Discussing relational and formal contracts in China, Zhou et al (2003) hold that countries with legal systems have courts to enforce contractual provision but interestingly in emerging economies such as China, in which the legal system is weak, the use of contracts is still prevalent. Also conventional institutional analysis suggests that emerging economies will translate from personal connections to rule-based institutions that support impersonal market exchanges. Similarly, the efficiency logic of transaction cost economics indicates that in market exchanges, contracts mitigate some of the inefficiencies that arise from exchange hazard, namely asset specificity and uncertainty (Williamson, 1996).
|Settings||CONSUMERS PERCEPTION OF SAFETY OF FOOD IN SOUTH SOUTH AND SOUTH EAST OF NIGERIA remove||Product differentiation as a competitive tool in the marketing of soft drink ( a case study of limca bottling company plc okigwe) remove||INFLUENCE OF ADVERTISING IN CONSUMER DEMAND FOR GOODS AND SERVICES remove||WHY DO PEOPLE BUY GOVERNMENTS BONDS AND SHARES (A CASE STUDY OF DEBT MANAGEMENT OFFICE) remove||EFFECT OF COMPUTER IN MODERN ORGANIZATION remove||A STUDY OF THE MARKETING STRATEGIES IN INNOSON PRODUCTS remove|
|Name||CONSUMERS PERCEPTION OF SAFETY OF FOOD IN SOUTH SOUTH AND SOUTH EAST OF NIGERIA remove||Product differentiation as a competitive tool in the marketing of soft drink ( a case study of limca bottling company plc okigwe) remove||INFLUENCE OF ADVERTISING IN CONSUMER DEMAND FOR GOODS AND SERVICES remove||WHY DO PEOPLE BUY GOVERNMENTS BONDS AND SHARES (A CASE STUDY OF DEBT MANAGEMENT OFFICE) remove||EFFECT OF COMPUTER IN MODERN ORGANIZATION remove||A STUDY OF THE MARKETING STRATEGIES IN INNOSON PRODUCTS remove|
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|Description||ABSTRACT The topic of this research work is product differentiation as a competitive tool in the marketing of soft drinks (A case study of Limca Bottling Company). Chapter one focuses on the introductory aspect of this work e.g. problems of the topic, objectives of the research, and research hypothesis. The review of different writers? opinion on this research work constitutes chapter two, which is the literature review, it goes further to examine the effect of product differentiation on the profitability of the company. Under this chapter, different forms of product differentiation and market segmentation were also looked into. Chapter three deals with the research methodology, this covers the method used in the collection of both primary and secondary data, presentation analysis interpretation of data and testing of hypothesis is dealt in chapter four. The chapter five attempts to make some suggestion and valuable recommendation essentially to Limca Bottling Company which if properly implemented, will go a long way in helping the company in the area of product differentiation and also in market segmentation.|
|Content||Discussing relational and formal contracts in China, Zhou et al (2003) hold that countries with legal systems have courts to enforce contractual provision but interestingly in emerging economies such as China, in which the legal system is weak, the use of contracts is still prevalent. Also conventional institutional analysis suggests that emerging economies will translate from personal connections to rule-based institutions that support impersonal market exchanges. Similarly, the efficiency logic of transaction cost economics indicates that in market exchanges, contracts mitigate some of the inefficiencies that arise from exchange hazard, namely asset specificity and uncertainty (Williamson, 1996).||CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUD OF THE STUDY Here is Nigeria where few soft drink industries exist could be said with high degree of precision that those firms are practicing product differentiation in the market. This project will research into how effectively, efficient product differentiation is employed as a competition tool in the marketing of soft drink; how it helps the profitability of the company, also the problem and task involved in products differentiation will be investigated with some particular reference to limca bottling company. Bottlers of limca, real - soda and Gold spot. Any organization that decides to operate in soft drink industry must recognize that it can neither save nor appeal to the total market with one product or one Marketing Mix . The idea is born out of the fact that the buyers may be too numerous widely spread and different in their purchasing behaviour. Product differentiation is a competitive tool in the marketing of soft drinks and the prospects of product differentiation are the profits. Increasing sales, increasing market share, improved company image goodwill etc. product differentiation is not without its own problems. The major problem encountered in differentiating the market trend so as to know and follow the market trend, marketers knows that not every person is a consumer or customers. They know that consumers go more than some specific qualities in a product hence they [marketer] endeavor to science various segmentation in the market by introducing a variety of product innovation is the basic tool of serving and satisfying different segments in market and offering varieties of product for instance , markets thinks that the market is a of homogenous buyers while the market is a interogeneous in one product. Some people take it in order to feel relaxed so that the company will favour her product appeal to satisfy the needs of her various consumers in realization of this, the marketer showed know that the market is always nitrogen [Gousize. Okpara 2002: 2003] . Tool for competitive edge. [Gazi S. Okpara 2002:2003 when the product of a company faces seven competition sales could be increased over those of rivets through innovation the price of innovation here would be to create a distinct value in a product from the offend by the rivals. Supporting this assertion, Akande [1984:11] wrote ?when product have become established and one feting the brunt of sever competition attempts at increasing company market share many be pursued through product reformulation or product replacement reformulation is often undertaken to give added value to the consumers and the consumer and a competitive edge through new features. 1.2 STATEMET OF THE PROBLEM Business fail these days because those responsible for formulating strategies and objectives, lack the foresight in identifying the various psychological needs and difference existing in those markets the company served. For any business to succeed it must have a depth knowledge of the market it is serving and must be able to develop strategies to satisfy the consumers of her product among the main strategies the can be used are. ? After sales services ? Discount ? Product modification etc In this study specific problems that will be addressed include the following. ? Inability to create strategies to satisfy their costumers ? Inability to create feasibility study for their product ? Inability to identifying the various psychological needs and differences existing in these market which the company served 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The main objectives of this project are to look into this impact of product differentiation as a competitive tool the specific objectives include. ? Examination of the effect of product differentiation on the competitive trend of the company ? Determination of the impact of the product differentiation on the profitability of the company ? Examination of the role of product differentiation on the market ? Identification of the problems the company faces in differentiating its product. 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION For the purpose of these researches the following are formulated to assist the researcher to identify the importance of product differentiation as a competitive tool in the marketing of soft drink. ? Is product differentiation being used in the firm?s ? What are the bases for differentiating the product? ? Has product differentiation any significance on the market share of the company/ ? Has product differentiation any impact on the competitive trend of the firm? ? What effects does product differentiation have on the profit of the organization? 1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS For the purpose of this research were the following hypothesis shall be fasted as they relate to the survey work under consideration. HO: Product differentiation does not improve profit of the firm. Hi: The product differentiation has a significant effect on the profit of the firm. Ho: Product differentiation does not improve the competitive capability of the firm. Hi: product differentiation improves the competitive capability of the firm. 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Any company producing highly competitive product need to differentiate her product so as to distinguish her product (s) from that of the competitors as well as to be able to respond well to the challenges of the market competition, this research work will look more on the prospects of product differentiation as a competitive tool. This will be useful to business owners especially small business owners who will than learn that it pays to differentiate ones products as this policy will helps increase the firms sales volume, market share and profit. The government will also benefit from the fruits of this research since the improvement of the profit of firms will improve the nations economy. 1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY In view of the numerous industries in the country and their location it become necessary that the research work on this issues be limited to only one key industry [ Limca bottling company Plc Okigwe which would represent a true sample of the industries in Nigeria]. It is on this basis therefore, that the various references made related to the sample used. 1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY A lot of constraints were encountered in an attempt to gather the necessary materials for the successful carrying out of the project. The following problems were encountered in the course of this research. ? LACK MATERIAL: while carrying out this project research the work not been done on this particular subject this nearly made it impossible for to review past studies. ? ECONOMIC FACTOR: due to the attitude of the personnel who suppose to give the necessary information for this study made me to spend more than necessary on transportation, then resort was made to vesting him whenever there is transportation fare. ? FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS: Inability to generate money made it impossible for me to carryout this research work effectively and efficiently. 1.9 EFINITION OF TERM The value of a research work is incomplete unless the terms are defined in order to avoid some misconception or mi- interpretation that may arise. MARKETING MIX This involves all activities that the marketer uses in achieving the marketing objectives eg. Product, prices, promotion, place, people, physical evidence and process management. PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION It is the decision of the management to produce two or more types of the same product, but differentiate in terms of styles, quality, packaging, size and colour. SEGMENTATION It is the act of dividing a market into meaningful group of buyers strategy. Marketing strategy is a business activity, which treat each consumer uniquely. PRODUCT STANDARDIZATION It is a tool of market segmentation which treat the whole market equal by producing the sales standard of product for the entire market. Is a group of interogeneous buyer who see different attribute in one product? MARKETING Is a management process for identifying and anticipating and satisfying customer?s requirement profitably?||CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY. Many new consumer goods fail each year not because they are weak but because they arrive on the market without distinction or excitement. Companies must do more than make good products ? they must carefully position products in the consumers' minds. To do this, they must skillfully orchestrate the mass promotion tool of advertising. Advertising is a veritable tool for entertainment but, more importantly, the idea of entertainment must be geared towards securing the attention of the consumer and arousing his interest in the advertised product to compel desired action. It consists of non-personal forms of communication conducted through paid sponsorship, It is used for long-term building of the organization's image (institutional advertising) long-term build up of a particular brand (brand advertising), information dissemination about sale service or evident (classified advertising), announcement of a special sale (sale advertising) and advocacy of a particular cause (advocacy advertising). Advertising to some people is seen as being vital to commercial success while others think it is a waste of time and energy. However, while advertising cannot be readily measured in terms of quantifiable results, its effectiveness cannot be denied. For a new product to penetrate into the market and become acceptable, the producer has to create awareness for it, let the public know its importance and the best way it can be utilized and how the product can be purchased, ordered or hired and also persuade consumers to switch to the new product because the buying public is conservative, likely to be skeptical and hard to shift from an established habit. So, your advertising must attract your customer's attention. Advertising is a cost-effective way to disseminate messages whether it is to build brand preference for a product or to motivate a developing nation's consumers to use a particular product. It is used either privately or in business. Most people respond to it and so, enjoy the choices available to them in every sphere of life. Whether we want to sell a private house, raise fund for charity, attract shoppers lo our stores, launch a new product, engage a staff, the technique is the same because advertisement is one of the major promotional tools used to reach Customers. 1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS A sales manager who fails to realize that advertising can make sales people more productive does the company an injustice and possible harm as does the advertising or telemarketing manager who thinks his respective resources are so powerful that they can do the entire sales job. The real goal of advertising is effective communication. That is, the ultimate effect of advertising should be to modify the attitudes and for behavior of the receiver of the message. The real aim of the advertiser should be to build an advertisement that will sell more merchandise. Managers should know that advertising is business and that understanding the consumer is the beginning of wisdom. To survive in this era of competitive marketing, practitioners need to reassess, restate and, if need be, reconstruct the whole concept of advertising. There is a group of practitioners who believe they can sell snow to the Eskimos and another group that think they can sell chopsticks to Nigerians. They should come off it because the Eskimos don't need snow and chopsticks are better sold in china. Give consumers what they need. Advertising has to be bold, dramatic, persuasive and convincing. The effectiveness of advertising must depend on important decisions about the correct media, adequate message, accurate timing of advertisement and advertising budget. However, not every advertising medium can accomplish all four of these aims at the same time, nor need to be expected to do so. Obviously a billboard poster can carry less information than a newspaper page. Advertising has many limitations. II has large wasted audience segments. Feedback is difficult and when if at all it comes, it is very often late. There is usually the problem of choice of media and budgetary problems because of its high total cost. In addition, some advertising messages are misleading and untrue and do not give room for needed information. A negative influence is achieved when an advertisement is perceived as offensive, misleading or annoying. Anytime a consumer is convinced that the advertisements do not really have reliable information but are just there to hoodwink and fleece him of his money, he will stop turning to advertisements for a guide to product quality and availability. An advertisement may be perceived as normally wrong in some sense and at limes. May seem to pollute the minds of consumers. Some advertising messages are also wrongly timed as children and the under ages are exposed to morally unhealthy information as in the case of some cigarette and family planning advertisements on the televisions. At limes also, there are certain things that some consumers believe should not be aired in the public. These types of advertisement messages are looked at as moral outrage in advertising. Moreover, certain advertisements make people develop a taste for products they cannot afford. Therefore, since Modern Corporation depends on effective communication for survival and success, it is important to investigate properly the influence of advertising on consumer demands for goods and services. 1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS Against this background, the questions which the study intends to address are: Does advertising increase consumers' desire to buy a product? Does advertising help in motivating consumer brand choice for a product? Does advertising help in influencing consumer perception and believe ability of a product's brand image? Do consumers actually believe the products' benefits claims being advertised? What influence does advertising have on consumer attitude towards n product'? 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The general goal of advertising is to create awareness for a product or services, arouse interest, build a desire and consequently get the customers in a favorable stale of mind to take a decision to purchase the product. It helps increase profitable sales, improve dealer relations, expand the industry's sales, counteract prejudice or substitutions, build goodwill for a company and improve its reputation. It helps to introduce new product and helps a company and its products enter a new geographic market or attract a new group of customers. The anticipated end result is to achieve maximum profit. The objectives of this study are: ? To know if advertising increases the quantity of products bought by consumers who are exposed to it relative to those who are not. ? To know if the money spent on advertising a product is actually justified. ? To know if advertising helps in shaping consumer attitude towards an advertised product. ? To know if advertising as is now practiced has the power to influence the life styles and opinions of consumers. ? To determine the nature of regulation in advertising in Nigeria and its effectiveness. ? To determine whether and how reference groups influence consumers to buy advertised products. ? To determine the factors that influence advertising effectiveness in demand promotion. 1.4 HYPOTHESIS The following hypotheses have been formulated. 1. Advertising increases the desire of consumers for goods and services. 2. Advertising increases the buyers' brand Comprehension and confidence. 1.5 THE SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY This study is an attempt to know the benefits of advertising in consumer demand for goods and services. It does not attempt to cover the whole areas of advertising. The study is restricted to advertising of consumer goods only. Consumer goods are those goods purchased and consumed by the purchaser for his own or his family's satisfaction. They are usually less technical and often bought mostly on the basis of brand names. The study is also narrowed down to product advertising as opposed to institutional advertising. Product advertising is aimed at informing about and portioning the benefits of a product or service to potential buyers. Product advertising emphasizes product against institutional advertising, Which is aimed at placing emphasis on the company and its philosophy? Furthermore, request for information has been narrowed down to a major manufacturing company with distribution unit in Lagos metropolis. This organization - Nestle foods PLC - stands as a case study for this project. The findings of this study may be valid for Nigeria only. The study should have been extended more than this if not for the limitations and constraints faced during the research. There were the problem& of contacting businessmen, secrecy of the organization, lack of access to related documents, finance and time available to the researcher. 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY That advertising has been rapidly on the increase in recent times indicates its importance in the demand for goods and services. The extent of company's sales that is a attributable to I he effectiveness of advertising is not yet determined. The determination of this will enable the company in relation to the costs involved whether to continue or not. It is in this effect that this study is being carried out. It is the considered opinion of the researcher that the findings and recommendations from this research work will assist companies on the best way to sell advertising objectives that will help the manufacturers to penetrate a wider market and create awareness of the product to the general public. These objectives should be based on past decisions about the target market, positioning and marketing mix. Potential customers will become aware of a new product, its uses, market price and how the product works. Furthermore, companies will be more informed on the best way to select media to be used because for an advertising message to achieve the desired exposure, the right media must be matched with the right logical place. It will also be of immense help to researchers on related topics.||CHAPTER ONE 1.1 INTRODUCTION This research focuses on why people buy people government bonds shares. A bond is a long term debt instrument ,similar to an Iou .A bond is issued by a government [government bond ] to raise fund to finance a developmental project .it can also be issued by a company or an entry [corporate bond ] to finance a specific project. When you purchase a bond you are lending money to a government, a company or an entry know as an issuer in return for that money the issuer provide you with a bond in which it promises to pay for specified rate of interest during the life of the bond and to repay the face value of the bond [the principal ]when it matures ,or come due. Bonds can be also called bills notes, debt security or debt obligation to simplify matters, we will refer to all these as ?bonds? FEDERAL GOVERNMENT BOND (FGN) Federation government bond are debt securities (liability) of the federal government of Nigeria issued under the authority of the debt management office and listed on the debt management office and listed on the Nigeria stock Exchange. The federal government of Nigeria has an obligation to pay the bondholder the principle and the agreed interest as they fall due. The Federal Government of Nigerian has been issuing the federal government of Nigerian bonds series since 2003. Trading of federal government of Nigerian bonds began in 2006 with the government appointment primary Dealers/Market Makers. FGN bonds currently have maturities ranging from two years to twenty years. The interest earned on these bonds is called coupons and are paid semi-annually though they can be paid quarterly and annually. The minimum investment in FGN bonds at the auction is N10,000.00 per bond maturity. FGN bonds trade in both the primary market and the secondary market. The primary market is where bonds are initially bided for at auctions organized by the DMO. This auction takes place on the third Wednesday of every month and investors interested in the primary auctions can only bid through PDMMS with the help of their stock brokers, bankers or even investment adviser. The secondary market is for subsequent trading of the bonds. The market is liquid and with large volumes of bonds available. Investors still go through their stock brokers, bank, discount houses, investment manager or even CBN offices to participate. All monetary transaction on bonds are done through the central securities, clearing system and settlement of transactions are done it is working days. All investors are required to have the account. The benefits of investing in government bonds include the following. Among other, the investment is ?default risk-free? as repayment is guaranteed by the government interest received is tax-free relatively high returns and this can be up to 18% per annum. It can be used as collateral for loans and it is fully transferable and marketable on the floor of the NSE. Economics Reasons why individuals entities local government, state government, foreign countries invest in shares of FGN bonds or other securities. To create wealth or to create assets or to create or to create capital, economic theory states that INCOME (N13,000) is a flow of wealth whereas N120,000 is stock of wealth. Income earners can refuse to spend a portion of their income instead they can save it, they do not want their asset in the form of liquid cash. Anybody who holds assets in other forms other than as liquid cash would earn an addition return. Hence, the investors get back the principal sum plus interest. To supply loanable fund or idle funds to those who would make demand for them. Hence the economic process of saving & investment is archived. The investing public or investors are the individual or entities who supply loanable fund to those who make demand for them. Examples are government stock sold by the Central Bank repayable with interest after 91 days; debenture sold by public limited liability companies repayable with fixed interest. To avoid a reduction in the value of money held in hand as a result of macro-economic factors. To take advantage of a ?bull market? A period of steady rising price with people exporting those price increase to continue. These is high optimistic. During economic boom, these is no intention by people to hold on to money, they are willing and capable of releasing money by convesting them to other assets such as shares and bonds. Logically with economic propensity price of bond will rise. Even with mild inflations, the lends gains and these is capital appreciation. The stock-market has technical salesmen with the Job title of stock-brokes, Jobbes, Investment adviser who provide accurate information and make demand and provide accurate information and make demand and supply mechanism work smoothly for those buying and those selling with no price fluctuation preduction is based on fact and figures, yet these could be speculation but then it would be based on proper gives estimates not these hence. Participant in the stock-market do not have to be gambles. To manage the problem of liquidity with the problem of lend?s risk. The length of time a lendes would past with his money would determine the interest he would earn on the principal sum. 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 1. To identify the fundamental causes of the uncoordinated administration of the sale of FGN Bond until the DMO was established. 2. To find out the causes of poor management of the Public Debt. 3. To correct the problem of paucity of data and statistic on the total debts securities the FGN is involved in as a borrows. 4. And why is it in arrears in the payment of interest. 5. To find the root cause of the problem of poorly trained personnel in the Central Bank and other agencies in the management of FGN Bonds. 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The Debt Management Office (D.M.O) is a Public agency Created by an act of the National Assemble. The Debt Management Establishment Act 2003 for the purpose of ? Maintenance and disseminating timely, reliable debt data . ? Ensuring affective and efficient management of Nigeria public debt port folio. ? Assisting government in formulation and implementing sustainable debt strategies. ? Advising on borrowing policies and assisting in the management of government?s contingent. ? Tracking federal government loans to Sister African Countries. 1.4 SCOPES AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY The study will be confined to the Bonds Markets of Debts Management office (D.M.O), and would cover Bonds, shares, and capital Market. The second Chapter will deal mainly on literature review revealing the reasons why people buy government bonds and shares with the meaning of bonds and shares. The third chapter will state the method of data collection with reason for choosing the method. The fourth, as well as the fifth chapter deal with the interpretation of data collected and the summary of findings, conclusion and Recommendation of the study carried out respectively. The study is mainly on why people buy government bonds & shares. 1.5 IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY 1. To emphasize the need for the government to sell bonds 2. To achieve its fiscal policy and control inflation 3. To determine how successful the DMO has being as the agency for the government in the sales of bonds 4. To determine whether the financial advice and the investment advice of the DMO has resulted inefficient or profitable public debt port folio. 5. To determine whether the level of borrowing through debt securities is sustainable. 6. To determine what has been the gain or the return enjoy by the FG from the collaboration between the central Bank and the DMO in the same of FGN bonds. 7. To show while sale of bond has been effective since the DMO and the CBN took over the operation 8. To show that Deficits budgeting can be managed through the sale of bonds 9. To indicate why sale of bond will provide revenue into the annual budget and enable FG to fund its long term project 10. To indicate how FG has extended its financial operation to the foreign market by selling bonds abroad 1.6 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF DEBT MANAGEMENT OFFICE (D.M.O) The D.M.O was established on 4th October, 2000 to centrally. Coordinate the management of Nigerian?s debt. Which was hiertherto being done by a myriad of establishment in an uncoordinated fashion. This diffused debts management strategy lead to inefficiencies for instance, in the FMF alone; four different departments have functions for the management for the external debt in the following form. Functions for the Management of external debt are; 1. External finance department: responsible for all paris club debt and for the management of public debt statistics 2. Multilateral Institution Departments responsible for relationship with all multilateral institution (excluding the African Development Bank and its subsidiaries such as AOF and NTF, which is handled by the ABER Department). It also responsible for managing and servicing multilateral debt. 3. Africa and Bilateral Economic Relations (ABER) Department responsible for liaising with the ABD and its subsidiaries. ECOWAS, and all non-paris club bilateral creditors. In the CBN the following department had some involvement with external debt management 1. Debt management department responsible for the London club debts consisting of trade debts, pas bonds, and Promissory Notes. 2. Debt conversion committee responsible for managing various debt conversion options such as debt for debt, debt-for-export, debt-furniture, and debt-for-development. 3. Various departments responsible for processing and effecting loan repayment on behalf of all the other agencies of department of government listed above. This diffusion in the management of public debt created fundamental problems, including the operational inefficiency and poor coordination such as. 1. Inadequate debt data recording system and poor information flow across agencies with consequent inaccurate and incomplete debt records. 2. Inadequate manpower and poor incentive systems for the affected personnel, which affected output performance. The consideration of these myriad problems of a relatively autonomous debt management office, which resulted in the formation of the DMO in October 2000. The need for the creation of a separate of a public debt management office was these fore Aimed at achieving the following advantages. 1. Achieving positive impact on overall macro economic management including the fiscal policies. 2. Projecting and promoting a good image of Nigeria as a discipline and organized nation capable of managing its assets and liabilities while. Our chartes states our commitment t o our stakeholders and office our role, outlines our vision i.e. to manage Nigeria debt as an assets for growth, development and poverty reduction. Our mission i.e. To rely on well ?motivated professional work force and state-of-the-art technology to be among t he emerging markets Topton debt management offices, interest of best practice and contribution to national development by the year 2012. Our core value EXCITE in which E-Excellence, C-Commitment, I-Integrity, T-Teamwork, E-Efficiency then WHO we serve, our strategy 2008-2012. Our service deliver standards, performance target our expectation from those we serve, our grievance redress procedures, stokeholds participation finally the feedback which is the only way we can measure our performance in providing you with the services you need and make improvement where required.||CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY The secretary success book is computer the core skill needed by any secretary seeking, promotion or a move into management. The important outline represents the most demanded course in training programmers run by the author over 27 years. In the past 5 years we have been delivering these courses to secretary for over 150 of the top sectors international organization. The courses have addressed the real world problem and issues of the model secretary. Extract report from those course have been 100 percent, positive. Furthermore feedback from delegates on the course has indicated that they are able to use the materials for career progress job enhancement and other training objectives of the course, which are reflected in this books to meet the varied need of the secretary who want to:- Make more of their jobs, acquire skill that will take them become executive secretary. 1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The objective of the study is to determine the relevance of secretarial practice to the progress of a federal government i.e an institution which is federal polytechnic, Ede. 1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Secretarial practice and its relevance to the upliftment of an institution, Advancement cannot be over ? emphasized. Hence, to build a solid foundation of the secretary in an institution, it has been observed over the year, that secretary is very important in an institution essential for running in an organization has not been encouraging. It is therefore pertinent to in an organization. 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION To further focus on this study, the following research questions are posed; 1. Does the use of computer save time? 2. What are the factors that determine performance of secretaries? 3. What are factors that motivate employees? 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Secretaries in an organization have the part to take concerning the communication level as follows:- 1. Must be able to communicate effectively with all level of management. 2. Secretary must have substantial experience and training in oral written presentation and must demonstrate good written skills. 3. Secretary must prepare special analysis, research reports and proposal 4. Must need ability to compose effective correspondence. 5. Must be able to cultivate and maintain good customer relationship. 6. Must have ability to communicate and sell ideas 7. Must be able to cultivate. 8. There is need for her to skill in gathering analyzing and interpret data and din written analytical report. 1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The area of the research study covered the department where Secretaries operated including various gadgets and equipment used to carry out their duties of First Bank Plc. 1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS The essential part of this project unique strange, abbreviation of word and technical team will examined for easy comprehension. 1. Financial Resource: This is an important aspect of a company financial and investing activity regardless of whether cash or other element of working capital. 2. Financial Liquidity: This is the nearness of asset and liabilities to cash. 3. Assets: These are things of values owned by the business. They are also called the resources of the business. 4. Shareholder/Stock holders: These are the owners of a corporation. 5. Liabilities: These are the debts our obligation owned by a business. 6. Interest Rates: This is the price of credit sample. 7. LCD?s: Loss and face value of delivery, Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary described and safety of person. 8. Liquidity: This is the ability to transform wealth holding into any form without loss and face value of delay. 1.8 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF FIRST BANK NIGERIA First Bank of Nigeria, Sometimes referred to as First Bank, is a Nigerian multinational bank and financial services headquartered in Lagos. It is the biggest bank in Nigeria by total in Lagos. It is the biggest bank in Nigeria by total deposits and gross earnings and operates a network of over 150 business locations across Africa, the United Kingdom and representative offices in Abu Dhabi, Beijing and Johannesburg set up to capture trade related business between geographies. It specializes in retail banking and has the largest retail client base in Nigeria. In 2015, the Asian Banker awarded First Bank the best Retail Bank in Nigeria award for the fifth consecutive year|
ABSTRACTIn the new marketing concept, marketing begins and ends with the consumer. After his needs and wants have been systematically identified, analyzed, a product or service is conceptualized, designed and developed as a need-satisfying offering. Hence, after the due processes of other elements of the marketing mix (i.e.. pricing and distribution channel), Strategy comes in to sensitize the target market about the existence of that product (Smith, 2000:260). As an integral part of marketing mix, strategies is therefore used to communicate the unique selling proposition (USP) of an offering. Strategy is persuasive communication about an organization and its products. It is a communication that informs potential customers of the existence of products, and persuade them that those products have need satisfying offering (Kotler, 2001:28).in modern marketing management, marketing strategies for promoting consumer products may differ with that of industrial products in terms of application and design and conceptualization. The communication objectives may also differ. However, this research specifically focuses on the marketing strategies adopted by automobile manufacturers in marketing their products. Innoson, one of the auto assemblers/marketers in Nigeria is our case study. Given the nature of auto products (especially those manufactured by Innoson, the major interest of this research project is to identify and understand the variations in the choice of marketing strategies of an organization of the sort. The structure of this work is made up of five chapters. The first chapter, the introductory chapter deals, the background of the study, objectives, significance of the study, as well as its limitations. The second chapter reviewed past literature that is related to the context of this study, while chapter three deals with the research methodology. The fourth chapter itself has all the data presentations and analysis, and the vii last chapter five is on research findings, conclusions and recommendations. Finally, it is worthy to note the following, that both primary and secondary means constituted the main instruments for data collections, our analysis was done on the basis of survey research methodology (simple statistical methods_, while the hypothesis testing was by the use of Chi-square.