Design and Implementation of an E-Government System
This research is on Design and Implementation of an E-Government System. Given the fact that more and more governments invest heavily in e-government design and implementation, e-government has become an evolving and important research area in the information technology field. Most, if not all, currently published e-government strategies are based on successful experiences from developed countries, which may not be directly applicable to developing countries. Based on a literature review, this study summarizes differences between developed/developing countries. It identifies key factors for a successful e-government implementation and proposes an implementation framework. A new system was developed using Microsoft asp.net and html. This language was chosen because of its syntax and easy features for developing online applications.
This research is on Design and Implementation of an E-Government System. With the Internet surging, governments at all levels are utilizing it to reinvent their structure and efficiency, coining the term e-government to describe this initiative. Bill Gates of Microsoft claims that e-government is one of the most exciting fields in electronic commerce in the near future. E-government is a cost-effective solution that improves communication between government agencies and their constituents by providing access to information and services online. The Economist magazine estimates that the potential savings of implementing e-government could be as much as $110 billion and 144billion English Pounds in the U.S. and Europe, respectively (Symonds, 2000).Though a new subject, e-government has attracted more and more research interest and focus from industries, national governments, and universities (Carter &Belanger, 2005; Chircu & Lee, 2003;Huang, Siau, & Wei, 2004; Jain & Patnayakuni, 2003; Moon & Norris,2005; Navarra & Cornford, 2003), such as IBMs Institute for Electronic Government and various E-Government Task Forces in different countries (Huang, DAmbra, & Bhalla, 2002).
E-Government is a permanent commitment made by government to improve the relationship between the private citizen and the public sector through enhanced, cost-effective, and efficient delivery of services, information, and knowledge. Broadly defined, e-government includes the use of all information and communication technologies, from fax machines to wireless palm pilots, to facilitate the daily administration of government, exclusively as an Internet-driven activity that improves citizens access to government information, services, and expertise to ensure citizens participation in, and satisfaction with government process (UN & ASPA, 2001).
Narrowly defined, e government is the production and delivery of government services through IT applications, used to simplify and improve transactions between governments and constituents, businesses, and other government agencies (Sprecher, 2000). The development and implementation of e-government brings about impacts and changes to the structure and functioning of the public administration (Snellen, 2000). Unlike the traditional bureaucratic model where information flows only vertically and rarely between departments, E- government links new technology with legacy systems internally and, in turn, links government information infrastructures externally with everything digital (Tapscott, 1995).
Moreover, e-government will help breaking down agency and jurisdictional barriers to allow more integrated whole of- government services across the three tiers of government (federal, state, and local). Government in the offline environment can be difficult to access, which is especially problematic for people in regional and remote locations. E-Government offers a potential to dramatically increase access to information and services. E-Government makes it easier for citizens to participate in and contribute to governmental issues.
Various stages of e-government reflect the degree of technical sophistication and interaction with users (Hiller & Belanger, 2001). A broad model with a three-phase and dual-pronged strategy for implementing electronic democracy is proposed by Watson and Mundy (2000) (see Figure 1). The three phases draw on the principles of skill development (Quinn, Anderson, & Finkelstein,1996), and the prongs echo the dual foundations of democratic government effectiveness and efficiency. Note that we identify e government and e-politics as elements of e-democracy.
E-Government informs citizens about their representatives and how they may be contacted and it improves government efficiency by enabling citizens to pay transactions online; whereas e-politics is the use of Internet technology to improve the effectiveness of political decisions by making citizens aware of the how and why of political decision making and facilitating their participation in this process. The initiation phase focuses on providing citizens with a single point of access to government information and Web enabling government payments are the critical initial goals. For a minimum level of political involvement, citizens need to know who represents them and what is happening in the political scene.
When the e-democracy proceeds to the infusion phase, nearly all governments adopt the principles of e-government. Online review and payment applications are widely installed. Citizens can make most government payments via the Web and electronic bill presentment is the standard. Government becomes more efficient via two major approaches. Small governments opt for an application service provider (ASP) solution, while large governments implement in-house systems. An initiation stage is necessary because governments need to create the infrastructure (e.g., software firms, methodologies, consulting skills), acquaint governments and citizens with the concept of e-government, and learn how to scale from a handful to tens of thousands of online government services.
Once the foundation of skills and knowledge has been built and the idea has gained currency, large-scale adoption is feasible. With the further development of e government, citizens will not be satisfied with a one-size-fits-all solution, and customization will be demanded. During the customization phase, electronic democracy implements a one-to-one relationship between citizen and government. To further improve their personal efficiency, all citizens have an electronically maintained, personal profile of their financial interactions with government. An address change, for example, is a single transaction that automatically notifies all government systems. In addition, citizens can get a detailed breakdown of their particular government payments so that they are more directly connected with how their taxes and fees are spent (e.g., amount contributed to education).
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Developing countries lack the sufficient knowledge and skill to develop suitable and effective strategies for establishing and promoting e-government. While E-Government strategies have had a tremendous impact on the way government interact with their citizens in developed countries. It is my aim in this project to develop an efficient e-government system that will aid in governments interaction with its citizens.
1.2 AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study is aimed at developing an e-government and organization development with the following terms of reference:
(a) An examination of the national and international literature in relation to the organization development aspects of e-government-led change.
(b) A detailed examination of instances of good practice, and leading practices, within the civil service and also the wider public sector, in relation to significant organization change as part of the adoption of e-government solutions.
(c) A thorough review of lessons learnt in respect of how the organization development aspects of e-government might be furthered more effectively within the imo public service, so as to provide good practice guidance for managers.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following case study is used to demonstrate how the proposed e government implementation framework can be used to analyze different e government strategies adopted in imo state. It presents a snapshot of current e-government implementation in imo state in comparing their e-government implementation strategy.
1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY
The researcher is concerned with an e-government system which is the use of information technology (IT) to integrate government and its services for citizen, business, government, and other institutional uses.
1.5 ORGANIZATION OF STUDY
Chapter two reviews the related literature under the following sub-headings:
Chapter three handles the system methodology analysis and design as follows: introduction, the user interface, hardware and software requirements, user documentation, system backup, system maintenance, etc.
Chapter four is concerned with the system implementation and programming.
Chapter five comprises of summary, conclusion and recommendation.
1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
There are some limitations or constraints confronting this study, they are as follows
- TIME: I had a very little time to carry out this research, as a result of the fact that i combine the research work with my academic studies.
- FINANCE: however, finance is another constraint i experience while carryout this research. The inadequate of finance to carry out this research slow down the research work. Despite the limitations every effort was geared towards accomplishing this project.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS USED
E-Democracy: Electronic Democracy is the idea of and process through which information technologies (particularly the Internet) are used to improve democratic processes and participation.
E-Government: Electronic government, or e-government, is the use of information technology (IT) to integrate government and its services for citizen, business, government, and other institutional uses.
E-Government Strategy: The intended process, action plans, vision and goals of a governmental entity by using e-government.
Enterprise Architecture: A comprehensive framework used to manage and align business processes, IT software and hardware, human resources, operations and projects with an organizations overall strategy. The intent of enterprise architecture is to determine how an organization can most effectively achieve its current and future objectives.
Help Desk: The help desk assists computer users in problems that may arise while using the states webpage or programs. The state may use telephone, email, instant messaging, or other technologies to address questions or concerns.
Information Technology (IT): IT involves the management of information using technological tools. IT most often refers to the use of a computer to process, store and secure information.
Integration: Total integration of all services across administrative and departmental boundaries is defined as a system wherein all services can be accessed from one portal without differentiation between government agencies134.
Open Source: Open Source referring to electronic government, indicates access to computer code, or language, which is used to design programs and software. Open Source code allows others to modify computer programs to fit their unique needs.
Open Standards: Publicly available and implemental standards. A branch, department, or agency may introduce open standards to maintain a free flow of information and transparency.
Outsourcing: The practice of sending jobs or duties to an external body. This decision may involve efficiencies and cost savings along with comparative advantage.
Redundancy: In information technology, redundant describes computer, network, telecommunication and operating systems which have a duplicated method installed to back up primary resources in case they fail
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