EFFECT AND CAUSES OF CORRUPTION IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC SERVICE. ( A CASE STUDY OF THE NIGERIAN POLICE FORCE OWERRI, IMO STATE)
According to Max Weber he defined bureaucracy as an organization with a hierarchy of paid, full-time officials who formed a chain of command and these are concerned with the business of administration with controlling, managing and coordinating a complex series of task. Bureaucracy is a system of control, it is a hierarchical organization in which superiors strictly control and discipline the activities of the subordinates. ORUEBOR, A.A (2007:142) According to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2000) defines corruption as “dishonest or illegal behavior, especially of people in authority; the act or effect or making somebody change from moral to immoral standards of behavior” corruption is a deviation from following the normal accepted standard of behavior by a public official in order to serve social economic or political interest. CHINELO AROH (2010:50).
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Nigerian police Authority have and will continue to be one of the prime mores of development in different parts of the world and their importance and impact on daily activities of citizens cannot be over emphasized. Before the independence of Nigeria in 1960, public relations practice was not popular because only a few Nigerians know what it was. In Nigeria, public relation was introduced on 1st January, 1944 with the establishment of the first ever public relations office in the country though it was not popular. The lack of adequate knowledge of public relations as a career and the absence of public relation programmes for understanding its practice hindered many Nigerian organizations until recently, when the Federal Republic of Nigeria promulgated Decree No.16 of June,1990,establishing and upholding the practice of public relations in Nigeria.
The origin of the police is a product of social crisis in the society. The word Police is derived from the Greek word “polis” meaning that part of non ecclesiastical administration having to do with the safety, health and order of the state. Policing and police work did not start as a paid profession. It started as a noble, incorruptible and distinction. It was the justices of the peace system, which corrupted the parish constable system. The 1960 constitution established the Nigerian police force as a federal force charged with the responsibility for maintenance of law and order throughout Nigeria. However, the constitution did not prevent the regions from establishing their own local police force. The command of the Nigerian police force was under the inspector general of police (IGP) while those of the regions were under the command of commissioners of police. Recently, the Nigerian police force (NPF) dropped the force in its name and now answers the Nigerian police. Do not be surprised to read the Nigerian police in place of the Nigerian police force.
The Nigerian police is grouped into departments A-F; “A” department takes care of administration personnel promotion, dismissal, transfer and posting, medical budgeting, pay and accounts, public relations and printing etc. “B” department and “F” have their own respective duties, our major concern is “A” department where public relations belongs or categorized.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Here, the unfortunate aspect of corruption in Nigeria is that there are enabling laws to fight it but the leadership find it difficult to enforce these laws. The menace of corruption leads to slow movement of files in the offices, police extortion e.g. “In collecting twenty naira from bus drivers causing traffic congestion and even road accidents if any of the drivers refuses to give them money, they will start shooting guns to deflate their tires. The funds allocated for their welfare disappear into this air. Thus, it is believed by many in the society that corruption is endemic in all government. Corruption is found in democratic and dictation politics, feudal, capitalist and socialist economies.
The leaders as well as their followers are corrupt. If there is lack of control of corruption in every sphere in the nation, it is then like the old saying “When water chokes you, what do you take to wash it down?”(The philosophy of Aristotle, 451-ME2783, p.355). Corruption is as a result of man made factors such as greedy people, especially our leaders, who are not contented with what they have so that they will use public funds for selfish gains. Also, many people in Nigeria, especially the youths want to get-rich-quick, so that they indulge in all types of crimes to make money, kidnapping, electoral fund (thuggery), armed robbery, yahoo yahoo, 419, the list is endless, yet the elders who are to correct them end in praising them. Nigerian police force was known in the eighties and nineties for early dispatch of services, result oriented performance and high productivity.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The aim and objective of this project are as follows:
- To solve the problem of corruption in the Nigerian public service for better governance.
- To know how bureaucracy structure and control encourage the police force to achieve its objectives.
- To find out how bureaucracy improve decision making.
- To ascertain how bureaucracy improve productivity.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
- `Why is corruption a viable enterprise in the 3rd world, nay, Nigeria?
- To what extent does the poor living condition and welfare of the police affect their performance?
- To what extent does police brutality and extortion damage its image to the public?
- How cordial is the relationship between the police and the press?
- To what extent do the Nigerian police effectively handle crowd and crisis management?
The purpose of this research is to answer the uplisted research questions that bother both the police and civilians in the state.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
- The findings in this study shall be of immense help to administrators and managers in correcting animates coherent in a bureaucracy set up.
- It will aid the government and television authority to avoid bureaucracy bottle neck, red tapism and i do not care attitude portrayed by workers.
- It will help the police force also in boasting productivity.
- Corporate bodies and entrepreneurs that wish to share their own business police force would find this study invaluable in their endeavours.
- Academically, it will help other researchers in further research analysis.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Since in large police force corruption in eminent and inevitable for the success of such television authority, the study shall focus on Nigerian police authority and due to its structural largeness the study shall be narrowed down to the administrative sections.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the study, the researcher encountered certain constraints that impede the academic work. These are:
- Time Constraints: This posed as a limitation to the study, as the time frame work constructed by the department for the kick off of the study was incompatible with out academic work load.
- Unwillingness of staff to give out information: The researcher myself could not gather as much information and facts due to non compliance and non-cha/llant attitude of respondents of workers against the study.
- Funding: Due to economic problem, the researcher myself is faced with lack of adequate finance was not available for mobilisation of the work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- An organization: This is a group of people who forms a business together to achieve a goal.
- Bureaucracy: This is the official rules and ways of doing things that a government or the police force has with positions of an authority will defined hierarchically so as to facilitate the attainment of police force goals.
- Administration: This is seen from a government perspective where it is being used as a machinery for implementing government policy.
- Objectives: Something that one tries to achieve, it is also the aim or goals the police force or government seek to achieve.
- Hierarchy: This is a system with grades of authority or status from the lowest to the highest. At each level of the hierarchy, officials enjoy the right of issuing directives to subordinates who have the duty to obey them.
The primary purpose of this study is to ascertain the effects of corruption in the Nigerian public service. The survey method of descriptive research was used for the study. The main instrument used in data collection for the study was a questionnaire and its responses were detailed in frequency tables and percentage which was used to analyze the data.
The result of the analysis and interpretation revealed that bureaucracy has too much innovation and not rigidity, it sees human feelings and not regarding human as a programme like machines and appropriately manipulated to produce standard outcomes in Nigeria. It was also discovered that rules and regulation encourage the operation of the Nigerian police force. Impersonal orientation help the actualization of police force objectives, too close supervision and control that helps bureaucrat in the process of carrying out assigned works in Nigeria. Also employees are motivated due to unsterile work environment, strict adherence to rules and regulation applied to workers. Creativity and innovation, hierarchy of authority fosters the process of decision, a message sender and message received for short communication, division of work compete of work comment and slow the process of decision making. Therefore, employees are satisfied by the method of payment and remuneration.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page = = = = = = = = = i
Approval page = = = = = = = = ii
Dedication = = = = = = = = iii
Acknowledgement = = = = = = = iv
Abstract = = = = = = = = v
Table of Content = = = = = = = vi-viii
1.0 Introduction = = = = = = = 1
1.1 Background of the Study = = = = = 2-3
1.2 Statement of the Problem = = = = 4-5
1.3 Objectives of the Study = = = = = 6
1.4 Research Questions = = = = = = 7
1.5 Significance of the Study = = = = 8
1.6 Scope of the Study = = = = = = 8
1.7 Limitation of the Study = = = = = 9
1.8 Definition of Terms = = = = = = 10-11
2.0 Literature Review = = = = = = 12
2.1 Introduction = = = = = = = 12-21
2.2 Nature & Characteristics of corruption = = 22-23
2.3 Forms of Corruption = = = = = = 24
2.4 Element Impact of Corruption = = = = 25-28
2.5 Causes of Corruption = = = = = 29
2.6 Bureaucracy = = = = = = = 30
2.7 Functions of Bureaucracy = = = = 30-31
2.8 Principles of Bureaucracy = = = = 32-33
2.9 Effective Control of Corruption and Summary= 34-35
References = = = = = = 36
- Research Design and Methodology = = = 37
3.1 Introduction = = = = = = = 37
3.2 Research Design = = = = = = = 37
3.3 Source/ Method of Data Collection = = = 38
3.4 Population and Sample Size = = = = 39
3.5 Sampling Techniques = = = = = 40
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Measuring Instruments 40
3.7 Method of Data Analysis = = = = = 40
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data = = = 41
4.1 Introduction = = = = = = = 41
4.2 Data Presentation = = = = = = 41
4.3 Analysis of Data = = = = = = 41-48
4.4 Test of Hypothesis = = = = = = 49-51
4.5 Interpretation of Result (s)= = = = = 52-54
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation = 55
5.1 Introduction = = = = = = = 55
5.2 Summary of Findings = = = = = 55
5.3 Recommendation = = = = = = 56
5.4 Conclusion = = = = = = = 57-59
References = = = = = = 60
Questionnaires = = = = = 61-64
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EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES IN NIGERIAN ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES IN NIGERIAN ORGANIZATIONCHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION: 1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Management needs a lot of tools to be able to administer effectively in the day to day running of the business. Management by objectives is one of such tools. It is a way of getting improved results in managerial action. Management by objectives can be described as a managerial method where by the superior and the subordinate managers in an organization identify major areas of responsibility, in which they will work, set some standards for good or bad performance and the measurement of results against those standards Derek 2005:156. Management by objective is also called Managing By Objectives. However, there have been certain individuals who have long placed emphasis on management by objectives and by so doing have given impetus to its development as a system. Management by objectives refers to a structured management technique of setting goals for any organizational unit. George S. Odiorne 1981:1 in his book management by objectives defined this concept as a system of management whereby the superior and subordinate jointly identify objectives, define individual major areas of responsibility in terms of results expected, and use these objectives and expected results as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its member. Besides, Odiorne points out that management by objectives is a system of management an overall frame work used to guide the organizational unit and outline its direction. He went further to point out that the superior and subordinate jointly identify objectives. In other words, it is a participative management procedure that requires commitment and cooperation. The definition deals with identifying the results that are expected. Thus management by objectives concentrates on the output of the organisation evaluating people by assessing their contribution to this output. Management by objectives is a strategy where in the management sets specific goals for the employees to accomplish within a fixed time period. Management by objective is a dynamic system which seeks to integrate the company a need to clarify and achieve its profit and growth goals with the managers need to contribute and develop himself. It is a demanding and rewarding style of managing a business. Management by objectives can work in any size of organization if the procedures are understood and managers are patient in letting the system set in first. Management by objective is an effective planning, control and development system. Management by objective was defined by Koontz and ODonnell 1968:485 as a technique or system or method of management where by the superior and subordinate managers of an organization agreed on its broad goals, translate these goals into a chain of specific short term goals, defined each individuals major areas of responsibility in terms of result expected, continually reviewed the accomplishment as the sole basis of assessing and rewarding them. Management by objectives gives the employee the opportunity to participate in decision making, the limits within these limits. It assumes that the employee has been properly selected and trained, and is informed that the employee will be responsible for achieving the desired results in the organization. Organizations are ubiquitous. According to Mullins 2005:256, organizations are designed by people to overcome individual limitations and achieve individually. Hence, organization become a means of survival for the people and exerts an important daily influence on the life of the people and the way they live. The major decider for the survival of any organization is the presence of capable men and women with the right technique to combine the organization resources man, machine, materials and money to achieve organization goals. It is appropriate to note that management of companies in Nigeria lack sufficient techniques to make them manage effectively. Some of these tools are not used and when used they are not properly utilized. Management by objective is not only a managerial strategy to achieve a well coordinated managerial goal, but it is also a popular management technique that cut across or pervade all human activities namely business areas, educational, government, health care and non profit organisation. Most of the techniques, system, tools of management are hardly understood resulting in losses and damages to the organisation. Besides, it is the wrong use of technique and unwillingness of top management to utilize the right tool to solve the management problems. It is on these trends that the researcher intends to find out the prospect and problems of effective utilization of management by objectives by companies in Nigeria. In order to investigate some of the above problems, one of the leading financial institutions in the country, first Bank of Nigeria Plc Okpara Avenue Enugu has been chosen. 1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM It is pertinent to note that management of companies in Nigeria. Lack sufficient technique to make them manage well. Some of these tools are not used and when used they are not properly utilized. Management by objective if not only a managerial strategy to achieve a well coordinated managerial goals, but it is also a popular management technique that cut across or pervade all human activities namely; business areas, educational, government, health care and nonprofit organisation. Most of these objectives are hardly understood resulting in losses, breakages and on so. The worse are business in the medium range where most banks fall. Most companies hand down objectives to subordinates without adequate explanation, hence failure of management by objectives in such cases. Management by objectives will remove all of these problems mentioned above and subordinates will now formulate objectives, set targets according to their strength and weaknesses, no stoppages, no delays, no losses to the companies. This will help subordinates to formulate realizable goals. 1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The broad objective of the study is to find out the prospects and problems of effective utilization of management by objectives in companies in Nigeria. The specific objective of the study includes: 1 To determine problems affecting the effective utilization of management by objectives in an organisation. 2 To determine the level of managers commitment to achieving organizational objectives. 3 To find out the level of participation of both managers and employees in the setting of goals to be achieved in the organisation. 4 To determine whether employees are given appropriate authority and responsibility for achieving the set objective. 5 To recommend strategies for effective utilization of management by objectives. 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION In pursuit of the research objective of the study, the following research questions have been formulated. 1 What are the problems militating against effective utilization of management by objective in an organisation. 2 To what extent do both managers and employees participate in the setting of goals to be achieved in the organisation 3 To what extent are employees given appropriate authority and responsibilities for effective management by objective 4 To what extent do motivation determines employees performance towards achieving the objectives of the organisation. 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Practicing management by objective will make the management of First Bank of Nigeria to be move assertive in their decision making. It will assist the subordinate in First Bank of Nigeria to be able to identify themselves with the objectives of the company and the role they will play. It will assist subordinates to be able to formulate their individual or group objectives, which are reliable. This will result in total commitment to objective and efficiency and effectiveness will result. 1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY This research work is limited to First Bank of Nigeria Plc Enugu and how different organisation can be managed better by the managers setting the goals and all the company members working towards achieving the goals. There are many factors that act as constraint to the effort of the researcher in the course of writing this project. Most prominent of the factors are: a TIME: The research work is a big task and as such requires time and energy, which was not on the researchers side. b FINANCE: This is another limiting factor. Due to limited financial resources available, the researcher cannot procure all the needed material is for this project. For instance, to get books from the library the researcher has to pay library, which the researcher does not have all the time. c COST: The cost of transportation to and from First Bank of Nigeria Plc Okpara Avenue is very high for the researcher. d SECRECY: Nigerians dislike activities that tend to probe them. They tend to avoid researcher because they feel their activities that are not meant for public consumption would be exposed through research work. 1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS a MBO: Management by objectives. b WAEC: West Africa Examination Council c SSCE: Senior Secondary Certificate Examination d OND: Ordinary National Diploma e B.Sc: Bachelor of Science. f PLC: Public Limited Company g FBN: First Bank of Nigeria REFERENCES Koontz O. Donnel and weihrich 1980 Management New York: McGraw Hill Book Company. Mullins, L.J. 2005 Management and organizational Behaviour London: Pitman Publishing Imprint. Derek, Laura et al 2005 Human resource management London: prentice Education Limited. George S. Odiorne 1981 Strategic Management and Management by objective New York: Delay Constancy Services, INC.