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NEWSPAPER COVERAGE OF FOREIGN NEWS IN NIGERIA. A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF DAILY CHAMPION AND VANGUARD NEWSPAPER
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The concept of news, journalism and freedom of press have for many years now been a major sources of disagreement between developing countries eg. African and developed nations of the world. Developing countries often feel ill served by the western news media claiming that foreign writers distrust the story about African growth and development or at times failed to report it at all.
The developing nation at other hand often see the developing nation as hindering the report of news. Members often from the news media in industrialized nations say a free press as it existed in the United States of America (U.S.A) and Great Britain is virtually unknown in Africa and other part of the developing countries. They argue that information and communication has a vital note to play in the development of any nation.
In about mid 70s, there was a cry over the poor coverage of event in the industrialized world by the African press while the African press has said the same thing about the industrialized world. As a result of this problem, the maintenance of an open flow of information across national boundaries lies assists to create and maintain a source of nations hood, it also perform development task such as improving educational, health care delivery, science and technology, political stability and offers inter-cultural information. It also help information public opinion as well as acts as a form of entertainment. It also acts as watch dog on government in a country where such is permitted.
The developed countries have been accusing the third world. They claim that the third world countries used their media primarily for economic and social development and to promote the government inn power. These arguments have had poor coverage of foreign event by many newspapers.
They argue further that news about developed countries are often published negatively and started to suit the ideology of the third world news agencies. The nature of news is always changing as a result of national interest and standards are always changing and because of this, the structure of news for the developing nations especially African countries must be redefined to reflect the effort being made by different government in Africa to transform their societies.
The Western definition of news on the other hand emphasizes on events that is out of the ordinary, exceptional, existing, sensational of man-biting the day varieties. This concept of news has influenced Western consensus.
Sequel to this 1997 meeting was a new international commission on communication problem was set up. The commission was headed by Seen Macbridge, former risk foreign Minister. The commission submitted its reports in 1990.
However, apart form the commissions recommendation, the committee was surprise after analyzing the content of the third world newspaper to team that the developed countries newspaper radio and television ahs the same bias reportage of foreign events. The developed nation argues that the bulk of information said to developing nations were saluted to suit the power that be.
In addition to that, the commission pointed out that there is a tendency for journalists in developing countries to write in a manner in which facts are distorted to perpetuate pejorative attitude and also to use terms that is dividing and insulting.
The study therefore analyze the coverage of foreign news by Daily Champion and vanguard newspaper to see whether the two dailies has the same reportorial bias as was discovered by the international commission on communication problem.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In the cause of this project work, certain reporters in what they gather and write as news about Africa are obscene. To them news are made in the third world countries only when there are scandals, coup detat, civil war and insurgence etc.
The developing nations are still batting to challenge this western definition of news of stretching the definitions to include and emphasize constructive news, embracing stories on social change, economic development, social, cultural, agricultural, technology and industrial progress, news that highlighted the culture and of peoples life and promotes trade and commerce.
The developing countries have also complained about the imbalance in order of global news flow which ensures that eighty percent of the world news comes from the industrialized counties with only about ten to twenty percent concerned about the third world.
One of the situation of this dissatisfaction which the situation was in the advocating for a new world information and communication order (NWICO) an order with a broader base include necessary for the preservation of world peace.
In 1976 at the United Nations Education Scientific and cultural Organization (UNESCO) general conference in Nairob, Kenya, the issue of new world information and communication order was first raised. In 1998, UNESCO accorded what amounted to defaults recognition to the issue by granting it a compromised factor has contributed seriously to the impediment of this research work. It was a great puzzle movement to assemble these dairies and on the other hand, the interview of the personnels of these newspaper companies.
In consonances with that, there has been a great battle between developed countries and the developing countries on the issue of news imbalanced. The right coverage of such news will help mould public opinion concerning any of the nations. The developing countries hinder the free flow of information into such countries.
It is against this background that this study analyzed the coverage of foreign news in daily champion and vanguard Newspapers.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The principal aim of this research work is to find out the extent to which Daily Champion and Vanguard Newspapers reports foreign news. The specific purpose of this study is to
1. To find out if the political ideology of Nigerian affects its press reportage of foreign news.
2. To evaluate between Daily Champion and Vanguard newspaper rate of foreign news coverage.
3. To know the type of news about foreign counties that is reported by Daily Champion and Vanguard newspaper.
4. To critically examine the extent at which the Nigerian press show interest in the countries.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The most topical and persistent issue in international communication and politics today is the issue of global news flow controversy. This is essentially a demand to the necessity for a drastic change in the present pattern of information flow between and among nations of the world.
Experts argue that the research for solution will be in high emphases because of the influence of mass communication in international politics and peace. This project will help correct the negative view held by he public concerning the coverage of foreign news by Nigerian newspapers.
Finally, this work will indicate the shortcoming of Nigerian newspaper in the coverage of foreign events.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. To what extent does Nigerian press show interest in the development of foreign news?
2. Does government policy affect the foreign news coverage?
3. Does the press cover more negative news about foreign countries than development news?
1.6 LIMITATION OF STUDY
This project is limited only to the Daily Champion and vanguard newspaper. These dailies has been picked at random for easy content analysis of he newspaper pages at the cause of this research, a lot of problems were encountered. These problems include lack of adequate textbook in the library needed for this study. As a result of that, the researcher was unable to visit major towns and cities where there are better equipped libraries. Time was another constraining factors, the research was carried out in a short period of four months.
This study will embrace the historical back ground of new world information and communication order (NWICO) discuss its short comings, travails and importance
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The concept of this study are:
1) Nigerian press
2) Negative news
3) Development news
4) News imbalance
Periodicals, mostly newspapers that are published and owned within Nigerian.
News about drought, famine, political instability, loop, war and poverty.
News that covers basic economic development political stability, improvement in the technology improvement in the technological innovation, improved infrastructures.