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This project is on Effect of ethno-religious conflict on the development of local governments in Kaduna state  (a study of zangon kataf local government area of Kaduna state).

The series of ethnic and religious conflict in Kaduna State necessitated the research topic “Effect of ethno-religious conflict on the development of Local Government in Kaduna State with the aim and objective to examine the effect of ethnic and religious conflict; and to find out how these conflicts at the Local Government level can be abated against continuous occurrence. Both the primary and secondary sources of data collections were used, while Chi-square and SPSS 13 were instruments of data analysis. The research found out that ethno-religious conflict is caused by ignorance, poverty and dearth of infrastructural facilities. Therefore it recommends that government should ensure peace and security through trainings and retraining of security personnel giving the traditional rulers and community leaders functional roles in promoting and ensuring unity and peace among the citizens. The research will be utmost importance to policy makers, researchers and students of conflict management especially at the grassroots level.  

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1.1    Background to the Study

This project is on Effect of ethno-religious conflict on the development of local governments in Kaduna state  (a study of zangon kataf local government area of Kaduna state). Societies accommodate various tendencies, interests and identities which often result to conflict. Conflict is a global phenomenon which is not peculiar to Nigeria.  The results of violent conflicts in many parts of Nigeria hitherto known to be peaceful have degenerated to a worrisome phenomenon. The emergences of ethnic militant group such as the Odua People Congress (OPC), Arewa Peoples Congress (APC), the Bakkassi Boys, etc have added a new dimension to the nature of these conflicts.   The Zango Kataf religious riots and those that occurred in other parts of Kaduna State in March 1992, the conflicts in the Kaduna metropolis in 2000, etc. have at least left all well meaning Nigerians restless. The socio-political and economic problems associated with inter and intra-group conflict is immediately evident and has far reaching consequences on the security, properties and social co-existence of the people.

A survey by International Institute for Democracy and Election Assistance (International IDEA, 1999) revealed that there were about 102 simmering conflicts in different parts of the country. These conflicts are mostly local ones, fueled by disagreement over sharing of resources. They often have religious or ethnic coloration. The seasonal clash between farmers and cattle rearers, border skirmishes over land, protest over Sharia law and perceived marginalization of some groups in power sharing was obvious. These conflicts resulted in loss of lives, property and means of livelihood, thus creating humanitarian emergency situations with the internally displaced population trooping to rehabilitation centers. The trauma to which people in conflict prone areas are subjected to, and the huge costs of post-conflict reconstruction of the society take a heavy toll on the resources that would otherwise have been invested in development projects.

Moreover, conflicts have consequential effects especially on local governments. This is because whenever and wherever there are violent conflicts there will be senseless destruction of lives and properties, arson, looting and vandalization of public buildings, structures and properties hence retarding development and other government programmes.

This perception of ethnic mobilization has further strengthened a negative force in all efforts at national cohesion. As noted earlier it has left a trail of destructive violence. International IDEA (2000:94) identified the following ethnic violence:

  • The Jos riots of 1945.
  • The Kano riots of 1953.
  • The Tiv uprising of 1959-1960 and 1964.
  • The violence in Western Nigeria that led to the imposition of a state of emergency in the region in 1962.
  • The ethnic massacres within the army and in the north, which preceded the civil war in 1967.
  • The carnage of the 30 months civil war, 1967-1970.

According to Usman (2000:2), others are;

  • The Kasuwar Magani conflict between the Adara and Hausas, Kaduna State in 1980.
  • The Ife-Modakeke conflicts, in April 1981.
  • The Bachama-Hausa/Fulani conflict in Numan Adamawa State in 1986-1988.
  • The conflict in Kafanchan between the Kataf/Hausa and other parts of Kaduna State in March 1987.
  • The Kuteb-Jukun, Jukun-Tiv, Pansho-Mambilla at Wukari, Takum, Gembu and other part of Taraba and Benue States, in 1990-1992 and 1999-2002.
  • The conflict in Obi and Toto LGA‟s and neighbouring areas of Nassarawa State in 1995-1999.
  • The conflict in the Andoni and Ogoni area of Rivers State in 1993-1994.
  • The conflict in Karim Lamido Local Government Area, Taraba State, in 1996-1997.
  • The conflict in the Ogoni and Okrika area of Rivers State in 1994-1996.
  • The conflicts in Nembe and Kalabari area of Bayelsa State in 1996-1999.
  • The conflict in the Bassambiri and Ogbolombiri of Bayelsa

State in the 1990s.

  • The conflict in the Okpona Brass area of Bayelsa State in the 1990s.
  • The conflict in the Sangama, Soku and Oluasiri area of Rivers and Bayelsa States between 1993 and 2001.
  • The conflict in the Burutu Local Government Area of Delta State in 2000-2001.
  • The conflicts in Warri and its environs 1997-2002.
  • The conflicts in the Okiti Pupa area of Ondo State in 19982000.
  • The conflict in Mushin, Ajegunle, Ketu and Agege and other parts of Lagos State, 1999-2000.
  • The conflict of the Quan-pan Local Government Area of Plateau State, and the Azara district of the Awe Local Government Area of Nassarawa State in 2001 and 2006.
  • The conflict in Awe Local Government Area and other areas of Nassarawa State in 2001 and 2002.
  • The conflict in Ife and Modakeke areas of Osun State in 20002001.
  • The Fulani-Mambilla conflict on the Mambilla Plateau in 20012002.
  • The conflict in Shagamu and other part of Ogun State in 19992000.
  • The conflict in Aguleri and Omuleri areas of Anambra State in 2002.

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem

Ethnic conflict are no longer confined to the urban centres which was earlier identify as the cradle site of the antagonistic ethnicity. Rather we have the ruralization of ethnic conflict as different ethnic group that have shared century and decades of more or less peaceful coexistence have been pitched against one another as mortal enemy from Zango-Kataf and other places in the southern Kaduna and Manbila plateau of Taraba state to Tigno-Waduku in Adamawa state and Wukari (where the Tiv and the Jukuns are locked in the most protracted conflicts) as well as the Jukuns and Kuteb in Taraba state, evidences abound that the rural area have been turned into killing fields.

In seeking to come to terms with the phenomenon of the resurgence of these identities, it is important to take into cognizance the different forces at work, at both the domestic and global levels. Some of these forces, either acting alone or in combination, have been sharpened the crisis of the nation-state project in post-colonial African. they include the accelerating process of globalization and democratization, they deeping economic crisis and social inequality, the resuvergence of liberal ideology seeking to enforce market reforms, and the consequent whittling down of state legitimacy and capacity, all of which have led to the emergency of different individual groups redefining and reinventing their identities.

A major incentive to ethnic and religious conflict is the unevenness generated by the modernization process. In Nigeria, this becomes a crucial issue, because of ethnicity and religion, on the politics of resources allocation.

Two consequences of these for development processes are of immediate concern. The force has to do with the unevenness it generated various ethnic home land. and these make meaning in situation where ethnic and religious boundaries  tend to concern. The significance of the ethnic factor in the distribution of resources and amenities has created a situation in which certain ethnic groups are précised to have enjoyed certain advantages. The emergences of new ethnic /territorial movement, especially among the minority ethnic nationality, are largely a response to this. The second has to do with the anarchy associated with the development process. Since ethnic religious and   political consideration, dictate the manner in which resources are allocated, duplication and waste characterize allocation of resources, with minimal consideration for cost and efficiency in the operation of the federal system.

The problem of order and stability; are bound to arise where inequality and inequity resulting from this tend to occur along ethnic and religious line. In some other societies it has to lead to religious and ethnic groups, perceiving them as been disadvantage, demanding political autonomy. The way in which feelings of alienation and injustice at national, state  and local levels enter into discourses has had a snowballing effect on what has appear as ethnic communal and religious conflicts in various part of the country.

Over the years, Nigeria has witnessed one form of conflict or another. Ethnic and religious crises have become more frequent and  the phenomenon that readily come to one’s mind are; what are the effects of such conflicts on development at the local government level? and how can these conflicts be abated against continuous occurrence?  This study was undertaken in order to answer these vital questions as they affect the development of the local governments in Nigeria and Kaduna State in particular.

1.3       Research Questions

  1. What are the consequences of the ethno – religious conflicts at the local Government level in Kaduna state?
  2. How can ethno – religious conflicts at the local Government level in Kaduna state be abated against continuous occurrence?

1.4     Aims and Objectives of the Study

The aim and objectives of this study are to examine the effect of ethno-religious conflicts on the development of local governments.

Other specific objectives include the following:-

  1. To examine the effect of ethno – religious conflicts at the local

Government level in Kaduna state.

  1. To find out how ethno – religious conflicts at the local Government level in Kaduna state can be abated against continuous occurrence.

1.5  Hypotheses

The following hypotheses will be tested at 95% confidence level.

Ha. Ethno-Religious conflicts retard the development of socioeconomic development at the Local Government level.

Ho.  Ethno-Religious conflict does not retard the development of socio-economic infrastructures at the Local Government level. 

1.6     Justification/Significance of the Study

The significance of this study is rooted on the fact that similar researches and studies have been undertaken with different aims and specialty. However, this is not an exception. It is, but to add more to the existing researches. Consequently the Zangon Kataf crisis of 1992 was a conflict between two ethnic groups (Atyap and Hausas) that were hitherto leaving peacefully together. The conflict assumed ethno-religious dimension because the Atyaps were predominantly traditionalists and Christians while the Hausas were Muslims. The conflict witness the destruction of socio-economic infrastructures that were meant for both sides and as well the lost of lives and valuable properties.  Moreover, the study is set to examine both the negative and positive aspects of such conflicts as they affect development at the local government level. For some time, conflicts including ethnic and religious, conflict have been given considerable attention by the media, academics and policy makers. In this study, the focus is on how ethnic and religious conflicts especially in Kaduna state have some effects on the development of the local governments. This is because life (both human and livestock) were wasted, properties, infrastructural facilities like public buildings, markets, schools, motor parks were attacked and destroyed. Social co-existence and cohesion is destabilized with resultant consequences of relocation and resettlement along ethnic and religious divide.

Therefore, it is of utmost significance to further unearth it effects on the development of local governments  Meanwhile, the study will be of immense importance to the researcher and as well those in charge of peace, policy-making, security agencies, researchers, and local government functionaries.

1.7     Scope and limitations of the Research

The scope of this study is on ethnic and religious conflict and how these conflicts affect the development of local governments in Kaduna State. The Zango Kataf crisis of 1992 in Kaduna state is the case study. This is because it was one of the crisis in the state that witnessed the most tumultuous and volatile ethno-religious conflict with heavy toll on both human and material resources.

The major limitation and delimitations of this research is that, it does not cover all aspects of ethno-religious conflict in Nigeria. This is because the issue of ethno-religious conflicts is very broad to be dealt with. The focus of this research is on the understanding of the problems that have impacted negatively and perhaps positively on the peace and unity of the people of Kaduna State.

However, efforts to have access to some important documents at the Kaduna State Ministry of Justice and the Kaduna State Police Headquarters was to no avail as either they are not available from the source or they are classified as „confidential‟, thus they cannot be released for whatever purpose. Likewise information that are needed from some personalities were difficult to come by as they are difficult to be reached due to their tight schedules or the protocol involved.

1.8     Definition of Concepts

In this research, the following concepts are defined; ethno-religious conflict and development,

Ethno -Religious Conflict:

Ethno-religious conflict is a conflict that is inspired by ethnic and religious factors. The word ethnic in this research is conceptually define as those group of people that shares a common and distinctive features of language, heritage and religion. This include the major ethnic groups such as the Hausa, Fulani,Yoruba, Igbos etc and also the minority ethnic groups such as the Atyab,Bajju,Gwari, Jaba, Kaninkon etc. while religion in this context are the three constitutionally recognized religion in the country i.e. Islam, Christianity and the traditional religions. On the other hand, conflict according to the Heidelberg institute for international conflict research (HIIK 2005), is the “clashing of interests (positional differences) on national values of some duration and magnitude between at least two parties (organized groups, states, groups of states, organization ) that are determined to pursue their interests and win their cases”.

Therefore, Ethno-Religious Conflict in this study are those ethnic and religious groups that are found in Kaduna state that co-habits before and after the colonial era. These include the Hausa/Fulani Muslims and the Atyap (Kataf), Kaninko, Jaba etc Christians/Traditionalists.

From the above observations, we can operationally define ethnoreligious conflict as the violent conflicts that ensured among and between the various ethnic and religious groups in Kaduna state that often leads to the destruction of lives (both human and animals), properties and basic infrastructural facilities and places of worship.

Development: The definition of development will reflect the social and economic changes as it affects the upliftment of the standard of living at the local government level. This research addresses the link between development and conflict as it affects the local government level in Kaduna state. It can be understood that conflicts breeds underdevelopment and it impoverishes the society to the extent that basic existence of food, shelter, clothing, healthcare services and infrastructural facilities such as roads, water supply, schools, markets and motor parks etc are threatened and sometimes destroyed.

Operationally, therefore, development means the availability and existence of basic necessities of life such as food, shelter, security of life and properties, infrastructural facilities such as roads, water, markets, motor parks etc.

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