INFORMATION NEEDS OF RURAL WOMEN IN THE EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER IN ORUMBA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

This study investigated information needs of rural women in the early detection of breast cancer in Orumba South Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population comprised three thousand, four hundred and eighty eight rural women from the womens Guild chapter of the Anglican Communion. The sample size comprised five hundred respondents, selected through proportionate stratified random sampling technique. Five research questions guided the study. One instrument, titled Breast Cancer Early Detection Information Need Questionnaire BCEDINQ was used for the study. Data obtained were analyzed using percentage and mean ratings. The major findings include that rural women have a critical need for information on early warning signs of breast cancer with mean scores of 2.40, 2.37, 2.36, 2.23 and 2.10; have very low awareness on general breast cancer facts with mean scores between 1.23 and 1.86 in fifteen questions; access breast cancer information mainly through community health centre 55; prefer certain media such as women group meetings 95.4, house-to-house visits by information providers 92.6, community based breast cancer counseling centre 90, public outreach campaign 86.8 and television 72.4; and factors such as ignorance, absence of functional library services, lack of adequate information mechanisms, negligence of the governments responsibilities to its citizens, inaccessibility of the rural areas by nongovernmental agencies, language barrier and illiteracy hinder their access to breast cancer information. Implications of the findings included inadequate propagation of breast cancer information as well as inadequate enforcement of such policy by the Federal Government through the health care delivery system; inability of rural women to actively participate in early detection due to inadequate information; and unavailability of suitable information media, which restricts access to such information. Recommendations were that the government should make breast cancer information propagation an enforceable integral part of the health care delivery system as well as set up a goal directed committee to strategically implement it; utilize the October National Breast Cancer Awareness month using key dates, pictorial displays, lectures, seminars and counseling; involve Librarians in such activities; intensified effort of nongovernmental organizations; establish various information media which should include public libraries; propagate breast cancer information through suitable media such as women group meetings, house-to-house visits by information providers, community based breast cancer counseling centre, public awareness campaigns; and the collaboration of all the involved authorities in alleviating the factors that hinder the women from accessing breast cancer information.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS PAGES

TITLE PAGE i

APPROVAL PAGE ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii

ABSTRACT iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS v

LIST OF TABLES viii

LIST OF APPENDICES ix

CERTIFICATION x

DEDICATION xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1

Background to the Study 1

Statement of the Problem 9

Purpose of the Study 11

Significance of the Study 12

Scope of the Study 14

Research Questions 15

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 16

Conceptual Framework 16

Breast cancer 16

Early detection 24

Information need 29

Rural women 35

Theoretical Framework 38

Theoretical model of social information need 38

Theoretical Studies 45

Information needed by rural women in early detection Of breast cancer 45

Importance of awareness on early detection of breast cancer 48

Media of information access on breast cancer early detection 52

Preferred media for the effective propagation of breast

cancer among rural women 57

Factors that hinder rural women from accessing

information on breast cancer 61

Empirical Studies 66

Breast cancer awareness 66

Information needs of women in early detection of breast cancer 72

Summary of Literature Review 74

CHAPTER THREE: METHOD 76

Research Design 76

Area of Study 76

Population of the Study 77

Sample and Sampling Technique 77

Instrument for Data Collection 78

Validation of the Instrument 79

Reliability of the Instrument 80

Method of Data Collection 81

Method of Data Analysis 81

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 83

Research Question 1 83

Research Question 2 85

Research Question 3 86

Research Question 4 88

Research Question 5 89

Summary of Findings 90

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, CONCLUSION

AND RECOMMENDATIONS 92

Discussion of Results 92

Conclusion 97

Implications of the Study 98

Recommendations 99

Limitations of the Study 101

Suggestions for Further Research 102

REFERENCES 103

APPENDICES 122

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INFORMATION NEEDS OF RURAL WOMEN IN THE EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER IN ORUMBA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA

3,000.003,200.00 (-6%)

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