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CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.1INTRODUCTION

Voting is a means of selecting or choosing leaders. It does not apply only to local governments, states and federal government of Nigeria but also in different institutions and social organizations. Therefore, the conduct of elections in a democratic society is very important not only because through it a change of government is effected but also because voting is the main form of political participation for most people for democracy to be sound and smooth, it should be enhanced on election free from fraud.

Many centuries ago, most societies were societies were primitive and had not evolved a system of voting to elect the leaders that will govern then and promote societal harmony and peace. This means that people have to devise a system whereby a leader or a set of leaders have elected from the ranks of the people. At that point the idea of voting and being voted for became important and necessary. But before an individual can cast his or her vote, there are certain conditions to be met, one of which is to be registered as a voter.

Since independence in 1960, the Nigeria political scene has witnessed incessant upheavals, wide scale dishonesty and societal bitterness, which in most instances, degenerated into lawlessness and destruction of lives and property. Theses unfortunate situations paved the way for and served as spring boards for the emergence and growth of unskilled democrats and military leaders in the governance of the nation. Many Nigerias are disappointed that a post independent 46yearsold Nigeria is still operating constitution which does not enjoy an overwhelming national acceptance, as evident in the persistent calls for the convocation of a sovereigns national conference on the one hand, and the growing demand for ethnic nationalities on the other.

For about four and half decades since independence, the nation had shifted position between parliamentary and presidential system of government, with several military in cushions into polities over the years. Even the present presidential democratic dispensation is still undergoing experimentation with varying degrees of trial and error approach. It is in the light of the foregoing, that this project on voter registration is written to serve as a useful tool of enlightenment in the hands of voters, the electorate and the general public.

However, voter registration is a critical aspect of the electoral process. A credible voters register is a prelude to free and fair elections. It is also important for people to know is qualified to vote, where, when and how to vote. Also, a full knowledge of the registration procedure will encourage eligible voters to participate in the electoral process.

1.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The inefficiency of voting process in Enugu has resulted in a lot of problems. These problems have continued to obstruct the peace of democracy in Enugu because the choice of a capable candidate is not encourage by the current system. The problems could be emendated as follows.

The high incidence of multiple voting massive transferred of ballot papers and forging of electoral papers using fictitious names. Indiscrete manipulation and inflation of election figures by electoral commission officers to suit the interest of their favoured candidates.

Thuggery operation, fear of intimidation and victimization and smuggling of ballot papers into the ballot boxes.

The fragile nature of some ballot boxes make them vulnerable to destruction

Lost of votes due to either wrong voting or the case of any of accident occurring during transporting of the statement of result forms and other electoral materials to the collation centers.

The delay in the generation and announcement of the results which gives room for other manipulations.

Therefore, there should be change for data handling.

1.3PURPOSE OF STUDY

The purpose of design and implementation of a web based voters registration system is to

1.Design a voter registration system which will help to improve the voters system

2.Implement an online voters registration system.

3.Improve the standard of voter registration

4.Avoid unnecessary delay in voter registration.

5.Update the voters registration roll without bribery and conspiracy.

1.4OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main objectives of this project work is to design a fully web voter registration system which should be able to Effectively carryout the task of voting automatically and timely.

Put to an end the indiscriminate alteration of election results by any officer of the electoral commission of Enugu. This will inculcate discipline in the commission and promote their independence.

Secure ballot papers and elections results from any accident what server and to quickly detect any defaced ballot paper or a ballot paper that is wrongly plumb printed.

stop multiply or double voting, forgery in any shape or form and smuggling of ballot papers into ballot boxes. This will restore the integrity of votes cast in any election in Enugu state.

Generate accurate report and affect sticks knowledge of election results using an online computer processing system.

1.5SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study covers voting processes as it is done at the ward councillorship elections, local government chairmanship elections, the state house of assembly elections, the gubernatorial elections the national house of parliamentary elections and presidential elections. It also inculcates the voters personal records, candidates personal records and voting procedures it covers election with at most five polling centers.

1.6LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This study is limited by the restricted nature of the number of polling centers it cover. It does not represent a general election to cover the whole federation of Nigeria at the same time due to time constraints. Also there was limited time to effectively combine the research work with class study. It does not show the position 1st, 2nd e.t.c of candidate.

1.7ASSUMPTIONS

It is assumed that the implementation of the new system will rapidly improve the economic and the sociopolitical lives of the people of Enugu state. There will be no room for rigging and election malpractice.

1.8DEFINITION OF TERMS

VOTER

ELECTION

POLITICAL PARY

BALLOT

DEMOCRACY

POLLING

JUDICIARY

ELECTORAL COMMISSION

INEC

ELECTORAL OFFICIALS

POLL CLERK

RESIDING OFFICER

SUPERVISORY PRESIDING OFFICER

COLLATION/RETURNING OFFICER

POLL ASSISTANT/ORDERLY

NOTICE OF ELECTION

PUBLICATION OF THE LIST OF CANDIDATES

1.VOTER: A voter is a person who has a right to participate in an election as an elector

2.ELECTION: This is a set of activities whereby members of a community choose their leaders

3.POLITICAL PARTY: Is a group of people who share common principles about the management of their affairs, with the aim of capturing political power in a given polity.

4.BALLOT: This refers to the system of voting in a country balloting could be open secret or open secret.

5.DEMOCRACY: This is government of the people by the people and for the people. This form of government places emphasis on the majority of people.

6.POLLING: A system of voting.

7.JUDICIARY: The organ of government responsible for the interpretation of laws and punishment of offenders for the the reach of law.

8.ELECTORAL COMMISSION; This refers to an independent responsibility to conduct all election from the level of government election to the presidential election in the country.

9.INEC: Independent National Electoral commission.

10.ELECTORAL OFFICIALS: personals who carryout election exercises.

11. CLERK: A person who assists the presiding officer and deputizes in an event of the letters absences.

12.PRESIDING OFFICER: He or she is the actual officer who conducts the election in the polling station where he is in charge.

13.SUPERVISORY PRESIDING OFFICER: He or she charge of election in a ward usually made up of about 10 polling stations.

14COLLATION/RETURNING OFFICER: He or she collates data from the elections and declares the results were required.

15.ROLL ASSISTANT/ORDERLY: There may be one or more poll assistants or orderlies in a polling center. Their duty is to assist in election duties and ensure orderliness in the station.

16.NOTICE IF ELECTION: This is a notice issued not less than 90days before the date appointed for holding of an election which is published in each state of the federation and the federal capital territory.

17.PUBLICATION OF THE LIST OF CANDIDATES: This is the publication by the electoral commission of the final list of all candidates who stand nominated, to all candidates together with the names of the persons nominating them, including their respective addresses and occupations.

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