Nigeria is bestowed with a richness of diverse human, cultural and natural assets which are an immense resource to the nations development of tourism. Although, in spite the development of global tourism and its significance in developing nations, in Nigeria the industry of tourism has not developed substantially. Stability and peace are significant essentials to tourism development. The political uncertainty, ethnic/religious conflicts, and crime in Nigeria have been a significant obstacle to the development of tourism. Tourism, if relied on the rules and better practices polished through ecotourism, might be an influential technique that would decrease the nations reliance on oil. This form of environmentally and socially accountable tourism could also decreased political volatility by supporting in the generation of wealth, cover the cultural gaps, nurture peace among various religious and ethnic groups and foster rural areas. However, kidnappings, corruption, and killings appear to be the economic as well as political trinity harming Nigeria. The existing situation of bombings and insecurity particularly in the Northern region of the country has presented severe challenges to the stability and peace of Nigeria. The country has not merely suffered massive loss in properties, infrastructure and precious human lives; it has also faced economic disruption which directs to the disposition of foreign direct investment. Therefore, this dissertation will highlight the impact of security on the tourism development of Nigeria and the ways it can benefit the country in fostering its current state of instability.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Normally, no business can survive in an insecure and tensed environment. Tourism industry is no exception. It has become a big source of financial expansion for several nations, highlighting the service area and forging successful forward and backward associations with the remaining of the economy, facilitating new job opportunities and income resources. Even though, the developed nations base on an increased ratio of global tourism, several developing nations are starting to reap benefits of the massive opportunities presented by tourism. Nigeria is wealthy enough to be a great tourism spot as it is loaded with natural and human resources and wish to become one of the established economies of the globe as well as a leading country in Africa by 2020 Arowolo amp; Fabarebo, 2005. In order to materialize the dream, Nigeria needs to determine the effective exploitation of its assets to attract the native and global investors. Despite of laudable objective and planning, Nigeria has significantly nothing to rely upon for the achievement of its goals. Currently, the majority of its population is deprived and poor and they do not gain access to contemporary health care provisions, pipe water, and higher education and employment opportunities. They cannot bear daily three square meals. These unfavorable development signs have directed to it being ranked as one of the most deprived and poorest countries throughout the world.
The poor growth position of Nigeria without any doubt breeds environment of aggravated expectations and nurture widespread annoyance on the end of those that are bound in the vortex cycle of miserable poverty. The situation of desperation is more provoked by powerless elimination schemes and conspirational overlooking by the government of Nigeria. In such predicament condition, people and groups react diversely relying on conditional aspects and potency. These reactions are materialized and seek expression in several shades of rebellious conducts including kidnapping, robbery, killings, revolt among various others Wang amp; Pizam, 2011. In the middle of all these issues, Nigeria is faced with intimidating challenges of security which primarily include assassination, terrorism, kidnapping, militancy, armed robberies and ethnic calamities. The existing most troubling insecurity issue in Nigeria is the fear unleashed by a dreaded confrontational Islamic group Jamaatul Alhul Sunnah Lidda Wat, Wal Jihad commonly known as Boko Haram Holcomb, 2004. The presentation by mass media to the masses has been a multivariate perception of vivid actions of bombings with horrific depiction and impunity of people blistered and destruction of property by Boko Haram. Therefore, everyone, particularly in the breeding ground of terrorism, resides in persistent panic. At this point, one starts to wonder how the masses who reside in these areas go about their economic and social activities and how much the country requires developing a safe and secure environment in order to foster a stable growth of industries like tourism which can promise a better outlook for the country.
1.1.1 Boko Haram: Cause and the Epidemic of Intimidation in Nigeria
Boko Haram is a popular Muslim sect dedicated to follow extreme principles. Few scholars suggest the beginning of the group to 1995 and identified Lawan Abubakar as the founder of the group. it was the time when Lawan left for advanced learning in Saudia Arabia that the group then called as Sahaba led by Mohammad Yusuf who was respected as the leader and who managed the issues of the group. Others recognize the group creator to Shehu Sanni, which was based in Northern Nigeria Holcomb, 2004. Other than the above mentioned aspects, several expositions on the beginning and founder of Boko Haram. When the group was led by Mallam Mohammed Yusuf, Boko Haram transformed radically and received foreign integration particularly with famous AlQaeda. Since 2009, the Boko Haram contributed to a sever security risk in Northern region of Nigeria. The terror plan of the group assumed an intimidating direction from 2010 till now Adelugba amp; Ujomu, 2008. Although, until June 2011, the attacks were limited to the North East zone. The initial onslaught external to that zone was the Abuja bombings at police headquarters in Nigeria. That assault was followed up with the onslaughts of United Nations House later in 2011 Bassey amp; Dokubo, 2011.
Figure 1: Save Our Girls Campaign
Source: Arowolo amp; Fabarebo, 2005
Around 200 girls were kidnapped by Boko Haram who mocked Nigerians with warnings to sell those school girls for sexual slavery. In a nation where girls are not encouraged to get higher education, this could reinforce that lesser girls will dare the classroom. This story captured the global attention which eventually followed by a mass media campaign Bring Back our Girlsand international protests. Critics express Goodluck Jonathan, Nigerian President has effort very little to rescue those girls and to stop the dreadful onslaughts of Boko Haram. The term Boko Haram generally means western teaching is offense Bassey amp; Dokubo, 2011. This current onslaught makes it harder for the kids of Nigeria, particularly girls, to attend school and become educated. Boko Haram has effectively deterred numerous school going children in northern Nigeria. However, the educational record of the country is hardly astral. It is one of the only nations throughout the globe where the condition of education has reduced over the last ten years Giacoma amp; Horsey, 2013.
After highlighting the research issue, the paper will discuss the literature related with the concepts of safety and security and their significance for sustainable tourism development. Followed by a brief description of research methodology that is used to conduct the study of selected topic and afterwards there will be a comprehensive analysis of tourism development in Nigeria, its impact on various areas and how can security in the country lead to a peaceful, sound and sustainable tourism growth. There will be recommendations at the end underlining the importance of safety and security for Nigerias current political istability and how it can be cured through proper and adequate measues.
In modern times, Nigeria has been recalled as one of the topmost regions which have imposed a huge influence on tourists due to its natural resources. Beside, the ratio of tourists visits particularly in destinations like Cross River and Lagos regions. However, because of the daunting rise of insecurity evolved from political instability in the country, witnessed in events like kidnappings and bombings by Boko Haram, the tourism industry of the country shows a dubious future. Therefore, this research paper aims to understand the impact of security on the tourism development of Nigeria and how a safe and stable political and national environment would help in boosting the industry.
1.3 Research Objectives
To study the evolution of tourism development in Nigeria
To outline the impact of security on the growth and progress of tourism industry in Nigeria
To offer recommendations on improving the microenvironment of Nigeria for a steady development of tourism industry.
1.4 Research Questions
The presented work addresses the following research questions
What is the impact of security on tourism development in Nigeria
What are the risk factors that is affecting tourism development in Nigeria
What is the impact of security on the growth and progress of tourism industry in Nigeria
How microenvironment of Nigeria could be improved for steady development of tourism industry