining the extent to which ABS T.V encourage on ANTI-HIV/AIDS PROGRAMMES have affected the youths residing in Ekwulobia, if it has changed their attitudes towards sex. This is also interested if their age, sex martial status and educational qualifications influence the way they receive the media message. Are the youths getting enough information on the disease?
1.5 Significance of the study
It is expected that the outcome of this study will help alert the youth on the dangers of HIV/AIDS and contribute to existing literature in the area of mass media effect. The study will help the health sector in monitoring and determine the type of media campaign to employ in corroboration of ANTI-AIDS information.
1.6 Research question
Four standard research questions are formulated for this study;
1. Do exposure of ANTI-HIV/AIDS programmes encourage youths from sexual promiscuity?
2. Do youths who are single expose themselves more to HIV/AIDS than those who are married?
3. How often do the youths have access to information about HIV/AIDS from ABS Awka television?
4. Do their programmes on ANTI-HIV/ AIDS related to the use of condom during sexual intercourse among youths?
1.7 Limitation on the study
Finance of transport from Ekwulobia to Onitsha was a limiting factor in the course of this research work. How the return of questionnaire could be managed was another limiting factor. Apathy on the part of these researcher interviewed could also posed a threat to the study. Again, some questionnaires suffered mortality.
1.8 Delimitation of the study
Ekwulobia town in Aguata local Government area has nine(9) villages. However, this study would be delimited to only four villages namely; Ula, Umuchiana, Okpo and Eziagulu. Since it would be difficult, if not impossible to study the entire villages in Ekwulobia.
1.9 Definition of terms
Impact: for the purpose of the study, it means strong impression or a compelling effect of ANTI-HIV/AIDs programmes on youths enough to make them change their sexual habits.
HIV/AIDS: humane immune virusAcquired immune deficiency syndrome.
ANTI-HIV/AIDS PROGRAMMES: programmes aimed at curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS disease.
SEXUAL HABITS: The immoral attitude practices towards sex.
YOUTHS: The age of adolescence ranging from 18 to 30 years of age.
TELEVISION: a piece of electrical equipment with a screen on which you watch programmes with moving pictures and sound.